Head act. Not only did students use this strategy much less frequently than natives, they did not increase their frequency of use of this strategy during the semester abroad. The data analysis for a Query Preparatory indicated important differences between Spanish native speakers and learners in frequency of use. In ''Slower speech'' and ''Leaving for school,'' the learners used a Query Preparatory much more frequently than the Spanish native speakers. However, the difference between learners and Spanish native speakers was statistically significant in both the pre- and posttests.
Although the results from the other vignettes were not statistically significant, the same pattern was observed: students used a Query Preparatory more frequently than the Spanish natives in both the pre- and posttest. The opposite trend occurred with the strategy Query Preparatory with Verb Modification. The Spanish native speakers used this strategy much more frequently overall than learners. This result is intimately connected with the previous one in that Spanish natives did frequently use the Query Preparatory strategy, but they tended to soften this strategy by downgrading the verb to the conditional or imperfect subjunctive form, which in our coding system was labeled as a separate strategy e.
Students, on the other hand, used the Query Preparatory strategy at a similar frequency to the Spanish natives, but they did not downgrade the verb to soften the request. Instead, learners more frequently used the verb in the present tense e. Overall, these results indicate that although students increased their use of verbal downgrading in the Query Preparatory from pretest to posttest, by the posttest they were still under using this strategy compared to Spanish native speakers. The last significant difference between the learners and the Spanish native speakers is with regard to the Want Statement.
The students' posttest result indicated a change towards the native speaker frequency level, but was not significantly different. Supportive moves. Looking at learners'supportive moves,Table 7 below shows the results from the pre-post and native-learner comparisons. Two vignettes show a significant increase in the use of Disarmer andAcknowledgement of Imposition from the pre-to the posttest. Five significant differences were found between Spanish native speakers' and learners' frequency of use of supportive moves.
The Spanish natives were unanimous in their use of a Grounder in all five request vignettes i. Students only differed statistically from the natives on the ''Airplane seat'' vignette in the pretest; otherwise their use of Grounders was similar. Finally, two other supportive moves, Promise of Reward and Imposition Minimizer, showed significant differences between students and natives in the ''Airplane seat'' vignette. Request perspective. As Table 8 shows, there were no statistically significant differences between pre-and posttest scores or between the learners and Spanish native speakers with regard to the request perspective.
Overall, learners tended to use the hearer-oriented perspective less frequently than natives and used the speaker-oriented and impersonal perspectives more frequently than natives. The inclusive perspective speaker and hearer oriented was used with somewhat similar frequency by learners and natives in ''Leaving for school. Summary of results for requests. In sum, the findings for requests indicate that learners moved toward target-like request behavior in certain ways, but remained non-target-like in other ways.
With regard to the head act, students increased their use of internal modification over time, specifically with regard to the Query Preparatory strategy, using the conditional and past subjunctive forms more frequently in the posttest than in the pretest, a change that moved in the target direction.
However, in some cases, students' use of request head act strategies such as the Hedged Performative and Locution Derivable remained non-target-like in the posttest. Other areas of strategy use remained stable over time e. With regard to supportive moves, a few minor shifts occurred, but changes went both in target-like and non-target-like directions.
Analysis of request perspective did not yield any significant differences, although learners differed from Spanish native speakers in certain ways. Turning now to strategy use in apologies before and after a semester abroad, as was the case with requests, learners both moved in the direction of the Spanish native speakers' strategy use and, in some cases, in a non-target direction. Looking first at the two apology vignettes that were rated significantly more appropriate in the posttest i.
Although the pre-post increases were mostly not statistically significant, students used Acknowledgement of Responsibility, Explanation, Offer of Repair, Promise of Non-Recurrence, and Intensification of the IFID more frequently in the posttest. Except in the case of intensification, these increases either went in the direction of the Spanish native speaker norm or did not vary extraordinarily from that norm.
Thus, increased strategy use may have played a role in making students' apologies more appropriate in these two vignettes. Pre-post differences in students' apology strategy use. With regard to the pre-post differences in strategy use in all of the apologies, the only statistically significant change occurred with the strategy of ''intensification'' on apology vignettes ''Friend's book'' and ''Meeting friend.
In this case, the change was towards being more like the Spanish natives. Table 9 also indicates cases in which apology strategy use differed significantly between natives and learners.
