He is the first to see the importance of the open-air excavations for the knowledge of house architecture. He observes similarities between the houses, particularly in the technical feature for conducting water, probably water pipes and the like. In respect to the theatre of Herculaneum, he describes the differences between the Greek model never seen by him and deduced from Vitruvius and the Roman successor. Winckelmann then passes to the Herculanean Gate.
He expands his sober description of the remains to an analysis of city gates at other places and from other textual sources. He comments upon the remains in a philological and antiquarian manner, singling out the particularities to be known about city gates. Again, he does not mention their urban situation, which was barely known to him, as only tiny patches of the town had been excavated see Figures 6 , 7.
He continues by describing the street and its plaster of volcanic basalt. Considering that the windows at the street side were very small and could contain iron fetters, people believed that glass was not used and that this material only served for vessels. Winckelmann — rightly, as it turns out — advocates the existence of panes Winckelmann b: 43 , relying for evidence on the remains of glass, while admitting that ancient authors do not describe them.
Despite the many details observed and the interest of these remains for the knowledge of Greco-Roman architecture, Winckelmann does not describe the buildings at Pompei as important monuments in their own right. Although he does not say so, he probably could not see them as examples of grand architecture. Winckelmann could not yet describe and comment upon the Doric temple in Pompeii, since it was not found until , but it would have provided him with a good link to the Paestum temples for the earliest explorations, see De Waele 13— For the reader not familiar with the excavations, the main problem with his two pamphlets is the absence of illustrations, which would have helped to clearly convey the importance of the diggings.
Hamilton was British ambassador in Naples, and in addition to his activities as a diplomat — which for the greater part consisted of hunting with the King of Naples and receiving tourists on their grand tour — he studied volcanic phenomena and the ongoing excavations. His account of the archaeological situation in Pompeii was the result of a presentation at the Society of Antiquaries in London in , which then was published in in the periodical Archaeologia which continues to be produced today.
The text is very brief and mainly consists of commentaries for a set of plates Figures 2 , 3 , 4. These plates were probably based upon the drawings by his private artist, Pietro Fabris, who was especially known for the beautiful illustrations in Campi Phlegraei , a lavish book Hamilton had published in In modern terms, we would describe the contribution as a print of the slides shown during the presentation.
These engravings are factual and do not include picturesque formulas see Osanna et al. Other dramatic views published in the 18th century include a watercolour by Desprez shows the Herculanean Gate, which conveys the idea that this gate is huge but barely emerges from the enormous amounts of volcanic material.
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We know that in many of his fascinating works man is a micro-organism. For some visitors of Pompeii its picturesque nature also lay in the perception of its being Greek, like the discoveries at Paestum, though very few indications were at hand. When the Doric Temple in Pompeii was discovered, it soon became seen as proof that Pompeii was a Greek town. Its remains, however, were scarce, and we must assume that the temple had been demolished in Roman times, probably during the reign of Augustus. Little more was uncovered than the stereobate and stylobate, as well as the layout of the cella and some column drums Figure 4.
A capital was the main proof that the order was Doric hence the temple was deemed a sister to those in Paestum e. Despite the scanty remains, Saint-Non recognized the intercolumniations, so that the plan could be reconstructed De Waele 14— The Temple of Isis contained a mass of Egyptian and egyptianizing objects and decorations. Architecturally, it was too small to rouse interest, but its discovery increased fascination for the still largely unknown Egyptian world. Only in the early 19th century were the larger temples of Jupiter and Apollo the latter first seen as a temple dedicated to Venus discovered in the forum.
Travaux , The water basin is the impluvium of the atrium, and the colonnade is the surrounding open area originally supporting the slanting roof, in the middle of which is the compluvium or opening to catch rainwater. This makes him wonder where the women lived Andreasen , II: The fact that, indeed, the first houses excavated along the Via Consularis were rather small e. The houses identified as villas were apparently the only good specimens of domestic splendour, especially that of Diomedes, with its three levels. It is worth noting that the opinions presented here were penned by members of the northern European elite who, themselves, lived in large and expensive residences.
