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Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. The points of view of individual writers are as a consequence their own, and do not reflect the opinion of the editorial board.

"consequence" in American English

From Cambridge English Corpus. In practice the pace of expenditure and deficit reduction was in advance of that planned and as a consequence tax relaxation was possible. The abolitionist was, constitutionally speaking, neither officer nor prisoner and as a consequence may stand for the ordinary citizen - "society," the people at large.

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The unsatisfactory housing of these older people can be expected to have consequences for their physical and psychological well-being. The fitness consequences of bearing domatia and having the right ant partner: experiments with protective and non-protective ants in a semi-myrmecophyte. It is, rather, a trivial consequence of the way in which the terms "distal representations" and "representations of events" are defined.

Such reports highlight consequences that affect development prospects in general. Facts that have such consequences are, so to speak, ' embedded ' in the world's past, as part of the causal processes leading up to the present. As a consequence , three distinct occupational roles now exist within the profession, one integrated and two specialised.

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  • It stresses the need people have to learn from the consequences of their choices. As a consequence the editors did not leave much space for culture in the sense of aesthetic and symbolic representation. They are all straightforward consequences of the definitions. Finally, the extent of negative consequences of a disorder can vary as a function of normative developmental trajectories. As a consequence , the production of security suffered from a lack of specialization.

    This omission could have serious consequences for the vitality of a bill of rights.

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    Need a translator? What is the pronunciation of consequence? My Dictionary. Word of the Day deuce the score in tennis when both players have 40 points. About this. The method of assessing consequences should be consistent with the capability of the emer- gency response planner or planning team. For many areas, the emergency response teams commonly use plume modeling to identify areas where precautions to protect against the release should be directed.

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    Others might only have the most current version of the ERG The hazard distances in the ERG can be used in lieu of modeling the release, and a realistic fraction of the people exposed to the release could be expected to require medical treatment. This number can be used in conjunction with the consequence scale to conservatively estimate impacts. The following paragraphs discuss some of the approaches to addressing the consequence term. The approach selected should be the one that best matches the capability of the emergency response planning team. These consequences are measured assuming no effective emergency response identified above as potential unmitigated consequences.

    This enables the effectiveness of the emergency response to be captured in the response time and emergency response capability terms in the risk equation.


    For each scenario in the risk portfolio, both population and environmental consequences will be estimated and the maximum of the two estimates will be used in the risk equation. Potential Consequences of Incidents Involving the Identified Hazardous Materials 29 Estimating Consequences Each scenario in the hazardous materials portfolio is composed of a specific material, quantity, and location. Material-specific effects include the nature of danger or hazard the material poses, its chemical and physical properties, the quantities released, how well and how quickly the release is contained, and the rate of a vapor release, if present.

    The population that might be affected is a function of the specific release location and the population density, the presence of special populations nursing homes, hospitals, prisons, etc. Environmental damage will be determined by land use at the release location and the presence of specific environmentally sensitive features e. Finally, weather conditions can determine how far and at what concentration an airborne toxic plume will travel and be dispersed. These conditions include wind speed and direction, atmospheric stability class, and temperature.


    While Appendix C contains more details, the following sections outline the general process for estimating potential consequences for a scenario. Estimating Human-Health Consequences The human-health aspect of the consequence term is quantified by estimating the number of individuals that could suffer permanent health effects from a release.

    This generally involves two steps: 1 determining the potentially affected area and 2 determining how many people inside that area would be killed or seriously injured. In practice, simply measuring the number of people exposed to a hazardous material is often used as a proxy for fatalities and injuries. Determining the affected area is dependent on the type of material involved, its hazards, and how that material behaves when released from its containment or packaging.

    A great deal of scientific research has gone into estimating impact areas for many types of materials, and you may wish to take advantage of this prior work. The ERG and the companion Argonne Report Kawprasert and Barkan provide lists of specific protection action distances for responders that are based on different materials. The Argonne Report is easier to use in this instance because the tables are provided by commodity and the planner does not need to use the guide number, as is the case with the ERG. Although the distances are not specifically correlated to population exposure, they provide reasonable protection distances that could be used for this Guide.

    Appendix C provides information on some of the modeling tools used by the developers of the ERG that you can use to determine more detailed impact areas for different quantities and concentrations of hazmat. Consequence values. Protective action area. The use of the ERG specifies protective action distances by commodity for large and small spills and for day and night releases, a total of four different distances.

    To use this Guide, the hazardous materials portfolio developed in Steps 7 through 9 and described in Table 11 would have to be expanded to include four different scenarios for each of the listed commodities. This guide uses a simpler set of hazard distances shown in Table The table does not specify a distance for infectious substances or radioactive materials. Radioactive materials commonly use a 0.

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    Once you have a protective, isolation, or evacuation distance, decide how to apply that distance to determine an impact area. For initial isolation distances and for evacuations that are not focused downwind of the release, the impact area can be a circle with a radius equal to the specified distance. This is consistent with the methodology in the ERG see Figure 2. For a more conservative approach, you can use the larger of the initial isolation and protective action distances. Step 10 Determine the affected area for population impacts from a potential release for each scenario in the hazardous materials portfolio.

    As shown in Figure 2, the affected area is the protective action distance or hazard distance squared. Potential Consequences of Incidents Involving the Identified Hazardous Materials 31 Determining how many people might fall within that impact area can be done in several ways. If you have detailed population data in a geographic information system, you can overlay that impact area over the population data and automatically count the population inside it. You should be aware of differences in residential nighttime and employment daytime population for the specific area. Another approach is to use average population density figures for the area determined from Census data and combine that with the area of potential exposure.

    For example, if there is a population density of 1, people per square mile and the protective action area or hazard area is 0. Again, all of these people would not be killed or seriously injured, but this provides an estimate of potentially affected population. Step 11 Use population density estimates or a geographic information system with population data layers to determine the potential population exposure for a potential release for each scenario.

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    Counting all the potentially exposed individuals as fatalities is very con- servative, but is appropriate for this type of assessment. Estimating Environmental Consequences Environmental consequences can include property damage as well as land and aquatic contamination and remediation. For most hazmat incidents, the impact on the environment will be measurable but not excessively high. The emergency response planner or planning team may judge that many scenarios pose little environmental risk. These scenarios do not need to be assessed. As with population exposure, environmental consequences are determined through two steps: 1 determining the impact area and 2 determining the consequences within that area.

    The impact area can be determined in the same manner as human-health consequences, by using the impact distances in the ERG. Appendix C provides additional approaches for obtaining more detailed estimates of environmental exposure areas. Step 12 Determine the affected area for environmental impacts from a potential release for each scenario in the hazardous materials portfolio using the same methods used to estimate the affected area for population impacts. Environmental consequences are divided into two types: property damage and land and aquatic contamination. For most materials, one of these two will be the dominant consequence category.

    A fire, if not prevented from spreading, can involve nearby structures and do extensive damage. An explosion or BLEVE can do a lot of structural damage, resulting in replacement of the structure as part of the damage estimate.

    The initial isolation distance specified in the ERG would be more representative of the damage area from a fire or explosion.