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The first published American Indian women writers used a variety of tactics to protest such dispossession. Seeing Red argues that one of the most pervasive and intriguing of these is sentimentality. Carpenter argues that while anger is a neglected element of a broad range of sentimental texts, it should be recognized as a particularly salient subject in early literature written by Native American women. To date, most literary scholars—whether they understand sentimentality in terms of sympathetic relations or of manipulative influence—have viewed anger as an obstacle to the genre.

Placing anger and sentimentality in opposition, however, neglects their complex and often intimate relationship. From George B. By pointing out and poking fun at the dominant ideologies and perpetuation of stereotypes of Native Americans in Hollywood, the book gives readers the ability to recognize both good filmmaking and the dangers of misrepresenting aboriginal peoples. The anthology offers a method to historicize and contextualize cinematic representations spanning the blatantly racist, to the well-intentioned, to more recent independent productions.

Seeing Red is a unique collaboration by scholars in American Indian Studies that draws on the stereotypical representations of the past to suggest ways of seeing American Indians and indigenous peoples more clearly in the twenty-first century. The most famous stage actress of the nineteenth century, Sarah Bernhardt enjoyed a surprising renaissance when the multi-reel film Queen Elizabeth vaulted her to international acclaim.

The triumph capped her already lengthy involvement with cinema while enabling the indefatigable actress to reinvent herself in an era of technological and generational change. Placing Bernhardt at the center of the industry's first two decades, Victoria Duckett challenges the perception of her as an anachronism unable to appreciate film's qualities. Instead, cinema's substitution of translated title cards for her melodic French deciphered Bernhardt for Anglo-American audiences. It also allowed the aging actress to appear in the kinds of longer dramas she could no longer physically sustain onstage.

As Duckett shows, Bernhardt contributed far more than star quality. Her theatrical practice on film influenced how the young medium changed the visual and performing arts. Her promoting of experimentation, meanwhile, shaped the ways audiences looked at and understood early cinema. A leading-edge reappraisal of a watershed era, Seeing Sarah Bernhardt tells the story of an icon who bridged two centuries--and changed the very act of watching film. How do you know a sodomite when you see one?

In Seeing Sodomy in the Middle Ages , Robert Mills explores the relationship between sodomy and motifs of vision and visibility in medieval culture, on the one hand, and those categories we today call gender and sexuality, on the other. Challenging the view that ideas about sexual and gender dissidence were too confused to congeal into a coherent form in the Middle Ages, Mills demonstrates that sodomy had a rich, multimedia presence in the period—and that a flexible approach to questions of terminology sheds new light on the many forms this presence took.

Taking in a multitude of images, texts, and methodologies, this book will be of interest to all scholars, regardless of discipline, who engage with gender and sexuality in their work. Early artificial intelligence movements such as cybernetics, information theory, and the Turing test define ways of seeming—rather than being—human. Because AI produces human-like intelligence, it makes clear that we must actually turn to machines in order to understand what makes realist characters seem so human. Winner of the C. Seems Like Murder Here offers a revealing new account of the blues tradition.

Far from mere laments about lost loves and hard times, the blues emerge in this provocative study as vital responses to spectacle lynchings and the violent realities of African American life in the Jim Crow South. With brilliant interpretations of both classic songs and literary works, from the autobiographies of W. Handy, David Honeyboy Edwards, and B.

King to the poetry of Langston Hughes and the novels of Zora Neale Hurston, Seems Like Murder Here will transform our understanding of the blues and its enduring power. Theorists of autobiography tend to emphasize the centrality of the individual against the community. By contrast, in her reading of Hebrew autobiography, Tamar Hess identifies the textual presence and function of the collective and its interplay with the Israeli self.

Section: Feminism and Women's Studies

What characterizes the ten writers she examines is the idea of a national self, an individual whose life story takes on meaning from his or her relation to the collective history and ethos of the nation. This book makes an additional contribution to the history of autobiography and contemporary autobiography theory by analyzing the strategies of fragmentation that many of the writers Hess studies have adopted as ways of dealing with the conflicts between the self and the nation, between who they feel they are and what they are expected to be.

Hess contrasts the predominantly masculine tradition of Hebrew autobiography with writings by women, and offers a fresh understanding of the Israeli soul and the Hebrew literary canon. A systematic review of contemporary Hebrew autobiography, this study raises fundamental questions essential to the debates about identity at the heart of Israeli culture today. It will interest scholars and students of contemporary Israeli culture, as well as those intrigued by the literary genre of autobiography. The first book of its kind, Self-Determined Stories: The Indigenous Reinvention of Young Adult Literature reads Indigenous-authored YA—from school stories to speculative fiction— not only as a vital challenge to stereotypes but also as a rich intellectual resource for theorizing Indigenous sovereignty in the contemporary era.