First, students were found to use the strategy Acknowledgement of Responsibility significantly less than natives both on the pretest and on the posttest in the ''Spill wine,'' ''Friend's book,'' and ''Babysitting spill'' vignettes. Second, students' use of Explanation in the ''Meeting friend'' and ''Prof meeting'' vignettes was also significantly lower than that of the natives. Learners' use of Offer of Repair was found to differ significantly from that of the Spanish natives on two vignettes, ''Meeting friend'' and ''Prof meeting.
In this case, the posttest showed students moving towards, but not reaching, the native norm. Based on the comments of the raters, the content of the Offer of Repair was also important in determining their ratings. For example, in the ''Meeting friend'' apology, students who offered to buy their friend a drink or food in order to repair the offense were generally viewed as inappropriate. In terms of the content of the Offer of Repair, there were no observable changes from pretest to posttest.
Several final observations can be made. First, the use of the strategy Expression of Apology remained stable over time and was similar in frequency in the performance of both students and Spanish native speakers.
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A second observation is related to the content of apology strategies. The agentless form allowed the speakers to distance themselves from responsibility in the offense, indicating that the infraction was out of their control. While no learners employed the agentless construction in the pretest, a few learners did so in the posttest, a fact that was pointed out as pragmatically appropriate by several of the raters. Summary of results for apologies. To conclude, the developments over time during the semester abroad indicate that, in some instances, students did move in the direction of being more target-like in apology strategy use, such as in their use of an Explanation in the ''Meeting friend'' vignette.
However, there were also cases in which learners' behavior shifted over time in the opposite direction of that of the natives,such aslearners'use ofanAcknowledgementof Responsibility''inthe ''Prof meeting. In order to investigate potential associations between pragmatic development and students'backgrounds and contact with Spanish, the researchers compared gains in performance ratings on the requests and apologies with data from the entrance.
The following independent variables were created based on the two questionnaires:. Region of study abroad site Spain vs. Latin America. Amount of time formally studying Spanish prior to study abroad. Number of years studying Spanish at university level prior to study abroad. Amount of time residing outside of North America prior to study abroad. Whether the student lived with a host family or not during study abroad. Whether the student had a Spanish conversation partner or not during study abroad. Whether the student participated in an internship during study abroad.
Type of classes taken during study abroad only ''sheltered'' classes with other international students vs. Amount of time spent outside of class speaking Spanish with friends native or non-native. Frequency with which the student had an extended conversation in Spanish with host family during study abroad only those students who stayed with host families.
In order to test the association between the independent variables and the dependent variable of pragmatic gain over time, t -tests and one-way ANOVA were employed. Those independent variables that revealed no statistical association p-value set at. The independent variables that yielded statistically significant associations are discussed below, in greater detail. As can be seen in Table 10 , none of the participants' background characteristics and few of the language contact variables measured resulted in statistically significant associations with the rated performance gains in the request and apology vignettes or composite scores.
The following variables were not found to be related to speech act gains: gender, year in university, region of study abroad site, country of study abroad, amount of previous formal study of Spanish, amount of previous residence outside NorthAmerica, living arrangements, conversation partner, internship, type of classes taken, and amount of time spent outside of class speaking Spanish with native or non-native friends. However, two of the variables investigated did yield significant associations.
First, using a one-way ANOVA, an association was found for the variable ''Amount of time spent outside of class speaking Spanish with native or fluent speakers of Spanish'' and gains on one request vignette ''Airplane seat'' , shown in Table Note that the question for this variable on the exit language contact profile was worded in the following way: ''On average, when you talked with other people outside of class, how much of that time was spent speaking the target language with native or fluent speakers of that language? As shown in Table 12 , there was a significant association between this language contact variable and rated gains on the request vignette ''Slower speech'' and the apology vignette ''Meeting friend.
In both the request and the apology, the greater frequency with which students reported having an extended conversation which we defined as a minimum of 30 minutes in Spanish with their host family, generally favored gains in the appropriateness ratings for those two items. In addition to our interest in students' background characteristics and contact with Spanish during their semester abroad, this research question also addresses the issue of intercultural sensitivity and its possible association with L2 pragmatic development. In order to assess the possible relationship between gains in pragmatics and gains in intercultural sensitivity as measured by the Intercultural Development Inventor y , we employed Pearson correlations.
As an antecedent to reporting this finding, it is important to point out that participants made statistically significant gains in their overall intercultural sensitivity i. Using a paired samples t-test, it was found that the mean gain for overall intercultural sensitivity for the sample was 3. Thus, the group as a whole shifted in the direction of greater intercultural sensitivity over the course of one semester studying abroad, suggesting the benefits of international experience for developing intercultural sensitivity.
