Once a Runner - Cassidys Lauf: Roman (German Edition)

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The additive method is outside the scope of this paper. The subtractive method makes use of certain dyes and pigments which have the property of selectively absorbing blue, green or red light while transmitting the remainder of the spectrum. These dyes and pigments are called the subtractive primaries, and they control the amounts of blue, green and red light in a mixture by absorbing or subtracting from white light the amounts of blue, green and red not required.

For this purpose, three positive images in dye or pigment form are prepared from the separation negatives, the red separation negative being printed in the red-absorbing or Cyan dye; the green negative in the green-absorbing Magenta dye; and the blue negative in the blue-absorbing Yellow dye. The three images may then be superimposed on a single support to make the completed colour reproduction. The Eastman Colour Films are multilayer films of the type in which the layers are not separated after exposure.

Films of this class are known as Multilayer, Monopack or Integral Tripack. Three types of Eastman Colour Film are manufactured. These are the Colour Negative Film, intended for use as the picture negative material in the camera; the Colour lnternegative Film, used for a similar purpose to black-and-white duplicating negative film; and Colour Print Film, which may be employed in preparing prints from either the Colour Negative or Colour lnternegative.

A special black-and-white Separation Positive Film is also provided and this is intended for use in preparing three separation positives from the Colour Negative. The separation positives form an intermediate link with the Colour Negative when making a Colour Internegative, so that their function is similar to that of a master positive in a black-and-white system. Integral tripack camera films have the advantage that they may be used in a standard black-and-white camera, and apart from a check on the colour correction and focus of the lens, no special precautions are necessary.

It is of interest to note that the colours of integral tripack negatives, as well as the densities, are reversed compared with the original scene. The coloured images in Eastman Colour Films are produced by a method known as dye-coupling development. For this a special developing agent is used in conjunction with a second compound known as the colourforming coupler. Photographic development is a process of chemical reduction brought about by the developing agent, which is oxidized in proportion to the amount of silver formed.

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The oxidized developing agent combines with the colour forming coupler to create a dye of appropriate colour, the concentration of which is proportional to the amount of silver in the image. The dye thus formed must be insoluble in water so that the reaction shall be quite local and a dye image of high resolution obtained. The silver image is removed at a later stage of the process. Three colour-forming couplers provide the appropriate dyes and are incorporated in the relevant emulsion layers. At present, there are two basic problems associated with the design of a satisfactory integral tripack process.

The first of these is accuracy of colour rendering which, of course, is not confined to the integral tripack system but is of special importance in this case because of the practical problems involved in correcting deficiencies. The second factor is image sharpness, necessarily important because the optical image loses sharpness by light scatter when it passes through successive emulsion layers.

Special measures have been adopted to meet these problems in the design of Eastman Colour Films. Certain theoretical difficulties in the accuracy of colour rendering by additive and subtractive processes have already been described before this Society. Ideally, the dyes used in a subtractive process should completely absorb one-third of the visible spectrum and completely transmit two-thirds. In practice, the available dyes fall considerably below this aim. Consequently there is appreciable colour degradation, even when only one set of dyes is involved as in a reversal process, if the original camera film is subsequently used as the projection positive.

Degradation is considerably greater when a negative has to be printed on a positive material having dyes with similar characteristics, and worse still after passing through a duplicating stage. Transmission characteristics of ideal and practical subtractive dyes are shown in Fig. In Eastman Colour Films the transmission characteristics of the yellow dye are fairly good, but the magenta dye absorbs rather heavily in the blue where there should be full transmission, the degree of absorption varying with the dye strength.

Similarly the cyan dye absorbs in the blue and green, where it should fully transmit. These shortcomings, if uncorrected, would have considerable adverse effect on the colour quality, and the reproduction would be desaturated and false in colour rendering. This situation is a familiar one in subtractive colour processes, and some correction is often attempted by a technique known as masking, in which one or more compensating weak positive images are combined with the negative during printing. Such masks are used with the intention of cancelling out the unwanted blue and green absorptions in the cyan and magenta dyes of the negative image.