This genre radically revises typical YA conventions while offering a fresh portrayal of Indigenous self-determination and a fresh critique of multiculturalism, heteropatriarchy, and hybridity. This literature, moreover, imagines compelling alternative ways to navigate cultural dynamism, intersectionality, and alliance-formation. Self-Determined Stories invites readers from a range of contexts to engage with Indigenous YA and convincingly demonstrates the centrality of Indigenous stories, Indigenous knowledge, and Indigenous people to the flourishing of everyone in every place.

Few expressions of popular culture have been shaped as profoundly by the relationship between commercialism and authenticity as country music has. In May , the Atlantic Monthly commented that Americans live not merely in an age of things, but under the tyranny of them, and that in our relentless effort to sell, purchase, and accumulate things, we do not possess them as much as they possess us.

In an age of interpretation, style eludes criticism. Although they wrote in the same historical milieu as their male counterparts, women writers of the 19th- and early 20th-centuries have generally been "ghettoized" by critics into a separate canonical sphere. Autobiography is one of the most dynamic and quickly-growing genres in contemporary comics and graphic narratives.

Interdisciplinary in scope and attuned to theories and methods from both literary and visual studies, the book provides detailed formal analysis to show that the highly personal and hand-drawn aesthetics of comics can help artists push against established narrative and visual conventions, and in the process invent new ways of seeing and being seen. As the first comparative study of how comics artists from a wide range of backgrounds use the form to write and draw themselves into cultural visibility, Serial Selves will be of interest to anyone interested in the current boom in autobiographical comics, as well as issues of representation in comics and visual culture more broadly.

The Serpent and the Swan is a history and analysis of animal bride tales from antiquity to the present. The animal bride tale, the author argues, is an enduring expression of humankind's need to remain close to and a part of nature. Boria Sax traces the idea of the animal bride through history by drawing upon legends and literary works from throughout the world. He pays particular attention to Eurasian sources which support his thesis that the animal bride theme originated among the serpent cults of Mesopotamia and southeastern Europe.

Through time, the details of the animal bride theme changed as a result of mankind's changing perceptions of the natural world. In general, this study is an account of myths and beliefs that have surrounded animals—and women—during the rise of modern humankind. The Serpent and the Swan identifies and explains images of the animal bride that pervade, enliven, and enrich our culture.

The bride becomes Eve taking an apple from the serpent, Medea casting spells, Cinderella riding to the royal ball in a pumpkin coach, and the Little Mermaid rising from the waves. A work of innovative literary and cultural history, The Servant's Hand examines the representation of servants in nineteenth-century British fiction. Wandering in the margins of these texts that are not about them, servants are visible only as anachronistic appendages to their masters and as functions of traditional narrative form. Yet their persistence, Robbins argues, signals more than the absence of the "ordinary people" they are taken to represent.

Robbins's argument offers a new and distinctive approach to the literary analysis of class, while it also bodies forth a revisionist counterpolitics to the realist tradition from Homer to Virginia Woolf. Originally published in Columbia University Press , The Servant's Hand is appearing for the first time in paperback.

When we talk of platonic love or relationships today, we mean something very different from what Plato meant. For this, we have fifteenth and sixteenth-century European humanists to thank. As these scholars—most of them Catholic—read, digested, and translated Plato, they found themselves faced with a fundamental problem: how to be faithful to the text yet not propagate pederasty or homosexuality. Reeser undertakes the first sustained and comprehensive study of Renaissance textual responses to Platonic same-sex sexuality. Reeser mines an expansive collection of translations, commentaries, and literary sources to study how Renaissance translators transformed ancient eros into non-erotic, non-homosexual relations.

In spite of this cleansing, Reeser finds surviving traces of Platonic same-sex sexuality that imply a complicated, recurring process of course-correction—of setting Plato straight. Brazil, perhaps more than any other nation of the Americas, has placed poetry at the forefront of dialogue and debate about the limits and uses of art, the social duties of artists, and the nature of nationalism and national identity.