To summarize the results for this research question, we found that only two of the background and language contact variables examined yielded statisticallysignificant associations with gains in request and apology ratings. They were ''Amount of time spent outside of class speaking Spanish with native or fluent speakers of Spanish'' and ''Frequency with which the student had an extended conversation in Spanish with host family during study abroad.
The present study examined the pragmatic development of L2 learners of Spanish over the course of one semester studying abroad in a Spanish-speaking country. Based on pre-post ratings by Spanish native speakers, the results indicated that this group of learners as a whole was rated as pragmatically more appropriate overall in their request and apology performance after the sojourn abroad.
This finding is consistent with previous research on pragmatic development in study abroad, which suggests that learners generally make improvements in their performance of speech acts as a result of a period of international study and residence. Despite these improvements, students' request and apology performance remained somewhat inappropriate in the posttest, based on the reactions of the Spanish native speaker raters.
Comparisons between students' pre-post request and apology strategy use helped to explain some ways in which students became more pragmatically appropriate over time, for example, by becoming more indirect in requesting. An examination of the relationship between speech act gains over time and students' backgrounds, reported language contact, and intercultural sensitivity yielded several statistically significant associations. While this analysis has contributed insights to the field of study abroad and interlanguage pragmatics, we also recognize that it has some important limitations.
As with all elicited data, the request and apology behavior reported in this study may not represent what respondents would actually do, but rather, what they think they should do Golato, Additionally, despite the benefits in terms of consistency and ease of administration, the DCT format also has some important drawbacks, such as being less like natural discourse than other elicitation techniques such as role plays cf. The use of one instrument and only two raters to analyze the variety of regional dialects in Latin America is also a limitation.
That is, participants may have learned regionally-specific pragmatic norms which could not be as carefully assessed by our more general evaluation of pragmatic development in Spanish. In this section, we discuss the results of the present study in light of previous research and theory. Looking first at requests, our statistical analysis revealed that students were rated significantly higher in the posttest than in the pretest for all of the requests combined, and also, specifically, on the vignettes ''Slower speech'' and ''Paper extension.
In comparison with the other request scenarios included in the instrument, the act of making a request of a professor may have been something students were more accustomed to and had gained some practice in doing while abroad, which may explain their improvements on those specific items. The analysis of request strategy use yielded some results.
While Spanish native speakers also used this strategy frequently on this instrument, natives downgraded the verb i. By theendofthesemester abroad, learners were found tomovein the direction of native speakers by increasing the frequency with which they used verbal downgrading with a Query Preparatory. Learners also reduced their use of the relatively direct strategy Locution Derivable over time in one vignette, moving in the direction of the native speaker norm.
These two changes reflect a movement, in a target-like direction, towards making requests in a more indirect fashion. Kasper and Rose have suggested that one aspect of the developmental path for requests in a second language is an increase in the use of indirect requests over time, something that holds true for this part of our results. In their use of verbal downgrading with a Query Preparatory, students'requests also showed sociolinguistic variation.
Students' relative directness with the host sibling in requesting that she get up earlier for school arguably a high degree of imposition appears to have been inappropriate pragmatically. Not only were Spanish native speakers more indirect than learners in the ''Leaving for school'' request, several Spanish raters commented that students should be indirect in that request because of its high imposition on the sibling.
Furthermore, the fact that the interlocutor was a teenager should not affect the request from the raters' perspective. These comments reflect the intricacies of pragmatic competency in knowing when to be direct or indirect in an L2. The observed increase in students'verbal downgrading appeared to be restricted only to the Query Preparatory strategy.
Even though in English the past tense is available as a downgrading mechanism in this type of request strategy, very few students used this form in any of the request vignettes. Our results do not provide an answer to whether itwasgrammatical difficulty with theimperfectpasttense or learners'strategy preference that resulted in the lack of use of this strategy. A final aspect of internal modification that is worth mentioning is the use of the politeness marker por favor ' please'. While no statistically significant differences were uncovered with regard to this marker, a pattern was observed in three requests in which Spanish native speakers used por favor more frequently than learners.
Our participants, who were generally at an intermediate or advanced level of Spanish proficiency, may not have needed to rely on por favor as much as less-proficient learners would have. However, the fact that the students in this study used this strategy less than Spanish native speakers may suggest that they went too far in adopting other means to mitigate requests. An alternative explanation is that these students were captured at a point in a non-linear developmental path in which the frequency of use of this politeness marker was being transferred from their L1, assuming that please might be used less frequently in English than por favor is in Spanish in these situations.