Eastman Colour Negative and Internegative Films incorporate a very valuable masking device, the coloured dye-coupler, which provides the necessary correction automatically. It will be appreciated that if the magenta dye is absorbing some blue, and the cyan dye some blue and green, then the final print will appear desaturated and wrongly coloured.

If, however, the unwanted blue and green absorptions can be made constant, no matter what the dye image density, it will be easy to rectify the deficiency during printing, simply by placing a suitable colour compensating filter in the printing light beam, or alternatively by adjusting the overall colour balance of the tripack print film. The coloured dye-couplers used for the formation of the magenta and cyan dyes in the appropriate layers achieve this in the following manner.

The magenta dye-coupler is coloured yellow and absorbs in the blue region of the spectrum where unwanted absorption is taking place. The coupler is used up as the dye image is formed, so that where image density increases, the colour strength of the coupler decreases. Thus where there is high image density, and therefore high unwanted blue absorption, there is low coupler concentration with consequent low blue absorption.

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The coloured coupler can be selected so that its maximum absorption corresponds to the blue absorption of the magenta dye at maximum density. In such a case the combined blue absorption of the magenta dye and residual coloured coupler is constant, and remains substantially so at all intermediate densities.

A similar function is performed by the coloured coupler in the cyan layer, which is reddish-orange in colour. The behaviour of these coloured couplers is represented diagrammatically in Fig. The colours of these two couplers result in an orange hue which is visible in the processed negative and obscures the actual colours in the negative to an extent which makes visual assessment impossible.

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This system of masking is adopted only in the negative stages of the colour process: it cannot be embodied in the final print because of the orange hue of the couplers. When considering maximum sharpness in a subtractive type colour process it must be remembered that the magenta image has the greatest influence upon the sharpness of a projected picture, the cyan image is next in importance and the yellow image least. It is therefore desirable in an integral tripack film, because of the light scatter in the layers during exposure, to arrange for the magenta image to appear in the top layer, the cyan image in the middle and the yellow image at the bottom.

With the camera negative film such an ideal arrangement is not possible, for in practice the blue sensitive layer forming the yellow image has to be placed at the top. A high speed picture negative emulsion is strongly responsive to blue light, so that although two of the three layers in the film can be selectively sensitized to green and red, the fundamental blue sensitivity of the silver halide emulsion is always present and must be eliminated from the green and red sensitive layers by the use of a yellow filter.

It is for this reason that the blue sensitive layer must be placed at the top; in such a position it is a simple matter to locate beneath it a yellow filter layer which will completely remove the blue light while transmitting green and red. The filter layer can be designed to be eliminated during processing of the film. In the print film it is possible to achieve the desired dye layer arrangement because high emulsion speed is not essential, as in the camera negative material, and this permits selection from a wider range of emulsion types.

The internegative film presents a special problem, for although it is a low speed material, and as such might follow the same design as the print film with regard to layer positioning, the fact that coloured couplers are incorporated for automatic masking complicates matters. The blue-absorbing yellow and orange-red couplers would prevent an image being registered on the blue sensitive emulsion if it were at the bottom.

The problem is solved by adopting a noncomplementary relationship between the dye image colour and spectral sensitivity of each layer. In conventional integral tripack materials Yellow, Magenta and Cyan dyes are used for the formation of images originating in the Blue, Green and Red sensitive emulsions respectively.

This is because each dye absorbs in the particular spectral region to which the emulsion is sensitized, while freely transmitting at least, in theory all other parts of the spectrum. In other words, the dyes bear a complementary relationship to the spectral sensitivities of their respective layers. They control light transmission in exactly the same way as does a silver image, but exercise of this control is confined to light of wavelengths within the colour sensitivity region of the appropriate emulsion.

