Drawing the Line: The Untold Story of the Animation Unions from Bosko to Bart Simpson

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At Warner Bros. Compare that to five feet at Disney in Still, during the Depression, animators had a fairly good life, compared to the millions of people out of work all over the U. Sito has done a good job of relating animation's place in the overall picture. Discrimination was rampant. Oddly enough there was little discrimination against Asian Americans, but a lot against blacks and gays, according to Sito. He details many more humiliations and firings, as well as the hard drinking and suicides of that era. Sito goes on to relate the executives' side of the story, as least as seen by the artist.

Most of the suits were disliked, if not hated.

Drawing the line : the untold story of the animation unions from Bosko to Bart Simpson

Leon Schlesinger was one of the good ones, says Sito, taking care of the business side and letting the artists govern themselves. He reportedly got more and better quality work out of his artists than anyone else.

Most of the suits knew nothing about animation, but they were the ones to accept the Oscars. He goes on to explain that, "The elites of society; artists, poets and intellectuals, made common cause with common people. And this set the stage for union organization. He reports about the thugs who were hired to put down any possible union sympathy, both here and in New York. He tells of the movie stars who came out to help. There is so much information packed into this very readable book that it would be pointless to try to highlight everything.

Chapters three, four and five cover an amazing number of facts and incidents. Here, too, are a lot of the personal anecdotes that add so much flavor to this book.

Homer Simpson Body Transformation

Everybody knows about the "Great Disney Strike. But there was a big one prior to that. Sito has an exciting re-creation of the Fleisher strike in , which had fistfights, stink bombs, firings, salary cuts and a huge boycott. The studio was moved to Florida to avoid becoming union.

Sito describes the Disney strike in great detail. It lasted more than six months and involved most of the best artists in the business. A tent camp was set up on the field that now houses St. Joseph's Hospital.

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It also involved gangsters sent from the east to control the Hollywood union. The many illustrations include not only pictures of the strikers and their signs, but letters written by both sides and copies of union newsletters and a New York Daily News headline that reads, "Communists Tried to Capture Mickey Mouse, Says Disney". Contents The world of the animation studio: the cartoon assembly line Suits: producers as artists see them Hollywood labor, the birth of cartoonists unions The Fleischer strike: a union busted, a studio destroyed The great Disney Studio strike: the civil war of animation The war of Hollywood and the blacklist: A bag of oranges: the Terrytoons strike and the Great White Father Lost generations: Animation and the global market: the runaway wars, Fox and hounds: the torch seen passing Camelot: Animation-- isn't that all done on computers now?

Summary Some of the most beloved characters in film and television inhabit two-dimensional worlds that spring from the fertile imaginations of talented animators. The movements, characterizations, and settings in the best animated films are as vivid as any live action film, and sometimes seem more alive than life itself. In this case, Hollywood's marketing slogans are fitting; animated stories are frequently magical, leaving memories of happy endings in young and old alike.

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However, the fantasy lands animators create bear little resemblance to the conditions under which these artists work. Anonymous animators routinely toiled in dark, cramped working environments for long hours and low pay, especially at the emergence of the art form early in the twentieth century. In Drawing the Line, veteran animator Tom Sito chronicles the efforts of generations of working men and women artists who have struggled to create a stable standard of living that is as secure as the worlds their characters inhabit.

The former president of America's largest animation union, Sito offers a unique insider's account of animators' struggles with legendary studio kingpins such as Jack Warner and Walt Disney, and their more recent battles with Michael Eisner and other Hollywood players. Based on numerous archival documents, personal interviews, and his own experiences, Sito's history of animation unions is both carefully analytical and deeply personal.

Drawing the Line stands as a vital corrective to this field of Hollywood history and is an important look at the animation industry's past, present, and future. Like most elements of the modern commercial media system, animation is rapidly being changed by the forces of globalization and technological innovation. Yet even as pixels replace pencils and bytes replace paints, the working relationship between employer and employee essentially remains the same.

Tom Sito - Google Scholar Citations

In Drawing the Line, Sito challenges the next wave of animators to heed the lessons of their predecessors by organizing and acting collectively to fight against the enormous pressures of the marketplace for their class interests -- and for the betterment of their art form. Raising Expectations and Raising Hell. Jane McAlevey. George J. Makhan Singh. Shiraz Durrani. Are Trade Unions Still Relevant?

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