Further analysis of requests revealed that students used more supportive moves than Spanish native speakers in some cases, and fewer in other cases. There was no general pattern suggesting either underuse or overuse of supportive moves, as has been reported in some interlanguage pragmatics studies cf. Schauer, Students often differed from native speakers in their use of external modification, but in some cases, such as in the overwhelming use of Grounders in all five requests, learners were similar to natives in both the pre- and posttest.
Finally, while no statistically significant differences were uncovered regarding request perspective, learners tended to use the hearer-oriented perspective less frequently than Spanish native speakers and, instead, relied on the speakeroriented perspective more frequently. This pattern is arguably the result of L1 transfer, since speaker-oriented requests are preferred in English, while heareroriented requests are preferred in Spanish cf. Furthermore, our results did not indicate a pre-post change in request perspective.
Shively discovered, however, that students who received brief instruction about requests shifted from speaker-to hearer-oriented requests in service encounters after only four months abroad. Turning to apologies, our results indicated that study abroad students gained significantly in the performance ratings from pretest to posttest on all apologies analyzed together and two vignettes individually: ''Friend's book'' and ''Babysitting spill.
Indeed, the increase in the use of strategies apart from an Expression ofApology was a trend observed more generally in the data. This result may point to the fact that, during study abroad, learners gained greater control over the use of more complex strategies. Previous research suggests that lower proficiency learners tend to rely on and overuse lexically transparent chunks such as lo siento 'I'm sorry' as an Expression of Apology and then, as proficiency increases, learners are able to widen their range of strategies and move towards more native-like use of strategies.
With this increase in apology strategies and lexical items as content to the Expression of Apology, learners' apologies were much less repetitive in the posttest than in the pretest, indicating a movement away from dependence on the repetition of a single chunk, lo siento. Learners'main difficulty in the posttest was not related to the ability to produce any particular strategy, but rather, knowing when specific strategies and content of strategies were socially appropriate.
For example, while high numbers of Spanish native speakers employed an Acknowledgement of Responsibility in the ''Spill wine,'' ''Friend's book,'' and ''Babysitting spill'' apologies, learners used this strategy much less frequently. With regard to the content, although natives frequently used the agentless construction in the Acknowledgement of Responsibility'' e.
Another sociopragmatic stumbling block for learners was the content of the strategy Offer of Repair.
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Both in the pretest and the posttest, some learners were rated as less appropriate because of the content of this strategy. In the ''Spill wine'' vignette, a large number of students offered to buy a new tablecloth or to pay for the tablecloth. This type of offer was inappropriate for all raters and offensive for the two Latin American raters.
The raters suggested that the most appropriate Offer of Repair was for the students to indicate that they were going to help clean up the spilled drink. Likewise, in the ''Meeting friend'' vignette, some students made inappropriate offers such as taking the friend out for a beer or offering to do her homework for her. Students'Offers of Repair in ''Babysitting spill'' included buying the boy ice cream or going in person to talk with the boy's teacher to explain the situation, which were also rated as inappropriate.
One rater commented that U. Americans are stereotyped in Latin America as thinking that money can solve every problem and as not focusing on the emotional and social value of an offense. Thus, these types of Offers of Repair may represent sociopragmatic transfer from the L1. Alternatively, this behavior could reflect an interlanguage phenomenon or be an artifact of our data collection method. As an interlanguage phenomenon, students may have experimented with strategies and gone out on a limb to try to be polite, diverging from what they would do in their L1. Another possibility is a method effect; students may have wanted to say something more elaborate than they would in real life because they were completing a questionnaire.
Furthermore, learners' intensification was primarily limited to the adverb mucho 'a lot' as a modifier of the routine expression lo siento. Other intensifiers such as de verdad 'in truth,' 'really' are available in Spanish and were employed by Spanish native speakers in this study. Therefore, while students may increase their frequency of intensification, they may not always do so in an appropriate way in the L2. In addition to examining students' request and apology development, we also investigated possible variation in pragmatic development based on a quantitative assessment of students' backgrounds, contact with Spanish, and gains in intercultural sensitivity during study abroad.
Of all of the background variables reported e. These findings suggest that the particular background variables that we analyzed did not have an impact on our participants' gains in L2 request and apology performance. Considering the case of gender, perhaps the context of study abroad in Spain and Latin America did not create a situation for male or female learners that inhibited one or the other's pragmatic learning.
