Griffith, , Imitation of Life John M. Freelance writer currently based in Seattle and frequent contributor to Cinema Scope magazine. A memorable annual for film, in a World Cup year no less. The following come to mind, in no particular order of preference, easily subject to change hierarchy and consensus only serve to narrow the field of view… :. Politist, adj. Police, Adjective , Corneliu Porumboiu, At once abstract and dialectic, this Kafkaesque police thriller questions the very nature of law itself.
Special mention must be made of its remarkable soundtrack. The Social Network David Fincher, Call me Mr Consensus, but this well-written, directed and acted film simultaneously sucks up to, and mocks, its own zeitgeist. Abschied von gestern — Anita G. Yesterday Girl , Alexander Kluge, Untitled all Kyle Canterbury, When Does a Dream Become a Nightmare?
Romero, Peter Pan Clyde A. Walt Disney, F Very good pictures rediscovered or re-evaluated not always for the best by a new vision. John Carpenter, So much — mainly good and fun — happened in such short time, yet barely anything had time to register in any meaningful way; when I should have enjoyed something or other, my mind was usually occupied by projects ahead for which problems asked to be solved, ideas, notions, convictions made text or light, etc.
I guess this frenzy cost many others dearly. I would like to take the opportunity here to say sorry to all the editors, translators, print coordinators etc. I need your advice and the monk who takes care of the films as well. Besides: you never say no when a monk asks for assistance.
What do you need? It certainly showed how much he means to many people. Karmakar was also the centre of an unforgettable Vienna evening, March 25 th , at the Austrian Film Museum: for three hours, he talked about life and cinema, showed excerpts from his films, finds from his archive, choice scenes of works to come — and in the process laid bare his soul, poured his heart out. So, yes, I finally co-did the book I wanted to do for years, and I could also help the Viennale with realising a retrospective I wanted to see being done for a long time: Larry Cohen.
All that said, these are but private trifles, fancies and vanities once we look at certain cinepolitical developments. There is no margin for discussion here — ambivalence has its limits. One wonders what indeed does need to happen for the powers that claim to be to do something of consequence about this. The Century of Cinema , Peter von Bagh. Founding editor of Senses of Cinema and an Australian independent filmmaker now based in Europe.
American film historian, author of eight books and hundreds of articles, including over 40 essays in the Encyclopedia Britannica. His latest book is The Fall of Buster Keaton. It was a formidable mess for the British Film Institute to clean up, and they spent years restoring and remastering each title. The boorish slapstick of the Chaplin Keystones show Charlie at the level of his working class immigrant audience, and are what made the comedian and filmmaker an immediate superstar who went on to help create the language of film comedy.
Absolutely essential for any film collection that purports to be at all comprehensive. He kept working until his death in , albeit not always in the best projects. Silent films are slowly being remastered and released as Blu-ray discs when the pre-print material warrants such a restoration. In the case of this Douglas Fairbanks swashbuckler, the original two-strip Technicolor is restored beautifully. Fascinating, disturbing, and ultimately triumphant. My favorite movie of the year. Which brings me to…. My favorite nine minutes and thirty-two seconds of the year.
It makes no sense. Jesse Eisenberg, who plays Mark Zuckerberg, has beady eyes and a surly mouth, speaking only when the subject is of interest to him. But Day-Lewis made my flesh prickle and crawl. The portrayal of this life, as I understand the facts of it, could have easily become a histrionic mess. Instead, it summons the terror of creation. Paper Moon recast as morality play. Aruitemo, aruitemo Still Walking , Hirokazu Kore-eda, The Social Network David Fincher, Against my better judgment.
Even models for a bus station are treated with more respect. The COI Collection. Design for Today British Film Institute, Among the many great names that died this year, a special mention for Mick Lally, best known in Ireland for co-founding the Druid Theatre and playing Miley Byrne on the soap Glenroe. Brazilian critic who writes for the website web4fun. At first glance, would not seem to be one of the better recent years for new cinema.
All were films made in I also came to appreciate the work of the second-generation Shochiku, Kamata director, Hiroshi Shimizu more than ever, especially for Kinkanshoku Eclipse , , and Tokyo no eiyu A Hero of Tokyo , Conditions: With one exception, I restricted myself exclusively to films that were first screened publicly somewhere in the world in There were many excellent films released in — including another glorious, unpredictable masterpiece by Apichatpong Weerasethakul and essential works by Manoel de Oliveira, Nathaniel Dorsky, and Olivier Assayas — but, for me, the richest was Film Socialisme.
His main passions have always been writing and filmmaking. The realm of cinema needs the true grit of reality from time to time to purify it without resorting to didacticism — a key flaw besetting much realistic cinema today. It is a region still ensconced in its rural Americana roots as it struggles with the throes of poverty and drug abuse. It sees in the death rattle of the backwoods of the state of Missouri Misery? It digs deeper than the other American films of this year and certainly deeper than the glossy and overly didactic majority of films produced over the past decade in its exploration of family, home and survival.
Her website Film Festival Tourism welcomes comments. The following are some of the highlights:. Worst Screening Conditions : Todos Santos DVDs shown on a wall in the local community centre with plastic lawn chairs for the audience. Home World Poll. The Entries Michael J. Top Ten List 1. Carlos Olivier Assyayas, 3.
Let Me In Matt Reeves, 5. The Social Network David Fincher, 6. The Ghost Writer Roman Polanski, 7. Si Poetry , Lee Changdong, 8. Best movies of 1. Scott Pilgrim vs. The World Edgar Wright, 2.
- Thai Horse.
- Because Youre Worth It: 10 Habits Of Happy Women!