Such a relationship is obligatory, for example, in a reversal type camera film intended for subsequent use in projection; but when integral tripack films are employed at an intermediate stage between the camera negative and final print it is by no means essential for this complementary relationship to be maintained, so long as it can be established in the print. These films may therefore have a non-complementary dye relationship.

Eastman Colour Internegative Film has a non-complementary dye relationship in that the top emulsion layer is blue sensitive and forms a magenta image, the green sensitive middle layer forms a cyan image, and the red sensitive bottom layer a yellow image. In this way, the desired layer positions for the subtractive images are obtained.

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Use of this technique in the internegative film is permissible as it is used in conjunction with black-and-white separation positive films. Suitable light filters can be employed when printing from the separation positives on to the internegative to match the noncomplementary dye relationship of the latter. See Fig. To make an internegative, three separation positives are first prepared. These represent separate records of the three dye images in the original negative. They are obtained by printing the negative successively on the three films using blue, green and red printing lights of suitable quality.

Ignoring dye deficiencies, the blue light is obstructed only by the yellow layer in the negative and freely transmitted by the magenta and cyan layers: in the same way green light is affected only by the magenta layer and red light by the cyan layer. The blue record separation positive is called the Yellow printer, green record the Magenta printer, and red record the Cyan printer, because those are the respective dye layers they control in the internegative. The separation positives are now successively printed on to the internegative film, suitable light filters again being used to restrict the exposure from each positive to the appropriate emulsion layer of the film.

It will be apparent, therefore, that red light must be used with the Yellow printer, green light with the Cyan printer and blue light with the Magenta printer. Production of an internegative in this way is shown schematically in Fig. Eastman Colour Negative Film is at present manufactured in two types, identified as and Type is suitable for use in daylight illumination, or in high intensity arc light with a straw-coloured filter, such as the Brigham Y. In either case a Wratten No. It is not advisable, however, to attempt the lighting of subjects with lamps of mixed colour temperature, at least until ample experience has been gained.

Type has an Exposure Index of 32 to tungsten illumination. Practical camera tests are always advisable as a check on correct exposure. The film may be exposed in daylight, or high intensity arc plus a straw-coloured filter such as the Brigham Y. In these conditions the Exposure Index becomes When working with the Colour Negative lighting contrast should be fairly soft, with evenly distributed illumination.

Good modelling can be obtained with lighting ratios lower than those used for black and white work. Although both Type and Type are manufactured at present, it is probable that in the near future production will be concentrated on , especially since the two types cannot readily be intercut for printing purposes. A diagrammatic representation of the emulsion layers in Eastman Colour Negative Film, before and after processing, is shown in Plate 1. The type identification number for Eastman Colour Print Film is , while an improved Type , giving increased sharpness, is now being manufactured.

The film is colour balanced for exposure to tungsten lamp illumination. As a guide to speed, an average density Eastman Colour Negative will print at light 10 on a Bell Howell Model D printer fitted with a watt Reflector Lamphouse and the necessary colour balancing filters in the light beam. A Wratten No. Any standard printer suitable for black-and-white work can be used in making Eastman Colour Prints, provided it has a tungsten lamp light source and means are available for inserting colour balancing filters in the light beam to correct for differences in colour balance of the negative or print film.

Such a printer does not permit of the rapid filter changes often required for scene-to-scene colour balance shifts, and for this work special equipment is necessary. A preferred type of printer is one in which the illumination at the printing aperture is obtained by mixing light from the source after it has passed in three separate beams through narrow band red, green and blue filters, the intensity of each beam being separately controlled.

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Not only does a printer of this type provide a wider range of colour balance changes, but problems associated with the use of colour balancing filters, such as fading and complications due to unwanted absorptions in the filters themselves, are avoided. Moreover, frequent replacement of filter material is liable to become an appreciable cost item. Apart from these advantages tests have shown that improved quality is obtainable on Eastman Colour Print Film exposed in this way.