In Seven Faces , Charles A. Perrone charts the course of Brazilian poetry in the contemporary period through the principal currents, multiple tendencies, and aesthetic tensions that have made the Brazilian lyric so creatively diverse. Perrone introduces the most important poetic themes of the second half of this century with a look back at Brazilian modernismo and the avant-garde legacy of poets of the s and 30s. Brazilian poets, the author reveals, have long drawn inspiration from the other arts, experimenting with the inclusion of music, graphic arts, and other nontraditional elements within lyric forms.

Providing a window on the ways in which poetry reflects a national spirit and offers a measure of the status of culture in a consumer society, Seven Faces is the only book-length study in English of contemporary Brazilian poetry. It will be welcomed by students and scholars of Latin American literature as well as by general readers interested in poetry and its influence on culture and society.

Along the way, she forges a new history of Italian opera, from the court pieces of the early seventeenth century to the public stages of Venice more than fifty years later. This, Wilbourne suggests, shaped the musical vocabularies of early opera and facilitated a musicalization of Italian theater. Highlighting productive ties between the two worlds, from the audiences and venues to the actors and singers, this work brilliantly shows how the sound of commedia performance ultimately underwrote the success of opera as a genre.

Sex Changes with Kleist analyzes how the dramatist and poet Heinrich von Kleist — responded to a change in the conception of sex and gender that occurred between and Specifically, Katrin Pahl shows that Kleist resisted the shift from a one-sex to the two-sex and complementary gender system that is still prevalent today. Pahl demonstrates that rather than preparing modern homosexuality, Kleist puts an end to modern gender norms even before they take hold and refuses the oppositional organization of sexual desire into homosexual and heterosexual that sprouts from these norms.

Table of contents

This book changes our understanding of Kleist and breathes new life into queer thought. The two musical notebooks belonging to her continue to live on, beloved by millions of pianists young and old. Yet the pedagogical utility of this music—long associated with the sound of children practicing and mothers listening—has encouraged a rosy and one-sided view of Anna Magdalena as a model of German feminine domesticity.

Sex, Death, and Minuets offers the first in-depth study of these notebooks and their owner, reanimating Anna Magdalena as a multifaceted historical subject—at once pious and bawdy, spirited and tragic. In these pages, we follow Magdalena from young and flamboyant performer to bereft and impoverished widow—and visit along the way the coffee house, the raucous wedding feast, and the family home.

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What emerges is a humane portrait of a musician who embraced the sensuality of song and the uplift of the keyboard, a sometimes ribald wife and oft-bereaved mother who used her cherished musical notebooks for piety and play, humor and devotion—for living and for dying. Never has the Victorian novel appeared so perverse as it does in these pages—and never his its perversity seemed so fundamental to its accomplishment. By viewing this fiction alongside the most alarming public scandals of the day, Cohen exposes both the scandalousness of this literature and its sexiness.

Scandal, then as now, makes public the secret indiscretions of prominent people, engrossing its audience in salacious details that violate the very code of propriety it aims to enforce. He identifies an assortment of cunning narrative techniques used to insinuate sex into Victorian writing, demonstrating that even as such narratives air the scandalous subject, they emphasize its unspeakable nature.

Written with an eye toward the sex scandals that still whet the appetites of consumers of news and novels, this work is suggestive about our own modes of imagining sexuality today and how we arrived at them. Sex Scandal will appeal to scholars and general readers interested in Victorian literature, the history of sexuality, gender studies, nineteenth-century Britain, and gay, lesbian, and queer studies.

The period of reform, revolution, and reaction that characterized seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe also witnessed an intensified interest in lesbians. In scientific treatises and orientalist travelogues, in French court gossip and Dutch court records, in passionate verse, in the rising novel, and in cross-dressed flirtations on the English and Spanish stage, poets, playwrights, philosophers, and physicians were placing sapphic relations before the public eye.

Lanser shows how intimacies between women became harbingers of the modern, bringing the sapphic into the mainstream of some of the most significant events in Western Europe. Ideas about female same-sex relations became a focal point for intellectual and cultural contests between authority and liberty, power and difference, desire and duty, mobility and change, order and governance.

Lanser explores the ways in which a historically specific interest in lesbians intersected with, and stimulated, systemic concerns that would seem to have little to do with sexuality. The Sexuality of History shows that just as we can understand sexuality by studying the past, so too can we understand the past by studying sexuality. Since the nineteenth century, Atjeh has been under Dutch, Japanese, or Indonesian control - domination to which the Atjeh never passively yielded.