- Meaning of "Spielfilm" in the German dictionary;
- Lost Girls;
Inception Christopher Nolan, 3. Toy Story 3 Lee Unkrich, 4. Milyang Secret Sunshine , Lee Chang-dong, 2. Talentime Yasmin Ahmad, 3. Madeo Mother , Bong Joon-ho, 4. White Material Claire Denis, 8. Somewhere Sofia Coppola, Coppola draws from a cadre of European and Asian influences think Claire Denis and Tsai Ming-liang in crafting this intimate and enchanting riff on American alienation. Bellamy Claude Chabrol, The most consistently great director of the French New Wave delivers yet another dignified, engaging, and well-made movie with this, his last film. Top ten films with a theatrical release in Melbourne, Australia in 1.
Inception Christopher Nolan, This almost clinical and mechanical representation of the human subconscious facilitated an extraordinary exploration of cinematic space in order to deliver an intriguing heist story with wonderfully thrilling action sequences. Toy Story 3 Lee Unkrich, The combination of tight writing, powerful sentiment, humour and characters with so much heart delivered one of the greatest animated films ever made.
The Killer Inside Me Michael Winterbottom, Another great example of subjective filmmaking where the film gets increasingly deranged as its psychopathic protagonist increasingly loses his grip on reality. Honourable mentions The Road John Hillcoat, Boy Taika Waititi, Kick-Ass Matthew Vaughn, Crazy Heart Scott Cooper, The Messenger Oren Moverman, The World Edgar Wright, Son of Babylon Mohamed Al Daradji, 2.
Lourdes Jessica Hausner, 4. Shi Poetry , Lee Chang-dong, 6. Best Films 1. Tetro Francis Ford Coppola, 2. Copie conforme Certified Copy , Abbas Kiarostami, 4. The Ghost Writer Roman Polanski, 5. Blue Valentine Derek Cianfrance, 8. Les herbes folles Wild Grass , Alain Resnais, Juliette Binoche in Copie Conforme 2. Ryan Gosling in Blue Valentine 4. Jesse Eisenberg in The Social Network 5. Sarah Polley in Splice Vincenzo Natali, 7. Mark Wahlberg in The Other Guys 9. Olivia Williams in The Ghost Writer To the memory of Kathy Dudding and Monique Phillips.
Shi Poetry , Lee Chang-dong, 3. My Lai Barak Goodman, 5. Toy Story 3 Lee Unkrich, 7. Day and Night Teddy Newton, White Material Claire Denis, Copie conforme Certified Copy , Abbas Kiarostami, Still in Cosmos Makino Takashi, Up in the Air Jason Reitman, Top Ten 1. True Grit Joel and Ethan Coen, 3.
Greenberg Noah Baumbach, 5. Black Swan Darren Aronofsky, 6. The Fighter David O. Russell, 7. Shutter Island Martin Scorsese, 8. Tangshan Dadizhen Aftershock , Feng Xiaogang, 2. Get Him to the Greek Nicholas Stoller, 3. Kokuhaku Confessions , Nakashima Tetsuya, 4. Shi Poetry , Lee Chang-dong, 5. Bang-kah Monga , Niu Doze, 6. The Social Network David Fincher, 7. A Single Man Tom Ford, Revelatory repeat screening of the year 7 Women John Ford, It took 25 years to see this again, but what originally left me cold as a young college student has revealed itself as a profound, beautiful and transcendent masterpiece.
Untitled Spring June 23, June 30, A Neither Canterbury continues to be the most astonishing and still overlooked! Thompson, Image of the Beast Donald W. Thompson, Blood on the Mountain Donald W. Thompson, A quartet of Christian End Times quasi-sci-fi films, a Christian-themed western, and a Christian-themed criminals-on-the-run thriller all show that independent, regional filmmaking will always have gems to discover.
Marie, Slave Ship T. So, for me, the populist cinemagoer, the films of the year, in no particular order, are: Inception Christopher Nolan, Nolan follows up The Dark Knight with another behemoth of a film that is large in scale and subject matter, and in which dreamscapes abstract into landscapes as dreams become reality and vice-versa. The Town Ben Affleck, When you have so many films to see, you miss out on some. Easier with Practice Kyle Patrick Alvarez, I always have a soft spot for small, independent American films that can connect with people universally.
The Magnificent Seven John Sturges, This was a treat for my father who is a Western genre nut, and can recite passages from this film by heart. Where is Where? Chloe Atom Egoyan, The sexual voyeurism Hitchcock would have created if he were working today. Taught and unforgiving. Shutter Island Martin Scorsese, Jacques Tourneur and his zombies meet Sam Fuller and his racists in this excitable piece of grand guignol.
Other titles that have excited or inspired me during the year include 1. The American Anton Corbijn, 2. The Crazies Breck Eisner, 4. Daybreakers Michael and Peter Spierig, 5. Devil John Erick Dowdle, 6. Inception Christopher Nolan, 8. Kick-Ass Matthew Vaughn, 9. Let Me In Matt Reeves, Machete Robert Rodriguez, Ethan Maniquis, Hors-la-loi Outside the Law , Rachid Bouchareb, Pirahna 3D Alexandre Aja, Robin Hood Ridley Scott, Toy Story 3 Lee Unkrich, Best Films of 1.
Carlos Olivier Assayas, 2. The Social Network David Fincher, 3. True Grit Joel and Ethan Coen, 4. The Ghost Writer Roman Polanski, 6. Greenberg Noah Baumbach, 8. Black Swan Darren Aronofsky, The Town Ben Affleck, I guess its what one might call a Personal best… 1. Absolute Masterpieces: 1. Un lac Philippe Grandrieux, 2. Visage Tsai Ming-liang, Masterpieces: 4. Film Socialisme Jean-Luc Godard, 5. Hadewijch Bruno Dumont, Excellent: 6.
Les herbes folles Wild Grass , Alain Resnais, 7. Bang bang wo ai shen Help me Eros , Kang-sheng Lee, 9. Exit Through the Gift Shop Bansky, Exit Through the Gift Shop Banksy, I loathe mockumentaries — but here the format is used so provocatively, that issues and ideas really do arise. Lourdes Jessica Hausner, All the pilgrim extras are part of the richness of this film. Favourite films of Criteria for inclusion: to have been seen in a cinema in , or to have first hit the big screen in Melbourne, whether in commercial release or under other auspices, in Copie conforme Certified Copy , Abbas Kiarostami, 2.
