METI International At present, the only clues we have to the nature of extraterrestrial minds and perception are those that can be garnered by a careful study of the evolution of mind and perception here on Earth. The workshop included nine speakers from universities in the United States and Sweden, specializing in biology, psychology, cognitive science, and linguistics.
It had sessions on the evolution of cognition and the likely communicative and cognitive abilities of extraterrestrials. Doug Vakoch, a psychologist and the founder and president of METI International, notes that astronomers and physicists properly concern themselves largely with the technologies needed to detect alien intelligence. However, finding and successfully communicating with aliens may require attention to the evolution and possible nature of alien intelligence.
Photo by Mara Lavitt, used with permission. We now know that most stars have planets, and rocky planets similar to or somewhat larger than the Earth or Venus are commonplace. Within this abundant class of worlds, there are likely to be tens of billions with conditions suitable for sustaining liquid water on their surfaces in our galaxy.
But suppose, as many scientists suspect, that simple life is abundant. How likely is it that alien civilizations will appear; civilizations with which we could communicate and exchange ideas, and which could make their presence known to us by signaling into space? This was a central question explored at the conference. In addressing such questions, scientists have two main sets of clues to draw on. The first comes from the study of the enormous diversity of behavior and nervous and sensory systems of the animal species that inhabit our Earth; an endeavor that has been called cognitive ecology.
Evolutionary theory can provide scientific explanations of how and why various senses and cognitive systems have come to exist here on Earth, and can guide our expectations about what might exist elsewhere. Risinger skysurvey. The basics of the electrochemical signalling that make animal nervous systems possible have deep evolutionary roots. Even plants and bacteria have electrochemical signalling systems that share some basic features with those in our brains.
Conference presenter Dr. Anna Dornhaus studies how social insects make decisions collectively as an associate professor at the University of Arizona.
She defines cognitive ability as the ability to solve problems with a nervous system, and sometimes also by social cooperation. Defined this way, intelligence is widespread among animals. Skills traditionally thought to be the sole province of primates monkeys and apes, including human beings have now been shown to be surprisingly common.
The evidence shows the surprising power of the diminutive brains of insects, and indicates that we know little of the relationship between brain size and cognitive ability. Human beings are special, not because we have some specific cognitive ability that other animals lack, but because we possess a wide range of cognitive abilities that are more exaggerated and highly developed than in other animals.
Although the Earth, as a planet, has existed for 4.
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Looking across the animal kingdom as a whole, three groups of animals, following separate evolutionary paths, have evolved especially complex nervous systems and behaviors. Molluscs, a group of animals that includes slugs and shellfish, have also produced a group of brainy animals; the cephalopods.
The cephalopods include octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish. The octopus has the most complex nervous system of any animal without a backbone. The third group to have produced sophisticated brains are the vertebrates; animals with backbones. They include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, including human beings. Although all vertebrate brains bear a family resemblance, complex brains have evolved from simpler brains many separate times along different paths of vertebrate evolution, and each such brain has its own unique characteristics.
Along one path, birds have evolved a sophisticated forebrain, and with it, a flexible and creative capacity to make and use tools, an ability to classify and categorize objects, and even a rudimentary understanding of numbers. Following a different path, and based on a different plan of forebrain organization, mammals have also evolved sophisticated intelligence. Three groups of mammals; elephants, cetaceans a group of aquatic mammals including dophins, porpoises, and whales , and primates monkeys and apes, including human beings have evolved the most complex brains on Earth.
Given the evidence that intelligent problem solving skills of various sorts have evolved many times over, along many different evolutionary pathways, in an amazing range of animal groups, one might suspect that Dornhaus believes that human-style cognitive abilities and civilizations are widespread in the universe.
She thinks that humans with their exaggerated cognitive abilities and unique ability to use language to express complex and novel sorts of information are a quirky and unusual fluke of evolution, and might, for all we know, be wildly improbable.
There are currently more than 10 million different species of animals on Earth. All but one have failed to evolve the human level of intelligence. This makes the chance of evolving human intelligence less than one in 10 million.
Over the last six hundred million years since complex life has appeared on Earth, there have been tens of million different animal species, each existing for roughly million years. But, so far as we know, only one of them, Homo sapiens , ever produced a technological society. Despite the apparent improbability of human level intelligence evolving in any one lineage, Earth, as a whole, with its vast array of evolutionary lineages, has nonetheless produced a technological civilization.
For the present, Earth is the only habitable planet that we know much of anything about. And, since Earth produced us, we are working with a biased sample. For all we know, the quirky set of events that produced human beings might be so wildly improbable that human civilization is unique in a hundred billion galaxies. Dornhaus freely concedes that neither she nor anybody has a good idea of just how improbable human intelligence might be, since the evolution of intelligence is still so poorly understood.
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Most current evolutionary thinking, following in the footsteps of Mayr and others, holds that human civilization was not the inevitable product of a long-term evolutionary trend, but rather the quirky consequence of a particular and improbable set of evolutionary events. What sort of events might those have been, and just how improbable were they?
Dornhaus supports a popular theory proposed by Dr. Geoffrey Miller, an evolutionary psychologist who is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of New Mexico and who also spoke at the METI institute workshop. For further reading: Baluska, F. Communicative and Integrative Biology , , Given his appreciation for the old he is also a big fan of Leonardo da Vinci does he ever feel he was born in the wrong era?
Treacy is in someways a filmmaker, in the way that a film asserts itself as a vehicle for reflection and social change. Since then he has styled everyone and anyone in the fashion industry, from Sarah Jessica Parker to Grace Jones, and has struck up solid friendships with superstars such as Lady Gaga, who allegedly signed up to do an internship with him.
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What did he teach the subversive young starlet? However she still talks about it and…you never know! His favourite photograph? While the book is an enduring testament to his longevity, I am left wondering where it all began. Who was his first hat for? She wanted to see it and then bought it. He makes the process from designing to selling a hat seem so easy. After more than 25 years in the industry Treacy is 49, although he looks younger has he ever encountered a design disaster?
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It is this drive and determination to succeed that has brought Treacy to where he is today. He endeavors to make the pursuit for beauty and elegance a reality in his designs whatever the cost. What would he tell his younger self who was starting out in the industry? Path 2 Created with Sketch. Mind-email Copy Created with Sketch.
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