In Shadow and Sound James Siegel arges that the Atjehnese view of history, as expressed in the language of their epic poetry, is based not on the fixing of historical fact, but on a flow of words that is actually immune to the past. Siegel traces the Atjehnese treatment of history through two epics and a folktale. In his interpretation he goes beyond the idea tht texts such as these are semi-accurate historical documents to show tht tempo, rhythm, rhyme, and melody replace the significance of the content.

Furthermore, he uncovers which Atjehnese frameworks - native genres ranging from dream interpretation to conventions of braggadocio - illuminate their own sense of history. He then translates and analyzes two other pieces: a tale entitled Si Meuseukin's Wedding and another epic, the last popular one, Hikajat Prang Sabil. Finally he indicates how a similar treatment of history continues in present-day Atjeh. The analyses demonstrate that in the context of centuries of violence and disruption the Atjehnese have maintained an ability to speak of the past in such ways that it is turned into triumph, not by dwelling on heroic victories but by controlling language.

Siegel's way of looking at the relationship between history and literature will be valuable not only in anthropology but in literary history and comparative studies in literature and politics as well. Shadows of Empire explores Javanese shadow theater as a staging area for negotiations between colonial power and indigenous traditions. Charting the shifting boundaries between myth and history in Javanese Mahabharata and Ramayana tales, Laurie J. Sears reveals what happens when these stories move from village performances and palace manuscripts into colonial texts and nationalist journals and, most recently, comic books and novels.

Though Javanese shadow theater wayang has existed for hundreds of years, our knowledge of its history, performance practice, and role in Javanese society only begins with Dutch documentation and interpretation in the nineteenth century. Analyzing the Mahabharata and Ramayana tales in relation to court poetry, Islamic faith, Dutch scholarship, and nationalist journals, Sears shows how the shadow theater as we know it today must be understood as a hybrid of Javanese and Dutch ideas and interests, inseparable from a particular colonial moment.

In doing so, she contributes to a re—envisioning of European histories that acknowledges the influence of Asian, African, and New World cultures on European thought—and to a rewriting of colonial and postcolonial Javanese histories that questions the boundaries and content of history and story, myth and allegory, colonialism and culture.

Shadows of Empire will appeal not only to specialists in Javanese culture and historians of Indonesia, but also to a wide range of scholars in the areas of performance and literature, anthropology, Southeast Asian studies, and postcolonial studies. Avant-garde films are often dismissed as obscure or disconnected from the realities of social and political history.

Jeffrey Skoller challenges this myth, arguing that avant-garde films more accurately display the complex interplay between past events and our experience of the present than conventional documentaries and historical films. Shadows, Specters, Shards examines a group of experimental films, including work by Eleanor Antin, Ernie Gehr, and Jean-Luc Godard, that take up historical events such as the Holocaust, Latin American independence struggles, and urban politics.

Identifying a cinema of evocation rather than representation, these films call attention to the unrepresentable aspects of history that profoundly impact the experience of everyday life. Making use of the critical theories of Walter Benjamin and Gilles Deleuze, among others, Skoller analyzes various narrative strategies - allegory, sideshadowing, testimony, and multiple temporalities - that uncover competing perspectives and gaps in historical knowledge often ignored in conventional film.

In his discussion of avant-garde film of the s, s, and s, Skoller reveals how a nuanced understanding of the past is inextricably linked to the artistry of image making and storytelling. A meditation on the major plays of Shakespeare and the thorny art of literary translation, Shakespeare and the French Poet contains twelve essays from France's most esteemed critic and preeminent living poet, Yves Bonnefoy.

Offering observations on Shakespeare's response to the spiritual crisis of his era as well as compelling insights on the practical and theoretical challenges of verse in translation, Bonnefoy delivers thoughtful, evocative essays penned in his characteristically powerful prose. Translated specifically for an American readership, Shakespeare and the French Poet also features a new interview with Bonnefoy. For Shakespeare scholars, Bonnefoy enthusiasts, and students of literary translation, Shakespeare and the French Poet is a celebration of the global language of poetry and the art of "making someone else's voice live again in one's own.

Now available in paperback, Shakespeare at the Cineplex will be welcome reading for fans, students, and scholars of Shakespeare in performance. In Shakespeare, Brecht, and the Intercultural Sign renowned Brecht scholar Antony Tatlow uses drama to investigate cultural crossings and to show how intercultural readings or performances question the settled assumptions we bring to interpretations of familiar texts.