Black Swan Darren Aronofsky, 3. Han jia Winter Vacation , Li Hongqi, 5. Hahaha Hong Sang-soo, 6. Last Train Home Lixin Fan, 7. Tangshan da di zhen Aftershock , Feng Xiaogang, 8. Toy Story 3 Lee Unkrich, 9. Jackass 3D Jeff Tremaine, Carlos Olivier Assayas, Chun feng chen zui de ye wan Spring Fever , Lou Ye, Red Dragonflies Liao Jiekai, Inside Job Charles Ferguson, Favourite New York theatrical releases of 1. Barbe Bleue Bluebeard , Catherine Breillat, 4.
Boxing Gym Frederick Wiseman, 6. Vincere Marco Bellocchio, 7. The Social Network David Fincher, 9. Atlantiques Mati Diop, 2. The formal strategies are reserved, not competing with the shocking content: he uses dual projections to stress the continuation of such scenes: they are not single events. The editing creates visible blanks and inserts lack — meaningless space that interrupts our viewing for long moments in such a way that we reflect on our interest in viewing such materials.
In the video installation Training Ground NL, a refugee-, war- or prison camp-like field in the open air is inhabited by different groups, armed and unarmed, who — although there is no direct violence — cannot leave, but are exchanging power positions. The footage comes from journalists filming the Yugoslavian wars in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia.
Mik bought the footage from Reuters: it was never broadcast. As you will see and hear, there is not much difference between this and the enactment in the first video. The effect is disorienting and shocking — especially when we see the teams filming each other in the midst of war. By juxtaposing fiction and reality we may also get a feeling of how realities converge for those inside the camp. Another uncomfortable result of these works may be that taken together they highlight the necessity of verifying the sources and contexts of materials that are unknowable.
In their collaborative interactive installation Gravicells Japan, [Fig. Thereby we experience our relation to earth gravity and to other persons sharing the same space. The work visualizes and materializes non-visual senses and creates an open, flexible and transforming kind of imagery that gives a wider perceptual experience. The movements and changes made by the participant are transformed and displayed as movements of sound, light and geometrical images through the sensors. In result, the complete space transforms in this interactive installation.
Based on the proximity and distances between the moving participants, their GPS data and the GPS data of the installation site create another space by light, sound and images. The visualization is based on the dynamics of the participants and displayed onto the floor and also projected in 3d on the walls in realtime. The installation space is mediating between personal, physical behaviour and the outside environment. Finally, I would like to introduce another endeavour of Japan media arts to exhausting and inventing technical tools in a dialogical intervention that addresses the media and the cultural spaces of encounter.
In the computer, this visual data are transformed into a specific kind of panorama which is interfaced so that each scene has an inside and an outside view. The panoramas are connected in the virtual space in terms of the location and the moving activity of the actual interviews. Extending this observation of borders, differences and translations from multiple viewpoints, the artist is also the interviewer, and this too is audiovisually integrated within the recorded scene.
So this intervention within the processes of field research is further highlighted when we, the viewers and users, see and hear the artist immersed into a real scene at the time as he records it, and when we can access the scene through the visible timeline from various arbitrary viewpoints in the virtual. By gaining control of the field and being part of its unfolding vividness, the subject and object positions are shown to be flexible and interchangeable.
To come back to the beginning and to conclude: what is the role of the arts in the overall situation once the virtual media have become real extensions and communicating partners and we have learnt to use media individually as creative tools? In response, one could answer that these days, after almost endless and more tiring than insightful interrogations of modernist and postmodernist conditions of media, arts and technology, everything has been said before and there is nothing new on the horizon.
We face a highly saturated tradition of media arts before and after the frenetically debated analogue-digital divide, which when viewed retrospectively does not really help the discussion of cultural and media specific approaches in creative practices. But there is an alternative point of view. In fact, I think now might be the right time to reconsider some concepts of innovation and experiment.
And, also aesthetic intervention into the media landscapes that are evolving on a global scale. In this more positive view, we can envision aesthetic practices leading a discourse of dialogue and encounter beyond borderlines and differences. They also demonstrate that we do not need to understand and explain all the wonderful new possibilities that emerge in proportion to the growing corporate-commercial global media landscape.
They reveal precisely the opposite: that we can regard creative practices as a fascinating field of production that bypasses all the heated debates on Western-Eastern interactions in the fields of cultural studies and those on the analogue-digital divide in the fields of media studies. Departing from normal practices in these fields, appreciating technological cultures in new ways is possible when we turn our attention to subversive, ironic, and paradoxical. And the present is the right time for intervention.
List of Figures Figs. If there is a new-new-wave in the Romanian cinema, this has a common style and aesthetics. In the last decade the Romanian Cinema has become one of the most important movements in European moviemaking, its international success and its recognition by the media and by several festival juries was considered somewhat of a revelation. Considering all these changes and contexts, it is obvious that we are witnessing an important development, the question is if this is a part of a new cinematography, or is this only a generational reaction, or maybe it is only a result of the European funds coming into the Romanian cinema?
This debate was transmitted to the foreign cinema critics. Scott, In a purely chronological sense, we cannot speak about a new wave, because the new wave in the Romanian cinema was already occupied by authors like Lucian Pintilie, Liviu Ciulei and Mircea Daneliuc, who in the 60s and late 70s won some? For Puiu this term Romanian new wave is only a piggybacking of the Nouvelle Vague, conceived for the use of the Western media.
Actually Caranfil rejects the mere possibility of a new wave, he himself declaring that he does not belong to such a group. While Cristi Puiu cited by A. At the other end of this perspective is Grig Modorcea , one of the old guard movie critics in Romania, who claims that there is a new wave starting with January For this kind of an approach there is a chronological and quantitative side of the new-wave.
