New Developments in Analytical Psychology (Psychology Revivals): Volume 12

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Sigmund Freud

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Measuring Personality: Crash Course Psychology #22

Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Year Please fill in a complete birthday Enter a valid birthday. Freud actually refers to the "death instinct" as a drive, a force that is not essential to the life of an organism unlike an instinct and tends to denature it or make it behave in ways that are sometimes counter-intuitive.

The term is almost universally known in scholarly literature on Freud as the "death drive", and Lacanian psychoanalysts often shorten it to simply "drive" although Freud posited the existence of other drives as well.

Fordham, Michael - Innovations in Analytical Psychology by Lewis Lafontaine - Issuu

When Freud worked with people with trauma particularly the trauma experienced by soldiers returning from World War I , he observed that subjects often tended to repeat or re-enact these traumatic experiences, a phenomenon that Freud called repetition compulsion. This appeared to violate the pleasure principle , the drive of an individual to maximize his or her pleasure.

Freud's initial dichotomy between the reality principle Ego and the pleasure principle Id was unable to account for this phenomenon, as well as several other clinical phenomena, including primary masochism and depression. It was difficult to attribute such non-pleasurable activity to either the self-preserving ego or to the libidinal instincts solely focused on pleasure.

He hypothesized a number of causes particularly the idea that we repeat traumatic events in order to master them after the fact , but found them inadequate. Freud began to see masochism as a process that involves the instincts turning against the self "change of objects" , while at the same time, reversing their content into its opposite "reversal of content". Freud acknowledged that while this theoretical construction is of some aid to the theory of instincts, it was quite clear to him that such a theory, solely based on sexual, self-preserving instincts, is insufficient, writing that "the true prototypes of the relation of hate are derived not from sexual life, but from the ego's struggle to maintain itself" and that "hate, as relation to objects, is older than love.

To explain this discrepancy, Freud postulated the existence of a fundamental death drive that would counterbalance the tendency of beings to do only what they find pleasurable.

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Organisms, according to this idea, were driven to return to a pre-organic, inanimate state. In doing so, Freud kept his earlier instinct theory almost intact, while omitting the property of reversal of content used to compensate for non-pleasure-principle behaviours of the sexual instincts, replacing it with a separate instinct of destruction and aggression not influenced by the pleasure principle. Sadism is thus considered "a direct manifestation of the death instinct".

His philosophy, expounded in The World as Will and Representation postulates that all exists by a metaphysical 'Will' more clearly, a Will to exist , and that pleasure affirms this will.


Schopenhauer's pessimism led him to believe that the affirmation of the Will was a negative and immoral thing, due to his belief of life producing more suffering than happiness. Interestingly, the Death Drive would seem to manifest as a natural and psychological negation of the Will, and under the guide of Schopenhauer's philosophy, could be seen as a moral drive , in opposition of the immoral affirmation of the Will brought on by pleasure, as expounded in Freud's pleasure principle. Freud applied this new theoretical construct to the wrongdoings of Western civilization and social life.