The sound track on Eastman Colour Print Film is composed of both the silver and dye images, from which very satisfactory sound quality is obtainable. A diagrammatic representation of the emulsion layers in Eastman Colour Print Film before and after processing is shown in Plate 1. Eastman Colour Internegative Film, designed for use in conjunction with Eastman Colour Negative Type , is identified by the number A second internegative material, similar in characteristics to but designed for use with Eastman Colour Negative Type , is known as Type As has been explained, Colour Internegative has a non-complementary dye relationship and a spectrogram illustrating this is shown at Plate 1.

A diagrammatic representation of the emulsion layers before and after processing is also seen in Plate 1. Colour Internegative Film requires a printer with a high intensity light source in order to obtain adequate exposure. This is partly because the light filters employed for printing the separation positives on to the internegative have narrow transmission bands to restrict exposure to the correct emulsion layer in the film. Additional reasons are the low inherent speed of the internegative film and the necessarily high minimum density of the separation positives.

As a guide to the type of printer required, adequate exposure has been obtained from separation positives of 0. A registeringtype printer is essential for printing from separation positives. This material, specially designed for making black-and-white separation positives from colour negative originals, is broadly similar to the black-and-white Eastman Fine Grain Duplicating Negative Film, Type However, it is capable of a somewhat higher contrast, and the definition is superior to that obtained with The film has an extended red sensitivity to allow the use of a Wratten No.

An absorbing dye is incorporated in the emulsion to improve definition, and this is not completely discharged during processing. Consequently, separation positives prepared on this material have a characteristic greenish tint. Comparative spectrograms for Type and Type film are shown in Fig. Apart from an extra stage to permit removal of the silver image, the processing of Eastman Colour Negative, Colour Print and Colour Internegative Films does not differ fundamentally from the techniques applied to black-and-white materials.

But control of solution temperatures and bath compositions has to be much more precise, and the processing machine needs to be built to more rigorous specifications than would be warranted for handling black-and-white films. Discretion is necessary in choice of the materials for machine construction, and efficient squeegee systems are needed at several points, especially when processing Colour Print Film, just before the sound track redevelopment stage.

Washing is essential several times during the process, and to minimize reticulation problems it is necessary for the water temperature to be maintained within two or three degrees of the other solutions. All Eastman Colour Films have a soluble, opaque black backing applied for the purpose of reducing halation, and this must be removed before development. It is first softened in a special bath, and from this the film passes to a rinse tank where the backing is completely removed by buffing the support side of the film, using a roller covered with a soft material such as sponge rubber rotating in the opposite direction to the film travel.

After removal of the backing the film enters the developing solution. It is not greatly different from a black-and-white picture negative developing solution, apart from the special developing agent used, a very low sulphite content, and a higher pH. In black-and-white processing the time can be varied considerably in order to control the ultimate contrast of the negative. Such methods are inadvisable when processing colour film because three emulsions are being developed simultaneously, and they may not all react similarly to a given change in development time. This can lead to an alteration in colour balance.

Development is followed by a brief spray rinse, and the film then passes into the first fixing bath, which is of the normal type used in black-and-white processing. Here the undeveloped silver halide is removed and the emulsion is hardened. A wash follows, after which the film enters the bleach bath where the silver image is converted to silver bromide.

After a further wash the film passes to the second fixing bath, identical in composition with the first. Here the silver bromide into which the silver image was converted by the bleach bath is removed, leaving the dye image. In the case of Colour Print Film, if a sound track has been printed there is a further step which occurs prior to the second fixing bath.

A sound track composed of dye image alone is not so satisfactory as one which incorporates the silver image. It is therefore desirable to redevelop the silver bromide in the sound track area only, and this is done by applying a high energy developing solution to the sound track after the wash following the bleach bath.