Is it a New, or is it a Post New Wave? In order to escape this logic of contradictions I propose another term, and the terminological shift can be extremely useful in the context of the conceptual definition of the new generation of Romanian directors. Goulding is one option. Also, the debates in Cahiers du Cinema, which has generated the Nouvelle Vague in France are to be found at the individual level with each and every one of the new Romanian directors — this will be developed later. Or is there any wave left, since these young directors keep coming back? They are the main object of my interpretation of the new Romanian cinematographic grammar.
One plausible explanation is that all of these directors worked with only one camera. Following a declaration Cristian Mungiu made at the presentation of his most recent movie, Tales from the Golden Age at TIFF Transylvania Film Festival , there is a certain legend among the Romanian directors, that one camera has it all, so they try to rent the same camera over and over again. These commonalities bring up some stylistic common elements: long takes, fixed camera, Dogma 95 style of lighting, urban settings and.
This argument is based on some interviews in which the most representative directors of the new generation have presented their view on cinematic language. Style, aesthetics, time and space unity First of all this is due to the fact that the European cinema is searching for its inspiration and its global breadth since WWI, when the French cinema industry lost pace to the American studio system.
The new generation of Romanian moviemakers follow this logic — their films were made and intended for transnational audiences, and less for the Romanian ever declining public of moviegoers. Another problem of integrating national movie productions into a Europeanwide, common cultural market has led to the proliferation of co-productions throughout Europe. They are slowly growing and integrated within the great discourse of the European cinema.
Another characteristic that is fundamentally tied to the tradition of the European cinema, from the Czech o slovak moviemakers to the Spanish ones, is that it has. The haunt of history and of the effects of history on individuals — this is a deep conceptual river running through European cinema. Thirdly, it is a cinema oriented towards political significance and the aesthetic renewal. In order to have a better picture of this, we can use an example provided by Rivi , who provides a list of the Best European Films awards attributed by the European Film Academy.
A true European topology of directors now includes the Romanian names such as Puiu or Mungiu. One funny fact is that Vaslui has no cinemas today. Although Mungiu has publicly expressed his pessimistic and individualistic view of the young generation of filmmakers, he claimed that there is no Romanian cinema, there are only directors, and that the local moviemakers are not comparable with the Czech, another shared trait is that most of these young directors Nemescu, Mungiu, Muntean, Porumboiu are graduates of the National University of Drama and Film U.
Another important characteristic that most of the young directors share is the fact that they want to build their own production companies, to become not only financially independent, but also to keep their creative autonomy intact. All these efforts indicate a strong desire for independently producing movies and rejecting any studio conglomerates involvement.
One level of this conflicting view with authoritative figures is, in the most Foucaultian way, the representation of conflicts with power institutions and the representatives of power. This is the case of the doctors who neglect Mr. This treatment is to be understood as a grammatical element in the contemporary Romanian cinema. All of the young Romanian directors have clearly stated that their movies do not address the general public and that they are conceiving their works mostly for festival that is artistic purposes. The politique is based on the application in cinema of that what is acceptable in.
In the same way as the auteur theory was built around the idea that studio productions, following the establishment rules, have a negative impact on cinema, and that the individual authors have to become the centre of their own productions, the Romanian directors support the same artistic philosophy. It was a time when, you know, saying something about the system was more important than telling a story. O Scott, Like the French Nouvelle Vague, building up cinema practices against the sclerotic nature of the previously made cinema and against the Hollywood practices, the Romanian new cinema is oriented against what is perceived as a consequence of the previously mainstream Romanian cinema, founded on a false realism and an edulcorated view of the world.
This is now to be found in the criticisms of the young Romanian vanguard and they are all following the same path, that of separating from the traditional albeit recent cinema of their predecessors, or dinosaurs as Mungiu calls them here one example could be Sergiu Nicolaescu with his historical re-enactments designed to support ideologically the Communist regime.
What Kind of Grammar of the Cinema? A couple of negative answers would be in order here. If I reject the linguistic approach to cinematographic language it is because I think it is impossible to have a normative dimension for several movies. Neither can a semiotic perspective, in the traditional sense expressed by Umberto Eco, as a general theory of signs, serve the purpose of understanding how the art of several directors is connected. As for the positive definitions, in order to have a grammar of the cinema, we need to elaborate a code with univocal significance, a code based on the acceptance of a fundamental unit.
But what is the fundamental unit? Or is it by analyzing larger units, the sequences a series of shots united in time and space , that we can interpret them as phrases? Or is it those rules or cinematic conventions that form a film grammar that can evolve over time and are in permanent change Villarejo, ? A grammar is, in this respect, a formal recognition of combinations, of rules that make a single significance for a commonly accepted meaning, thus making it a paradigmatic understanding of grammar.
In this context, a frame by frame analysis would not provide a grammatical reading, but more of an external depiction of image-facts. I would approach the reading of the new. Quoted in Monaco Another element of identifying the characteristics of this grammar is to be looking for visual structuring; a cinematic approach to grammar is fundamentally a depiction of visual organization of the time and the space.
This predisposition is to be seen in the preference for the long shot as the key method to create intervals for narrativity. This again, is followed by a construction of the space in terms of a realist order following the definition of Bazin , which allows the director to avoid editing and to represent actions as continuous in a continuous space. This is a direct cinema, in the very sense of addressing direct and abrupt issues, some of them ignored for decades. Simply put, the staging, the shot is about making content decisions within the whole of the movie.
All the directors mentioned here have this one common element, which is the development of the narrative in everyday spaces. The blocks of flats be it the communist dark vision in 4 months… and East of Bucharest; or the gloomy apartments in The Death of Mr.
This desolate urban context and the decrepitude of the space are in radical contradiction with the fantastic and beautiful spaces in spectacular cinema. Using apparently dull environments to contextualize the story development, the young Romanian directors are making not just an aesthetic statement, but also use it as a storytelling device. Representing space in its disenfranchised aspects, with a close attention to the negative effects of industrialism and the profound alienating nature of the relationship between humans in this kind of world is fundamental, for all the young directors.
