FORBIDDEN MANDATE

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The emperor sent for Wu, and also issued a general summons on April 5 for any available military commander in the Ming Empire to come to Beijing's rescue. It was no use—on April 24, Li's army broke through the city walls and captured Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor hanged himself from a tree behind the Forbidden City.

Wu received word that he was too late, and the capital had already fallen. He retreated to Shanhai. Li Zicheng sent his armies to confront Wu, who handily defeated them in two battles. Frustrated, Li marched out in person at the head of a 60,strong force to take on Wu. It was at this point that Wu appealed to the closest large army nearby—the Qing leader Dorgon and his Manchus.

Dorgon had no interest in restoring the Ming Dynasty, his old rivals. He agreed to attack Li's army, but only if Wu and the Ming army would serve under him instead. On May 27, Wu agreed.

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Dorgon sent him and his troops to attack Li's rebel army repeatedly; once both sides in this Han Chinese civil battle were worn out, Dorgon sent his riders around the flank of Wu's army. The Manchu set upon the rebels, quickly overcoming them and sending them flying back toward Beijing. Li Zicheng himself returned to the Forbidden City and grabbed all the valuables he could carry.

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His troops looted the capital for a couple of days and then scampered west on June 4, , ahead of the advancing Manchus. Li would only survive until September of the following year, when he was killed after a series of battles with Qing imperial troops. Ming pretenders to the throne continued to try to rally Chinese support for restoration for several decades after the fall of Beijing, but none gained much support.

The Manchu leaders quickly reorganized the Chinese government, adopting some aspects of Han Chinese rule such as the civil service exam system , while also imposing Manchu customs such as the queue hairstyle on their Han Chinese subjects.

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In the end, the Manchus' Qing Dynasty would rule China right up to the end of the imperial era, in One major cause of the Ming collapse was a succession of relatively weak and disconnected emperors. Early in the Ming period, the emperors were active administrators and military leaders. By the end of the Ming era, however, the emperors had retreated into the Forbidden City, never venturing out at the head of their armies, and seldom even meeting in person with their ministers. A second reason for the collapse of the Ming was the huge expense in money and men of defending China from its northern and western neighbors.

This has been a constant in Chinese history, but the Ming were particularly concerned because they had only just won China back from Mongol rule under the Yuan Dynasty. As it turned out, they were right to worry about invasions from the north, although this time it was the Manchus who took power. It is about reverence and adherence to religious tradition. That said, not all Jewish communities adhere to strict kosher guidelines. Some individuals may choose to follow only certain rules — or none at all.

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This article explores what kosher means, outlines its main dietary guidelines, and gives the requirements that foods must meet to be considered kosher. The laws that provide the foundation for a kosher dietary pattern are collectively referred to as kashrut and are found within the Torah, the Jewish book of sacred texts. Instructions for practical application of these laws are passed down through oral tradition 2. Kosher dietary laws are comprehensive and provide a rigid framework of rules that not only outline which foods are allowed or forbidden but also mandate how permitted foods must be produced, processed, and prepared prior to consumption 2.

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Some of the main kosher dietary guidelines ban certain food pairings — particularly that of meat and dairy. According to kosher tradition, any food categorized as meat may never be served or eaten at the same meal as a dairy product. After eating meat, you must wait a designated amount of time before consuming any dairy product. The particular length of time varies among different Jewish customs but is usually between one and six hours. Pareve food items are considered neutral and may be eaten alongside either meat or dairy. However, if a pareve food item is prepared or processed using any equipment used to process meat or dairy, it may be reclassified as meat, dairy, or non-kosher.

A large portion of kosher rules addresses animal-based foods and the way in which they are slaughtered and prepared. Dairy is treated as a separate entity and should never be consumed or prepared alongside meat or meat products. Dairy products — such as milk, cheese, butter, and yogurt — are permitted, although they must adhere to specific rules in order to be considered kosher:.

Although they each have their own separate rules, fish and eggs are both classified as pareve, or neutral, which means that they do not contain milk or meat. Fish is only considered kosher if it comes from an animal that has fins and scales, such as tuna, salmon, halibut, or mackerel. This stipulation means that each egg must be inspected individually. In their purest form, grains and grain-based foods are considered kosher. However, certain processing methods may ultimately deem them not kosher. It is common for some breads to contain oils or shortening. If an animal-based shortening is used, the bread may not be considered kosher.

Furthermore, if baking pans or other equipment are greased with animal-based fats or otherwise used to cook any meat- or dairy-containing dish, the end product is no longer kosher. Because these types of processing methods are not typically disclosed on a standard nutrition or ingredient label, bread and grain products must be certified kosher to ensure that the food complies with all relevant guidelines.

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Similar to grains, fruits and vegetables are kosher in their unprocessed form. However, because insects are not kosher, fresh fruits and vegetables must be inspected for the presence of insects or larvae prior to sale or consumption. Furthermore, fruit and vegetable products that are produced using non-kosher equipment, such as anything that processes milk and meat, are not kosher.

Generally speaking, nuts , seeds , and the oils derived from them are kosher. Each of these steps must be closely monitored in order to ensure adherence to kosher guidelines 3. Like foods, wine must be produced using kosher equipment and ingredients to be deemed kosher. This includes any tools used to harvest and prepare the grapes for fermentation. However, because wine is significant to many Jewish religious occasions, stricter rules are imposed.

In fact, the entire kosher wine production process must be carried out and supervised by practicing Jews.


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Otherwise, the wine cannot be deemed kosher. Though there is some variation in adherence to Passover dietary guidelines, all leavened grain products are traditionally forbidden. This is why matzo, a type of unleavened flatbread, is not considered chametz — even though it is traditionally made from wheat. There are dozens of different kosher labels, many of which come from different certifying organizations.

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