A convenient method of application is by picking up the developing solution on an applicator wheel which forms a bead of developer on the emulsion surface of the film in line with the sound track. In order to prevent spreading of the developing solution into the picture area, development time is kept to a minimum and the solution is made viscous by the inclusion of suitable ingredients.

A diagram and photograph of a sound track applicator wheel are shown in Fig. Following a final wash after the second fixing bath, the film may be passed directly into the drying cabinets if it is Colour Negative or Internegative, or alternatively it can first be run through a tank containing wetting agent to minimize the risk of water spotting.

Colour Print Film must be passed through a final stabilizing bath, which, if desired, may also include wetting agent. The stabilizing agent, consisting of formaldehyde, is necessary because the processed print film contains unused colourless colour-forming couplers, which may cause fading of the dye image. These couplers are converted to an inert form by the action of the formaldehyde. The increasing availability of integral tripack colour films brings nearer the time when all motion picture productions for the commercial entertainment field will be in colour.

While the inherent characteristics of the colour film itself must always be a primary factor in determining ultimate quality, it cannot be emphasized too strongly that, far more than in black-and-white photography, good results depend on a high standard of technique in the camera work and film processing. Cameramen accustomed to working with black-and-white films will find adjustments in method essential if good colour quality is to be obtained. Lighting can be less dramatic, exposure must be somewhat more precise, colour temperature of the light source becomes an important factor, and it should always be borne in mind that colours seemingly similar to the eye may not appear so to the colour film.

Laboratories must assimilate new methods of sensitometry, and extend their chemical control systems if the requisite standard for colour film processing is to be maintained. Unless these needs are recognized and met, disappointment will surely follow. Carter of the Kodak Research Laboratories for much helpful advice during the preparation of this paper. Have you any comments on this? If this is so, what is the recommended procedure for intercutting exterior and interior scenes? As I explained, future production will probably be concentrated on the negative, with the intention that it should be used both for exteriors and interiors, with a suitable compensating filter in the case of exterior work.

BLAND: I notice that the preferred type of printer projects three separate beams through narrow band filters for analysis of the light. These beams pass through different parts of the bulb and so will be subject to their different rates of blackening. Will this not upset the colour balance? In my experience lamps of this type are subject to rather rapid loss in light output through blackening of the bulb? What is the effective life of the lamp? Bland did not realise from the diagram that the light reaching the printing aperture is automatically controlled to a pre-determined value by the photoelectric cell assembly.

Therefore, change in light output due to blackening of the bulb is automatically compensated. At the present time this is secondary to the problem of getting sufficient exposure on the film. HOULT: You mention that when using film in daylight a Wratten 85 filter is recommended for colour temperature correction. If is colour balanced for K, why is a Wratten 85B filter not recommended for this purpose? In practice colour temperature of daylight varies over a wide range, so that a correction at the printing stage is nearly always necessary.

In these circumstances it does not much matter whether an 85 or an 85B filter is used. Work is going on with a view to producing a series of colour correction filters intended for use with film. These will provide more specific colour correction under varying conditions of daylight. LOMAS: In view of the amount of work which has been carried out on automatic masking methods in recent years, would it not be true to say that ideal subtractive dyes are impossible to obtain? Could he say from experience what a practical lower limit to the colour temperature would be, while still maintaining reasonable exposure balance in the three emulsion layers.

Is it possible to correct, in the printing process, for daylight conditions other than this, so as to obtain a uniform effective colour temperature in the print? For quantity production of release prints there are other methods which may well prove cheaper, but as the number of prints required decreases this discrepancy disappears, and may even go the other way.

GOOZEE: No mention was made by the speaker of a colour chart to be used when shooting with Eastman Colour Negative so as to provide the laboratory with a check on the actual exposure conditions. Is it intended to provide such a chart?

At 25 feet or more, the chart and everything in the water surrounding it appeared greenish blue in the print but as the camera was brought nearer the chart the colour rendering improved until at a distance of five feet perfect colour rendering was obtained.