Porumboiu, for example, both in East of Bucharest and in Police, Adjective depicts the moral dilemma of his main character in a background of urban space where people have no connections, where the passers-by are strangers, isolated beings in a world void of content and ethics. In these movies, location shooting and exaggerated forms of authenticity favour genuine spaces as they are considered in a reversed relationship with the interest for intimate construction of character discussed below. Common places, blocks of flats, streets and non-relevant corners of the urban space are only means of accentuating realism by means of hyperbolic realistic devices.
Why do the new-new directors use this method of authenticating their story? Here we can find one major difference of storytelling between the two forms of cinema European and American , suggested by David Bordwell and other formalist critics of cinema Bordwell, The influential work of Bordwell, dealing with narration in the fiction film, describes Hollywood cinema as dominated by character-centred causality, founded on a question-and-answer logic, on problem solving routines, deadline structures for the plot, and a mutual cueing system of word, sound and image are seen as typical for Hollywood films.
Against this conceptual framework. These characteristics are easily identifiable in the types of narratives put into action by the young Romanian directors. On the one hand we have the Romanians in the remote village, who encounter a NATO train loaded with American soldiers Armand Assante being Captain Jones, the leading officer of the group. As it is the case in Police, Adjective, the main hero is described in the actions of an anti-heroic figure. Although he is a policeman, his police work ethics and practices are based on procrastination while he is a constant reversed figure of an action hero policeman and on delaying decision making or action taking.
The diegesis of the perspective is important for the young Romanian directors, since the point of view and the changes or lack of change become elements of narrative. Again, in Police, Adjective, there is a police story which is told in a clear negative reference to American police movies, where the investigation, the collection of evidence and the development of the case are retold in a nontraditional manner. Focusing on the drama of the character and not on his actions, most of the actions of the key character are trivial, like, for example, in the climactic moment of his police work, the officer eats a bowl of soup all by himself, in a frame that takes a long time, allowing the viewer to enter into the inner world of the character.
Halting action in favour of internal resolution and deconstructing. Most of the films that belong to the new generation of directors take place during one day and one night, and the unity of time and space is similar in The Death of Mr. This is the moment when Otilia turns towards the camera and stares directly into the eyes of the viewers, establishing an emotional link that crosses the screen. Another common method used in several of these movies is the theatrical display of the characters in front of the camera.
This is the case with the dinner table in 4 Months, 3 Weeks, 2 Days, where the presentation of the main character, as a solitary member at the table, while everybody around her is talking about trivial things builds up tension and the connection between the character and the spectator. Much more, the setting is a reference to the Last Supper of da Vinci, the suffering figure in the centre being replaced by the feminine character tormented by a difficult moral decision.
Both East of Bucharest and Police, Adjective used the triptych as a cinematographic device. Both movies East of Bucharest and Police, Adjective are centred. Three figures be it at the television debate or in the office of the police head , are frontally looking at the viewer, with their physical disposition similar to a deeply Orthodox tradition of image construction, while their behaviour in critical reverse. The Father, The Son and The Holy Spirit are represented in degraded values, in order to make the debasement of humanity even more abrupt. References Baecque de, Antoine. Paris: Flammarion.
On the politique des auteurs. From the most exciting film journal of all times, selections by Truffaut, Godard, Bazin, Rivette, Rohmer, Chabrol and others ed. Jim Hillier, — London: British Film Institute. Bellour, Raymond. The Analysis of Film. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Bordwell, David. Narration in the Fiction Film. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Burch, Noel. Film Quarterly13, 2 Winter. Deleuze, Gilles. Eidsvik, Charles. Andrew Horton, 91— Berkeley: University of California Press.
Elsaesser, Thomas. European Cinema Face to Face with Hollywood.
2010 World Poll
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Fowler, Catherine. The European Cinema Reader. London: Routledge. Fulger, Mihai.
Bucharest: Grupul Editorial Art. Galt, Rosalind. New York: Columbia University Press. Goulding, Daniel J. Hames, Peter. The Czechoslovak New Wave. Muntean, Radu. Puiu, Cristi. Ion, Raluca and Diana Marcu. The new wave in the Romanian cinema, the first valid country brand. Le Vocabulaire du Cinema. Paris: Armand Colin. Screening Modernism: European Art Cinema, — Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Liehm, Antonin J. Marie, Michel. Malden, New Jersey: Blackwell. Modorcea, Grig. Bucuresti: Axioma Print.
Monaco, James. New York: Oxford University Press. How to Read a Film. Movies, Media, Multimedia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mungiu, Cristian. Paul, David W. New York: St. Petrie, Duncan, ed. I: — [Filmed in Romania]. Rivi, Luisa. New York: Palgrave. Ruscart, Marc. Scott, A. Romanian Cinema Rising. New York Times January 18, New Wave on the Black Sea. Melbourne: The Elias Clark Group. Stoil, Michael. Balkan Cinema: Evolution after the Revolution. Bucharest: Polirom. Thompson, Roy and Christopher J. Grammar of the Shot. Oxford: Focal Press, Elsevier.
Villarejo, Amy. Film Studies. The Basics. New York: Routledge. Nouvelle Vague has always been aware of its place in movie History.
Dirty Laundry: Best Films of Every Year
Contempt Le mepris, already shows the complex relationship between classical cinema and modern cinema in the guise of Myth. A myth is about an origin of a community, of a religion, or whatever. So the myth itself, the myth of the Author in this case, as a myth, needs an origin. The author is a myth. But what is a myth? From this nemesis, and only from it, a new form of creative, paradoxical subjectivity would come across.
It is a double movement, personal and impersonal at the same time. This simple truth is often forgotten, or neglected. The standard opinion of the politique des auteurs as a neo-romantic exaltation of the artistic creation is basically wrong. And yet, this radical ambivalence cannot really come unexpected. The original, truly romantic idea of genius was of course already an ambivalent one: the real romantic genius is the one who obliterates himself in the impersonal substance of genius.