Students' biweekly journals did not provide any indication that gender or gender identity restricted their L2 learning, unlike what has been reported for some female study abroad students in countries such as France Kline, , Russia Polanyi, , and Japan Siegal, ; In addition, the amount of prior formal instruction in Spanish did not result in an advantage for any group of students, which may be related to the fact that pragmatic issues are rarely taught in formal language classes in the United States. Thus, the only advantage that students with more formal study prior to study abroad would have potentially had is a stronger grasp of Spanish grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary.
With regard to the language contact variables that we measured, two yielded statistically significant associations with request and apology gains. The first was ''Amount of time spent outside of class speaking Spanish with native or fluent speakers of Spanish'' and the second, ''Frequency with which the student had an extended conversation in Spanish with host family during study abroad. This finding does not follow the hypothesis that the more time spent outside of class speaking with native or fluent speakers of Spanish, the greater the pragmatic gains will be.
Indeed, Kim reported that time spent speaking the TL outside of class did correlate with higher performance ratings. However, those students who reported speaking Spanish outside of class only infrequently gained an almost equal amount. The fact that the groups on the two ends of the spectrum were relatively small in number compared to the other groups suggests that other variables may have intervened.
For example, those four students who reported speaking Spanish outside of class infrequently may have been in a situation in which they did not have many opportunities to speak Spanish with native speakers, but they made an effort to learn Spanish by other means such as listening to the radio, watching television, and reading in Spanish.
The second significant result generally goes in the hypothesized direction. This is, for the most part, that the more time students reported having an extended conversation with their host families, the more they gained or the fewer points they lost on two vignettes, one request and one apology. This finding suggests that students can benefit in terms of pragmatic gains from having extended conversations with their host family.
Despite the fact that, theoretically speaking, intercultural sensitivity is related to L2 pragmatic development, we did not find any significant correlations between gains on requests and apologies and gains in intercultural sensitivity as measured by the Intercultural Development Inventory IDI. This finding may be explained by the rather broad shift that the Developmental Score in the IDI reflects. Such a broad measure as the Developmental Score may not be reflective of, or associated with, minor shifts in pragmatic behavior, such as those discovered in the data for this study.
Another possibility is that, although students developed their intercultural sensitivity during the semester abroad, they may not have had access to enough specific input to effectively learn about how requests and apologies are made in Spanish. The theoretical model on which the IDI is based i. However, if students were not able to glean much information about appropriate pragmatic behavior from the interactions in which they participated during study abroad, they may not have had native speaker models of appropriateness to imitate. Not only is pragmatics rarely taught in the classroom, but opportunities for observing native speakers making requests and apologies may be limited.
Furthermore, host country natives do not typically offer learners unsolicited, explicit negative feedback on pragmatic issues DuFon, ; Shively, All of these aspects restrict learning opportunities in pragmatics. Thus, while the learners in this study made gains in both pragmatic ability and intercultural sensitivity, the relationship between developments in both areas remains unclear and is in need of further research. To conclude, we have reported on the development of requests and apologies by L2 learners of Spanish over the course of one semester studying abroad and examined how variables related to background, contact, and intercultural development did and did not impact students' pragmatic development.
Our results represent a contribution to the literature on L2 pragmatic development and to the growing body of work on the impact of individual characteristics and environmental factors on pragmatic development. Based on these results, in the following sections we offer suggestions for future research and implications for language pedagogy.
As far as we know, our study is one of two Kim, to quantitatively analyze the relationships between L2 pragmatic development and variables such as learner background characteristics, contact with the TL, and intercultural sensitivity. More research is needed in this area in order to more carefully uncover how students' experiences and development in other areas e. Regarding intercultural sensitivity, while our study did not show an association between gains in pragmatic and intercultural development, our measure of the relationship between the two was admittedly rather broad.
Future quantitative research may benefit from analyzing students'specific developmental level on the IDI e. Because this study was, to our knowledge, the first to quantitatively analyze intercultural sensitivity and pragmatic development, future research may consider employing different instruments to measure intercultural development, other than the IDI. While the IDI is arguably the most appropriate instrument for more broadly measuring intercultural sensitivity, other existing instruments that measure aspects such as cultural identity and value orientations could prove valuable in better understanding the factors involved in specific L2 pragmatic developments.
Paige provides a review of 35 ''intercultural instruments'' that could serve as a starting point for future research. In our analysis, we observed that while participants in this study did make gains over the course of their semester abroad, those shifts in pragmatic behavior were rather modest. Further, in some cases, changes over time led to less native-like pragmatic choices.