I had the impression that the bead of developer might be hard to apply over a wide track in order to obtain a uniform density. What sort of dynamic range is obtainable from the Colour Print sound track? THE AUTHOR: Undoubtedly some care is necessary in designing the applicator for sound track re-development, but no difficulty should be experienced in obtaining uniform re-development on standard tracks. Evans and J. Is there any reason why neutral density filters should not be used so as to be able to work at large apertures in bright lighting conditions?

THE AUTHOR: I do not know why you should find better quality at large apertures, but certainly neutral density filters can be used to cut down the light, always remembering that such filters are seldom truly neutral. This fact may lead to printing complications if intercutting is necessary between negatives exposed in various cameras, using an assortment of neutral density filters. If only one neutral density filter is in use, there is no problem. BUSH: With reference to the last question, at large lens aperture there is usually some image flare which lowers the overall contrast and desaturates the colours slightly.

Generally speaking, the public seems to prefer this quality to the more saturated higher contrast result obtained at small lens apertures. As this film may not be available in sufficient quantity in this country, it is difficult to say what may happen in this respect. Eastman Colour Negative Film is quite a flexible medium in the sense that other colour printing techniques can be employed apart from Eastman Colour Print Film. Black-and-white films, especially if used with light filters, will not require such complete correction in the lens as do integral tripack colour films.

A practical test with the particular lens and film is advisable. Whether this is granted will depend on the purpose the film is wanted for. So far as actual supplies are concerned, adequate quantities of all types should be available later this year. American practice, however, appears to be to make internegatives for all optical inserts. LASSALLY: I thought that, apart from a slightly increased graininess, the internegative sequence we saw in the projected colour print matched extremely well with the sequence from the original negative. Craig, G.

In: British Kinematography, 22,5, , pp. In recent years, a number of negative and positive color films of the integral tripack type have been made available to the motion picture industry.

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Their use has been greatly encouraged by the flexibility offered by the negative-positive system, which enables a studio to produce color films with the same ease it does black-and-white. This has been especially true more recently in the production of many three-dimensional films, where 3-D cameras taking single film strips are employed instead of Technicolor 3-strip cameras. In this respect, the new Eastman color films — three in all: color negative, color positive, and color internegative — have had wide use, and now that the manufacturer has increased the output of these films, their use will become even more general.

At present, nearly every major studio in Hollywood is using Eastman color negative in one way or another. Some are using the entire color series. Examples are Warner Brothers, whose Warner-Color system employs Eastman negative and positive film, and Republic Studios whose Trucolor process also employs the full range of Eastman color films. Twentieth Century-Fox studio is using Eastman color negative in its cameras in the production of CinemaScope films.

Columbia Studio uses Eastman color negative in shooting all its 3-D films, with the release prints being produced by Technicolor Corporation. In all, Eastman Kodak now offers four different film materials which can be used in color productions, such as those outlined above, or which can be used in conjunction with existing commercial color motion picture production processes.

Three of these materials represent improvements over earlier Eastman color films which were used in the last few years for a number of motion picture productions. The most acceptable systems for color motion picture production require the use of intermediate steps in order to include special effects and to provide protection masters. A number of systems are possible when working from a color original, but the preferred system appears to be one employing black-and-white separation positives and an integral tripack-type color internegative, For this, Eastman Kodak has provided special film stocks.

The key film, of course is the negative. It can also be used with daylight or carbon-arc illumination when a Kodak Wratten filter No. It has a tungsten exposure index of about 24, and about 16 for daylight.


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These are only average specifications and, in many cases, satisfactory exposure can be obtained at even lower lighting levels. This new film has somewhat lower graininess than the earlier Eastman color negative, and improvements have also been made in the colored couplers to allow better rendition of blue subjects. This results in a lower blue density for the processed film, which is advantageous in printing.