His articles principally dealing with the French New Wave Daney and are among the most lucid statements of that structural ambivalence. As far as Nouvelle Vague directors are concerned, at least the ones descending from the politique des auteurs, the personal and the impersonal strictly go together. Jean-Luc Godard himself has always been quite careful to make this subject clear for those patient enough to listen to him all along. But here again duality was majorly at stake. Actually, while at first sincerely willing to opt for a common job, Godard ends up with a simple dualism creative power was now to be shared rather than destroyed , and three years later with a full restoration of his self through a purely subjective look.
Contempt Such examples could go on much further. But perhaps it would be better to stick to the film that, as early as , already was a perfect meta-commentary on the new status of the author brought along by the politique des auteurs and by the French New Wave. The film in which, as explicitly as never before nor after, the ambivalence at the core of the author notion is regulated by what regulates by definition what is contradictory: i. Not only a film about myth, but also a film about the myth of the author. A film starring not only Jack Palance, Brigitte Bardot and Michel Piccoli, but also starring the myth of the myths, the myth that is supposed to achieve and overcome all myths: incarnation.
Modern times begin with Christianity, i. We have here a myth, none other than The Odyssey. This myth cannot be represented nor filmed anymore: it can only be lived. Anyway, Godard was not the only one among the Nouvelle Vague members to try to make things clear about what politique des auteurs was really supposed to stand for. See also De Baecque 2 , — The classic gives way to modernity. Yes, with new thoughts let us make old verses.
Classical myth does not merely die nor disappears: it resurrects in a different form. The verb is now flesh. The classical and mythical connection between nature and culture as well as the male-female one breaks loose, and nature can shine in its own light6 as Brigitte Bardot does. So classicism must be substituted by modernism.
So, Contempt takes the place left empty by classical Hollywood by showing classical Hollywood rather than telling tales like it used to again: the verb becomes flesh. Godard in person plays here the role of the assistant director of The Odyssey, the film-within-a-film directed by Fritz Lang. So here is the point: the assistant director takes the place of the director.
A classical, full, potent, authoritarian, demiurgic authorial presence i. Fritz Lang makes way for a modern authorial form, which is as present as it is essentially passive9 i. Godard, admitting here to be a mere follower of the classical masters, a mere assistant.
The dichotomies that the myth managed to keep together in the classical era, now, in the modernity, fall apart. But myth is still there — only in an incarnated form, the myth made flesh and not represented. The sublimely stylized visual of the classical movie era turns now into a modern phase of neo-primitivism, of coming back to the origins even on a chromatic level. A myth that is here made flesh through the direct presence of Godard and Lang, who significantly comments a Hoelderlin poem during the film, saying that no longer is man reassured by the presence of gods, but by their absence.
The living presence, i. Nouvelle Vague Those very couples return 27 years later with a film called none other than Nouvelle Vague A film starring Alain Delon and Domiziana Giordano, but way more than them, starring Nature in person. Throughout the Eighties, Godard has filled his films with countless static shots of nature, almost postcard-like. But nowhere as much as in Nouvelle Vague. Here, nature is unquestionably the main character. Nonetheless, culture is hugely present.
Now the quotations form a real stream of consciousness: culture flows like a river would, and nature is filmed like an over-skilled painter would. Nature and culture are always already inside each other without any mediation — and of course the quintessential mediation between nature and culture is myth. Only one character significantly sticks out the juxtaposition of capitalistic high society and humble servants inside the villa the film is set into: a gardener.
The recurring, key character of the movie. And who else than a gardener could be better placed right at the crossing point of nature and culture? In fact, the film is all about how to intertwine dual oppositions beyond myth. Contempt, the other great Godardian film on myth, ended with a car accident. Another car accident opens Nouvelle Vague, but no one dies this time.
Countess Torlato-Favrini runs over a borderline guy, Richard Lennox. He carries an Ankh, the Egyptian symbol of life as the harmonious unity between two opposite principles, active and passive. She manages to save him, and then she falls in love with him. But he is really hopeless, so she makes him drown in a lake.
But suddenly, he comes back mysteriously. Not to revenge, but to save her when she eventually falls into the same deep lake waters. And again, she is assured that he is the actual Richard Lennox only by recognizing the same Ankh on him. The symbol of duality. But whereas the dual element used to be the one fit into shape by myth, now the dual element means repetition. Which of course means resurrection. In the second part, he literally resurrects.
The impossible couple, the proletarian and the countess, finds its own salvation thanks to repetition. No wonder that in the second half of the movie quotations and situations are often repeated for a second time. No wonder as well that the film follows the repetitive rhythm par excellence: spring, summer, autumn, winter, all emphatically stressed by the changing shape of nature. Quite an unexpected and Arcadia-like vision for Godard.
This time, nature and culture seem to go each its own way, and yet they seem to find a strange and magical balance. We are not into the lacerations of modernism anymore. Lennox and the countess are not only the male and female: they also embody modernity and its own overcoming. Curot focuses particularly on how the conflict is visually illustrated rather than directly represented. For instance, the car accident is not showed, but only alluded through a highly colliding way of editing. Once again: the myth i. Myth is overcome by resurrection — but, once again like in Contempt, myth outlives its own death and transformation.
The countess is a big industry boss, Lennox is a loser, a parasite. They are the most improbable couple ever, their relationship is in a constant tension, and yet they love each other. After his death and resurrection, Lennox becomes the big boss. He runs the business and reduces her basically to silence, and yet they still love each other. And, most importantly, he also gets into art commerce. What happens after the resurrection resembles very much the standard definition of our postmodern times: the opposite poles collapse on each other and that is Lennox: an artist and an industrial , leaving out only an indeterminate leftover which is the now silent countess.
As capital is being more and more virtual or, as Lennox repeatedly says, business is now reduced to charity , the cultural element is potentially all over Jameson And yet it is basically vanished — art has triumphed and dissolved at the same time. So culture itself is the only horizon left — the true nature then, according to Jameson among others.