It may be illustrative that several decades later Edward Bulwer-Lytton chose two relatively richly decorated houses of different sizes, excavated briefly before his own visit in — those of Sallustius big and the Tragic Poet small — as the residences for his protagonists in The Last Days of Pompeii. Presumably Paestum was too rough and Pompeii too refined in her eyes. Returning to the aspect of visibility and approach, Pompeii was not a picturesque site, as it sat in a recession within the landscape surrounded by heaps of debris.
Although the area was praised as part of the Bay of Naples in general, during the trip to the site, the landscape provided no opportunity for the traveller to become acquainted with the monuments from afar. The traveller arrived suddenly at the rim of a deep trench in which lay the ruins. The unique view by Jakob Philipp Hackert of Figure 5 is likely an attempt to satisfy the demands of the picturesque to a certain degree: distance, the ruinous state of the monuments, imperfection, and good light. Despite the great discoveries made in the early 19th century, such as the forum and its temples and public buildings, only slowly did a debate concerning the architecture and urbanism of Pompeii develop.
Pompeii was and would remain a city of small houses, which were considered to be a major source for many aspects of ancient domestic architecture. They reflect the perception of Pompeii as a town of houses rather than of large monuments. The patrons of these neo-Pompeian houses wanted to evoke an ancient way of living, especially by introducing the decorative arts within their walls. The houses — let alone other buildings — were not copied or adapted for their architectural value. As we have seen, the architecture of Pompeii also had its disadvantages in the sense of poor visibility and lack of grandeur.
Even when large monuments like the amphitheatre and the forum, with its religious and public buildings, were unearthed, there was little to be learned from these monuments for the architects of public buildings. Pompeii predominantly became an example of a residential area, with many aspects inspiring the design of private architecture and interior decoration in the late 18th and 19th centuries. The city of the Pygmies, as it was called by some, had its limitations, but also its attraction as a foreign culture, as far from its admirers as were the Pygmies themselves.
It was, now definitively, excavated under Maiuri in See Parslow and Olivito Note from March 13, See also Moormann If we consider the fact that the published account was carefully constructed, this might be intentionally written. On Winckelmann and his Pompeii publications, see also Moormann See Pinto , fig. Various important suggestions for improvement were made by the anonymous peer reviewer, whom I would like to thank as well.
This agenda is being developed with the financial support of Leiden University, Radboud University, the University of Amsterdam and the University of Groningen. The Anchoring Innovation projects investigate the way in which novelties in all domains are anchored in existing traditions and practices. I myself focus on the question of how Pompeii influenced the study of antiquity and the use of elements from it in modern culture. Bellot, L. Bergmann, B. Stockholm: Svenska Institutet i Rom. Beyer, A. Blessington, M. Power, Countess of. The Idler in Italy. Castellan, A-L. Paris: A.
Paris: F. De Jong, S. Rediscovering Architecture. Denon, V. Voyage au royaume de Naples. Paris: Perrin. Il tempio dorico del Foro triangolare di Pompei. Berlin: Nicolai Verlag.
Fitzon, Th. Reisen in das befremdliche Pompeji. Antiklassizistische Antikenwahrnehmung deutscher Italienreisender — Goethe, JW. Italienische Reise. Hamburger Ausgabe. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. Hales, S.
Hamilton, W. Account of the Discoveries at Pompeii. Archaeologia: or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity , 4: — Helmberger, W and Kockel, V. Kockel, V and Laidlaw, A. Journal of Roman Archaeology , — Lamers, P. Naples: Electa. Moormann, EM. Da paesaggi a veri misteri. Temi pompeiani nella pittura a partire dalla scoperta di Pompei.
Life and death in Pompeii and Herculaneum
In: Osanna, M, et al. Atti del convegno , 92— Milan: Electa. In: Disselkamp, M and Testa, F eds. Stuttgart: Metzler Verlag. Winckelmann und die griechischen Tempel von Agrigento. Moritz, KPh. Reisen eines Deutschen in Italien in den Jahren bis Berlin: Friedrich Maurer. Nichols, K. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Olivito, R. Bari: Edipuglia. Osanna, M, et al. Osterkamp, E.