The new Eastman color negative now makes it possible for producers of 35mm films in many fields to make pictures in color using any type of 35mm camera. It is expected that soon we shall see newsreels in color, and more and more explorers and travel and documentary film makers are certain to turn to color, using Eastman color negative in portable Eyemo, Camerette, and Arriflex cameras. The new Eastman Color Print Film. Type 35mm and Type 16mm is similar to the earlier product, but improvements have been made to provide better image sharpness.

A new magenta coupler is also incorporated in this film which gives better rendition of red hues than was the case with the earlier film. Printing of the color negative onto Color Print Film can be done with either subtractive type printers employing color compensating filters, or with additive-type printers which utilize three filtered light beams obtained from three separate sources or from a single source with beam-splitters.

In either case, the printer must be designed to permit adjustment of both the intensity and color balance of the light for printing each scene. Additive-type printers have been found to give the best results from the standpoint of good color contrast and saturation. The sound track can be printed from conventional black-and-white sound negatives prepared in the usual way. Either variable density or variable width tracks may be used. It has been found that better frequency response is obtained if the sound track exposure is confined to the two top emulsion layers of the print film instead of to all three layers.

When effects are to be included in the production, black-and-white separation negatives are made through appropriate filters on Eastman Panchromatic Separation Film, Type , using registering-type printer. Preparation of such separations also provides protection against damage to the valuable color original or against possible fading of the dyes. The separation positives are processed in a standard black-and-white negative developer by conventional methods. The separation positives are printed onto a new type Color Internegative Film Type using a registering printer.

This new film has slightly higher contrast characteristics than the earlier film, hence requires somewhat lower contrast separation positives than was required for the earlier product. As with the Color Negative, improvements have also been made in this film, with the result that there is better rendition of blue subjects.

The separate layers of the Color Internegative Film are exposed through the appropriate separations using filter packs of the proper type. Processing of the Color Negative, Color Print and Color Internegative Films is carried out in conventional type continuous processing machines, which provide for all of the steps required. These include, in addition to the washing steps, prebath for backing removal, color development, first fixing bath bleach, second fixing bath, and wetting agent or stabilizing bath.

Processing of the Color Internegative Film requires the same solutions as for the Color Negative, but a somewhat shorter development time is used for the former. Other solutions are the same. The accompanying schematic diagram illustrates the various steps in processing Eastman color films with the Eastman Color processing machine. Two additional diagrams show details of the power buffer, which removes the anti-halation backing on the films, and the sound track developing unit.

Development of the sound track is done by means of a bead-type applicator wheel, which dips into a small tray of sound track developer solution. This unit is located in the production line of the processing machine, after the wash tank following the bleach tank. The processed color internegative may be intercut with the original color negative for release printing onto Color Print Film, Type Reduction prints can also be prepared on the Type 16mm Film from the 35mm color negative or internegative.

In order to maintain proper control of the processing of these color films, it is necessary to make regular chemical analyses of the various solutions and sensitometric tests as well. More complete data concerning these new color films, including full details on processing procedure, formulae, etc. Hanson, Jr. Kisner, Motion Picture Film Dept. Foster, Frederick : Eastman negative-positive color films for motion pictures. In: American Cinematographer, 34,7, July , pp.

The negative achieved almost immediate success and has become the basic unit for most of the 35 mm color motion pictures photographed in the United States. The print film was used first chiefly for daily prints but its popularity has consistently increased and at present it is one of the most popular films used for motion picture release printing. A large part of the success of the Eastman Color Films has been due to the continuing effort of the Kodak Research Laboratories.


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Since the introduction of the process there have been six different camera negative films and seven different print films; also two different panchromatic separation films, four different internegatives, a reversal color intermediate which produces a duplicate negative directly from an original color negative, and a color intermediate film which can be used as either an intermediate positive or an intermediate negative.

During the first few years following its introduction Eastman Color Negative Film, Type was used to photograph feature films released in several print processes.



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