The duality is then basically defused. The Parkers, Favrinis, Dorfmans… male and female, but minus pricks and pussies. And the other major binary difference to be defused is sound and vision: never as much as in Nouvelle Vague Godard has played with the stratification of the sound and the stratification of the image. Both image and sound taken separately are made of a series of layers overlapping with each other in volume, depth of field, tones, luminosity, colour and so on , so that the very difference between sound and image seems like fading away: sound seems such an unstable and discontinuous matter that it does not.
Both seeing and hearing as a matter of gradualness and silence So what about the myth of the author? In the film we have first a modernly-oriented section, dominated by the tension between the opposites, the countess and Lennox. Sometimes free, sometimes confined. This vast thought where shapes pass while colours shine? Their words seemed frozen, in the traces of other words from other times. They felt tall, motionless, above them past and present: identical waves in the same ocean.
Like Richard Lennox, the Nouvelle Vague movement has died, but death and tragedy is no more the last word as it was in Contempt. Nouvelle Vague modernism has died with modernity, but it has resurrected in the contemporary mediascape. No proper traces of the Nouvelle Vague movement in itself of course, but the tension between personal and impersonal that used to be the original core of the politique des auteurs has now somehow reincarnated in a situation in which the author is everywhere and nowhere at the same time.
Literally, visual fullness resurrects from its own disruption, as for a singular stylistic Aufhebung Godard , —, especially — And no wonder as well that Godard has declared that in Nouvelle Vague the film there was not even one spoken line to be originally written: all of them were quotations. The prestige of the genius and of the author as we knew it has basically disappeared, or perhaps transformed into a supplementary commercial value — but precisely at this point the notion of author explodes uncontrollably and spreads everywhere The tension between personal and impersonal has not been erased by the pervasive triumph of media power, it has only changed skin.
Now that the personal and the impersonal have overlapped on each other and the dichotomies are defused, we only have a totality the convergence of all media into a huge globalized and capitalized audiovisual world and a leftover. The inevitable leftover, unpredictable and indeterminate as it is, is the living proof that the total closure is not accomplished: and that is precisely what is to be looked for, and what must be pushed further.
And when the two lovers of the film escape the Torlato-Favrini mansion at the very end, the countess, i. But the thing is that the story lasts just two minutes and a long feature film has to be one hour thirty minutes. Also because we modified them a little bit here and there.
I only am its conscious organizer. Eisenstein est plus important que la Mosfilm, et Howard Hawks est plus important que la Paramount, en tout cas aussi important. I still do. Nothing from outside to distract memory. I barely hear, from time to time, the earthly softly creaking, one ripple breaking the surface. So that is why the film emphasizes on repetition so much. At one point, a character tells another a wonderful definition of the image: snow on water, silence over silence.
Snow of course IS water, but at the same time it is different. And the moment we see Lennox resurrected, i.
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No more antagonism between personal and impersonal. But that very potentiality disclosing from that gap is still here in our very different present: it is the gap that repetition can open up, regardless of the question of the author. In , an Italian review, Filmcritica, collected a stance from an anonymous director who can be recognized very easily. The work does not exist anymore but as a representative of the name.
Eisenstein is more important than Mosfilm, and Howard Hawks more than Paramount — or, at least, equally important. That was all. And then, it all went beyond us. When you take a picture from me, I feel horribly, it really makes me cry. One is like: they sure have to make their living, but not like that. The notion of author has gone completely astray. And if, by any chance, you want to use some text of mine in a theatre, do not even mention my name.
My text is yours because it interests you. I wish that a case law can be established for cinema, so that the free right to quote without being compelled to mention the names of the authors can be granted. All in all, it is the usual Godardian squinty attitude towards History. One eye glancing the past, one eye glancing the present. We are inside our contemporary times only insofar as we perceive them as a different repetition of the past, of modernity. We can really understand the contemporary mediascape only insofar as we are able to see it as the resurrection of Nouvelle Vague — that is, the contradiction that once grounded the French New Wave and the politique des auteurs as differently articulated.
In spite of her death, what used to be the New Wave is still among us — but now through some kind of a twisted actualization making it unrecognizable. Or perhaps like a spectral presence. That is why the historical need to trace a continuity with the past, and to know it, is more urgent than ever, and that is why Godard has been obsessed with History, and first of all movie History, throughout the last decades.
And what he had to do was done. References Andrew, Dudley. Bruno, Edoardo. Una globalizzazione rivoluzionaria. Filmcritica no. Curot, Frank. Daney, Serge. JeanLoup Passek, 72— Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou. In La politique des auteurs: les entretiens, ed. Serge Daney and Jean Narboni, 6— De Baecque, Antoine. Tome 1. Tome 2. Godard, Jean-Luc.
Film Quarterly vol. Defense and Illustration of Classical Construction. In Godard on Godard, eds. Jean Narboni and Tom Milne, 26— Ishaghpour, Youssef. Trafic no. Jameson, Fredric.
Mairesse, Valerie 1955-
Durham: Duke University Press. A Singular Modernity. Essay on the Ontology of the Present. New York, London: Verso. Archaeologies of the future. Leenhardt, Roger. Godard simple comme bonjour. Comprendre Godard. Mourlet, Michel. Film Fables. New York: Berg. Godard, meanwhile, had recently come out of an intense period of militant film practice in the post period, and was at the time ensconced in producing video and television works, many of which can be seen as models for what a revolutionary television in Mozambique could have looked like.
Ultimately, however, the project failed. The article utilizes these resources in conjunction with archival research to present an overview of this extraordinary yet rarely analyzed experience. To a certain extent, this is understandable: moving to Grenoble in precipitated a prolonged period of virtual isolation, in which Godard was cut off from both the mainstream and radical left cinematic milieux.
Our main source for what this work could have looked like is, however, a special. At the time that the edition of Cahiers was released, Godard still fully envisaged making the TV series, and the photo-montage was thus intended as a form of preview or teaser of the upcoming work. It now exists for us, however, as a trace, or phantomic presence, of a work that never was to be, and yet, as I will examine later, the work as it exists at this stage not only contains valuable insight into what the completed video could have been, but also merits being considered in its own right as a kind of film, but made with the tools of photographs and texts.