By reading the intercultural, Tatlow shows, we are able not only to historicize the effects of those repressions that create a social unconscious but also gain access to what might otherwise have remained invisible. This remarkable study will interest students of cultural interaction and aesthetics, as well as readers interested in theater, Shakespeare, Brecht, China, and Japan. In this lively study of both modern film and stage productions of Shakespeare, Samuel Crowl provides fascinating insights into the ways in which these productions have been influenced by one another as well as by contemporary developments in critical approaches to Shakespeare's plays.

The Sacred Encounter. Sacred Players. Sacred Steel. Sade My Neighbor. The Sagebrush Trail. Sanity Plea. Sappho in Early Modern England. Sappho Is Burning. Sappho's immortal daughters. Sardonic Smile. Satire and the Threat of Speech. In his first book of Satires , written in the late, violent days of the Roman republic, Horace exposes satiric speech as a tool of power and domination. Using critical theories from classics, speech act theory, and others, Catherine Schlegel argues that Horace's acute poetic observation of hostile speech provides insights into the operations of verbal control that are relevant to his time and to ours.

She demonstrates that though Horace is forced by his political circumstances to develop a new, unthreatening style of satire, his poems contain a challenge to our most profound habits of violence, hierarchy, and domination. Focusing on the relationships between speaker and audience and between old and new style, Schlegel examines the internal conflicts of a notoriously difficult text. This exciting contribution to the field of Horatian studies will be of interest to classicists as well as other scholars interested in the genre of satire.

James S. Satiric Advice on Women and Marriage. The Saving Lie. Saying I No More. Subjectivity and Consciousness in the Prose of Samuel Beckett. Saying Something. The Scandal of the Fabliaux. The Scarlet Mob of Scribblers. Scarring the Black Body. Race and Representation in African American Literature. Scenes From An Afterlife. Scenes from the Drama of European Literature. Erich AuerbachForeword by Paolo Valesio.

Scenes of Instruction in Renaissance Romance. Studies in Yiddish and American Jewish Fiction. The Scholar's Art. Schooling Readers. Science Fiction in Argentina. Technologies of the Text in a Material Multiverse. Screening Sex. Screening Space. Screening the Beats. Scribit Mater. While Scribit Mater highlights different medieval English understandings of the Virgin's sapient eloquence according to class, education, and gender, it demonstrates long-standing and widespread traditions acknowledging and celebrating the Mother's verbal prowess.

Scripting Hitchcock. Walter Raubicheck and Walter Srebnick. The Scriptural Universe of Ancient Christianity. Perhaps more than any other cause, the passage of texts from scroll to codex in late antiquity converted the Roman Empire from paganism to Christianity and enabled the worldwide spread of Christian faith. Guy Stroumsa describes how canonical scripture was established and how its interpretation replaced blood sacrifice in religious ritual. The Scroll and the Marble.

Studies in Reading and Reception in Hellenistic Poetry. Seamus Heaney and the Emblems of Hope. Search and Clear. Searching for Jane Austen. Searching for Jane Austen demolishes with wit and vivacity the often-held view of "Jane," a decorous maiden aunt writing her small drawing-room stories of teas and balls. She demonstrates that Austen constantly tested and improved her skills by setting herself a new challenge in each of her six novels. Searching for Safe Spaces. Searching for Sycorax. Black Women's Hauntings of Contemporary Horror.

A Season of Singing. Seasoned Authors for a New Season. Second Star to the Right. Secret Leaves. The Secret Life of Puppets. The Secret of the Hardy Boys. Leslie McFarlane and the Stratemeyer Syndicate. Secret Sharers in Italian Comedy. The Secret War. Secular Revelations. The United States Constitution is a quintessentially political document. Yet, until now, no one has seriously considered the formative influence of this document on American cultural life. Wilson Author.

Herland Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Lane introduction. Heroines Kate Zambreno. Ebrahimji and Zahra T. In the Name of Friendship Marilyn French. Intercourse Andrea Dworkin. Creighton and Lisa Norling. Je, Tu, Nous Luce Irigaray. Jewish Feminism and Intersectionality Marla Brettschneider. Harrowitz and Barbara Hyams. Lean Out Dawn Foster. Letters to a Young Feminist Phyllis Chesler. Anzaldua Author. Loving in the War Years Cherrie Moraga. Rickels , Barrett Watten , and Peter Wollen. Bennett and Stuart Curran.