Johann Hermann von Riedesels Sizilienreise. Die Winckelmannsche Perspektive und ihre Folgen. Pagano, M. Il teatro di Ercolano. Parslow, CC. Funerary stelai in the Kerameikos reflect these shifts in social policy, depicting spouses of mixed ethnic background and Milesian youths in the pose of ephebes. Rather than being political acts, these instances of destruction reflect social events like divorce, legal conflicts, and disinheritance. Carroll concludes that these instances of damnatio memoriae wiped out the memory and erased the identity of the person who was formerly destined for the tomb.
In a synthetic approach to Egyptian funerary practice, Bommas details the changes that occurred in each major period but also highlights the thread of commonality: a desire to have a relationship with the dead, first through private sacrifice, then through increasingly public, ostentatious performances. Ritual actions of giving and sacrifice let the living interact with the dead, who in return served as their protectors. These four contributions effectively marshal the epigraphical and historical data about commemoration in Greece, Rome, and Egypt, but two stand out for drawing the reader into the daily lives of past people.
In discussing Milesians in Athens, Gray navigates the dialectic between ethnic representation on tombstones and legal acceptance of foreign ethnicity. Gray ends by questioning whether we should see the Milesians as individuals or as a part of a larger community p. Further exploration along these lines would be quite welcome, as the dead have their own identities but are always buried by their community.
The concept of memory in the Roman world is an important one to explore, and its study can contribute to and be informed by the large body of anthropological work on memory and identity in death. An analysis of burial form and the placement of burials within the landscape forms the evidence for commemoration in the papers by Rempel, Pearce, and Russell. Rempel writes about the Bosporan kingdom, which had quite a heterogeneous population that contributed to differences in burial style: a man buried with a local-style marker that included Scythian iconography and Greek text is an example of choice in burial style rather than ethnic imperative.
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In spite of the hybrid nature of burials in the Bosporan kingdom, Rempel points out that they nevertheless communicate with one another and that a dialogue of status and wealth can be seen as lower-status individuals attempt to imitate the burial styles of higher-status people. Within the Roman provinces, Pearce purports to investigate spatial relationships in burials in Britain. The area immediately outside the walls of an urban center is generally assumed to be a privileged space of burial display, but Pearce argues that minor city centers and civitas peripheries in Britain may also have held burials that conveyed social or political power.
The papers by Rempel and Russell are well argued and offer interesting conclusions about places and times that are not within the traditional purview of classics scholars. This area of the world is not as well known in classical times as the circum-Mediterranean, and recent anthropological attention in the region 4 may be useful in further investigations of ethnicity and status in the Bosporan kingdom.
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The two final papers both incorporate the physical remains of the deceased into arguments about ritual and commemoration. In the Porta Nocera necropolis at Pompeii, a huge variety of evidence reveals burial and funerary rites: tombstones, inscriptions, artifacts, human skeletal remains, animal bones, and carbonized plant remains. Lepetz and Van Andringa, with contributions by H. Duday, D. Joly, C. Malagoli, V. Matterne, and M. Tuffreau-Libre, synthesize their findings at the funerary monument of Publius Vesonius Phileros. The wealth of information allows them to reconstruct in great detail the sequence of events and activities at the burial site.
A different approach to Roman funeral ritual comes from Graham, who writes about os resectum , a lesser- known rite of retaining a piece of bone from the deceased in order to purify the household and ensure proper burial.
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Information about the rite comes from primary historical evidence and secondary archaeological evidence, in the form of small pots from San Cesareo, whose contents of slivers of burned bone have unfortunately been lost. Most interestingly, Graham and her colleagues have identified an example of os resectum from Britain; unfortunately, however, the full publication of those skeletal remains is still in preparation. Nevertheless, this is an important paper that reconsiders the manipulation of the body of the deceased within the context of Roman rites of passage; the death of a person results in separation from the community, while the practice of os resectum eases the transition to death and incorporates the dead into the community of ancestors.
Bioarchaeologists who work with Roman cremations would do well to look for further evidence of this rite in the form of differently burned remains.