If the cinema were to disappear I would move on to television, and if television were to disappear, I would go back to using pencil and paper. It should be stressed that though the Mozambique government identified itself as Marxist, there was no pretence that they could undertake the construction of socialism in the country, which at that stage in its development would have been utopian. The government viewed it as desirable for the models of Western television to be avoided. In , the government thus turned to a number of well-known leftist filmmakers for technical and theoretical collaboration.
In addition to Godard, ethnological filmmaker Jean Rouch came to the country, to continue his work in Africa on such films as Moi, un noir , as did Ruy Guerra, a major figure in the Brazilian Cinema Novo who was actually born in Mozambique. All three were, of course, very different types of filmmakers, and had differing concepts of what the project should entail, which was to lead to a significant amount of friction. Interestingly, at the time of his Mozambique contract, the other main project Godard was working on, which also failed to reach fruition, was a Hollywood studio movie called The Story, centring on the Mafia origins of the Las Vegas gambling industry, to be produced by Francis Ford Coppola and, as Godard had hoped, starring Robert de Niro and Diane Keaton.
In Mozambique, the image is the raw material. Two or three people on the margins of television, in order to think television together with 13 million people still on the margins of the world. A contract between Sonimage and Mozambique was thus signed, to last two years and involve six or seven voyages by Godard to the country. He saw this. Study the image, the desire for images the wish to remember, the wish to show this memory, to make a mark on it [ Study, for once, production, before distribution comes into the mix.
Study the programmes before making a grid out of them, behind which the spectators will be plonked, who will no longer know that that they are behind the television set [ This way, we saw who we needed to make television for. For the peasant or for the intellectual? And if it was to be for everyone, how would we do it? Later on, however, Guerra felt that Godard was spending too much money on producing and theorising, not actually making his films. It never ended.
So again, they were impatient with Godard. Ultimately, the contract was dissolved by the end of the year. There was no bitterness.
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This is what he was doing, but what people were expecting including Godard. In some ways for materialists like myself, one can describe this project as a failure because he broke with Guerra and the Mozambican people. Godard did not, however, see there being a particular impediment to the completion of his mooted television series Birth of the image of a Nation. The producer and the television host will be played by an actor and an actress. Film 2 producer will essentially be made of video interviews with those who still have never seen any images the majority of the Mozambican population.
Film 3 will be made of documents in Super 8 and 16mm, often projected analytically, like an amateur film made by a businessman for his family. Film 4 will above all be made of photos, mainly black and white ones, expressing the perspective of the photographer. Probably the most interesting aspects of this scheme are the inventiveness involved in attempting to salvage a project which had yielded only a small proportion of the images that had been initially foreseen, and the range of image formats envisaged by Godard: video, Super 8 and 16mm film, stills, drawings and documents are all proposed to be utilized.
Godard also proposed a range of distribution formats, with the five television episodes accompanied by cinema screenings showing episodes 1 and 5 backto-back, which, given projected episode lengths of 50 minutes to an hour, would have made for a feature length release. Delivery of the series was expected by December The first important thing to note is the form, and in particular the combination of text and image.
Secondly, the diary form of the texts lends the work a very confessional tone, and Godard often conveys a distinctly self-critical attitude to his involvement in the project, highlighting his self-perceived inadequacy in dealing with potential collaborators, let alone subjects. Not very productive. Material not sophisticated enough to record the beauty of the colours. Mozambicans are shown peering at or fiddling with the various pieces of equipment required to run a television station, and fundamental problems such as training people to fix the equipment when it breaks down are raised.
France or Germany. Senegal or South Africa. Production first or broadcasting first. An image of me for others, or an image of others for me. Illness, health, beauty. Formation, creation of forms, information. What goes well and what goes bad. How it goes well. How it goes bad. Inspection and diagnosis. Vague thoughts and clear images.
It was taken up with gusto by Godard during his Maoist period, but even after his militancy waned, the notion still left numerous fertile traces in his later video work. Abuse of power, Always be two to watch an image, and split the difference between the two. Image as proof. Image as justice, as the result of an accord. Stop on the banks of the Limpopo River. A Polaroid colour instamatic.
The first image. Of men. And of women. We are. Who is responsible for oppression disappearing? This is juxtaposed with perhaps the most enigmatic yet strangely moving image of the entire work: a young Mozambican child, cast half in shadow, looks, entranced, towards his right. A chance. References Brody, Richard. New York: Metropolitan Books. Diawara, Manitha.
Sonimage in Mozambique. Gareth James and Florian Zeyfang, 92— MacCabe, Colin. London: Macmillan. Milne, Tom, ed. Godard on Godard. New York: Da Capo Press. The Future of the Image. Sterrit, David, ed. Jean-Luc Godard: Interviews. Figures 5—6. The success of this film renewed the critical interest in her own artistic work, and in a way also launched a challenge for a wider re-evaluation of what New Wave filmmakers were all about, what their real legacy consists of.
Characters move in rooms with reproductions of famous paintings, listen to classical music or jazz, drop hints at different contemporary cultural or political events, and so on. In this respect, I think. Paradoxes of an Intermedial Cinema of Immediacy Campora , in diverse forms of popular culture,6 and even in video games cf. Harpold What I would like to examine in this article is the way in which the intermedialization of the cinematic discourse can also act as a metaleptic force within a film both as a figure and as a narrative device.
So, in what follows, I will examine some of the techniques that can be interpreted as metaleptic occurrences involving intermediality used by Varda and compare them to the perhaps the better known model of Jean-Luc Godard. Intermediality as Metalepsis: Leaps between Immediacy and Hypermediacy 2. It is in fact a kind of intermedial notion combining the idea of cinematic authorship comparable to that of literary authorship with the use of specific cinematic techniques rendering a distinct cinematic style.