At the same time, we know that explicit pragmatic instruction can be quite effective in assisting learners in making more socially and contextually appropriate linguistic choices cf. We envision the opportunities for pragmatic instruction for study abroad students to include predeparture language classes, on-site and in-person language classes, as well as self-access materials on the web or in print.
Instruction in L2 pragmatics should include awareness-raising and strategy-building activities, discussions of target language and culture values and behavior, and opportunities for learners to observe native speakers making requests, apologies, and other communicative acts, as well as to practice doing these acts themselves. Achiba, M. Learning to request in a second language: Child interlanguage pragmatics.
Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Barron, A. Acquisition in interlanguage pragmatics. Learning how to do things with words in a study abroad context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Bennett, M. Toward ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. Paige Ed. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Billmyer, K. Investigating instrument-based pragmatic variability: effects of enhancing discourse completion tests. Applied Linguistics, 21 , Blum-Kulka, S. Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
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Bouton, L. Developing nonnative speaker skills in interpreting conversational implicatures in English: Explicit teaching can ease the process pp. Hinkel Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Churchill, E. Evolving threads in study abroad research. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
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Cohen, A. Acquisition of requests and apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of study abroad and strategy-building intervention. The Modern Language Journal, 91 , Context of learning in the acquisition of Spanish second language phonology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26 , Dings, A. Dittmar, N. Modality and second language learning.
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Ferguson Eds. Amsterdam: Benjamins. DuFon, M. The acquisition of linguistic politeness in Indonesian by sojourners in naturalistic interactions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawai'i. Ellis, R. Learning to communicate in the classroom: Astudy of two learners'requests. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14 , Interlanguage refusals: Linguistic politeness and length of residence in the target community. Language Learning, 54 , Felix-Brasdefer, J. Pragmatic development in the Spanish as a FL classroom: A cross-sectional study of learner requests. Intercultural Pragmatics, 4 , Freed, B.
The language contact profile. Golato, A. Studying compliment responses: A comparison of DCTs and recordings of naturally occurring talk. Applied Linguistics, 24 , Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Hartford, B. Experimental and observational data in the study of interlanguage pragmatics. Kachru Eds. Urbana: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Hammer, M. Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The Intercultural Development Inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27 , Hoffman-Hicks, S. The longitudinal development of French foreign language pragmatic competence: Evidence from study abroad. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University. Holmes, J. Review of cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Iino, M. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
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Study abroad social networks, motivation and attitudes: Implications for second language acquisition. Churchill Eds. Ishihara, N. Exercising agency: L2 speakers' resistance to L2 pragmatic norms in authentic L2 use.
Apologie ou defense de l’honorable sentence et tres-juste execution de Marie Steuard
Johnston, B. Effects of rejoinders in production questionnaires. Kasper, G. Can pragmatic competence be taught? Pragmatic Development in a Second Language. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Kim, I. Relationship of onset age of ESL acquisition and extent of informal input to appropriateness and nativeness in performing four speech acts in English: A study of native Korean adult speakers of ESL.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University. Kinginger, C. Socio-cultural perspectives on pragmatic development in foreign language learning: Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and residence abroad. Intercultural Pragmatics, 2 , Kline, R. The social practice of literacy in a program of study abroad.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Kondo, S. The development of pragmatic competence by Japanese learners of English: Longitudinal study on interlanguage apologies. Sophia Linguistica , 41 , Lafford, B. Getting into, through and out of a survival situation: A comparison of communicative strategies used by students studying Spanish-abroad and 'at home'. Freed Ed. Maeshiba, N. Transfer and proficiency in interlanguage apologizing. Neu Eds. Challenges to communication in a second language pp. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Benjamins.
A contrastive study of conventional indirectness in Spanish: Evidence from Peninsular and Uruguayan Spanish. Marriott, H. The acquisition of politeness patterns by exchange students in Japan. Matsumura, S. Learning the rules for offering advice:Aquantitative approach to second language socialization. Language Learning, 51 , Mir, M. Direct requests can also be polite.
Olshtain, E. Degree of approximation: Nonnative reactions to native speech act behavior. Madden Eds. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Owen, J. Interlanguage pragmatics in Russian: A study of the effects of study abroad and proficiency levels on request strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bryn Mawr College.
Paige, R. The intercultural development inventory: Acritical review of the research literature. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Project Muse. Retrieved 4 July The Historian's Craft. Manchester University Press. The Maui News. Categories : books French books. Hidden categories: Articles containing French-language text.