Masculine Domination Pierre Bourdieu. Mrs Dalloway Virginia Woolf. My Rad Life Kate Schatz. No Disrespect Sister Souljah. Parable of the Talents Octavia E. Poetic Lives: Dickinson Rebecca Swift. Pussy Riot! Reading Kristeva: unraveling the double-bind Kelly Oliver. Rebels Women in Profile Carlotta Hacker. Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics Janet Biehl. Nadine Monem. Roe v. Hull and Peter Charles Hoffer. Rookie Yearbook Three Tavi Gevinson. Sacred Custodians of the Earth? Low and Soraya Tremayne. Cole and Kyoo Lee. Arleen Tuchman. Searching for Sycorax Kinitra D.

Brooks Author. See Hear Yoko Bob Gruen. Sexes and Genealogies Luce Irigaray. Berg PhD. Sexual Politics Kate Millett. Sexuality in the Field of Vision Jacqueline Rose. Sorry, Tree Eileen Myles. Teaching Community; A Pedagogy of Hope bell hooks. The Angela Y. The Argonauts Maggie Nelson. The Cancer Journals Audre Lorde. Anthology Andrea Smith , Beth E. Richie , Julia Sudbury , and Incite! Women Of Color Against Violence. The Coming of Age Simone de Beauvoir. The daughter's seduction: feminism and psychoanalysis Jane Gallop.

The Female Eunuch P. Germaine Greer. The Gendered Society Michael S. Anzaldua and Analouise Keating. Patton Author. The Mrs. London: Faber and Faber, Herdt, Gilbert, ed. New York: Zone Books, Hubbard, Ruth. Kempadoo, Kamala. Lamming, George. Season of Adventure. London: Michael Joseph, Marshall, Paule.

The Chosen Place, the Timeless People. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Mendes, Alfred. Black Fauns. Mohammed, Patricia. Momsen, Janet. Introduction to Women and Change in the Caribbean. Nicholson, Linda. New York: Cam- bridge University Press, Parry, Odette. Powell, Patricia. A Small Gathering of Bones. Heinemann, Punar, Jasbir Kaur.

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Reddock, Rhoda. Rohlehr, Gordon. Calypso and Society in Pre-Independence Trinidad. Tunapuna, Trinidad: Gordon Rohlehr, Salkey, Andrew. Segdwick, Eve Kosofsky. Silvera, Makeda. Thomas, H. Spirits in the Dark. London: Heine- mann, Wekker, Gloria. De Cecco and John P. Elia, — New York: Haworth, For women and men in the Anglophone Caribbean, the twentieth century ended radically different from what it was when it began.

By the time this new century began, there were fundamental changes and departures marking twentieth-century social relations. Through a combination of indigenous and external pres- sures the evolving Caribbean state has altered inequality of access to its re- sources for women. It has attempted to remove, amend or reform the basic legal inferiority or dependency assigned to women in constitutions and laws, although there remain great discrepancies in applications and redress Rob- inson in press.

By questioning the prevailing myths about Caribbean women and by prioritizing the multiple, complex realities of our lives, feminist schol- ars have destabilized the definition of masculinity as omniscient and omni- present even as that definition sought to escape any commonality with the concept of the feminine. Changes in the ideological and especially the mate- rial relations of gender prove these constructions to be false and unaccept- able.

This work theorizes and examines these twentieth-century ruptures in Caribbean gender relations. I organize the chapter into two sections. In the first I develop a theoretical framework around the concept of gender and gender systems and how they. In the second I apply this theoretical framework to an historical analysis of gender systems in the twentieth-century Caribbean. Ultimately I use this theoretical framework to interrogate the project of modernity in the Anglophone Caribbean. However, my larger objective is to generate a gender analytical model that can be applied to studying a wide range of social and economic phenomena inherent in Caribbean and other societies.

I argue that postcolonial Caribbean states inherited a complex of social relations and structures from the Enlightenment discourses of Liberalism. These webs of social relations and structures contribute to creating gender systems that pose critical challenges for women in the transition from colo- nial to postcolonial modernizing state structures. These in turn formalized and maintained hierarchical and differential roles for women and men.

These hierarchies became embedded in new social relations when states actively pursue d the modernization project in the post—Cold War, postcolo- nial phase of social and economic transformation. Part of the difficulty posed for these states is that they seem unaware that the project of modernity began with the Enlightenment discourses that cre- ated colonialism and Western expansion and not with the active and prag- matic approach to development that they pursued in the postwar period. The greater difficulty for women is that the inequalities and contradictions inher- ent in liberal ideology are replicated in gender systems.

Theorizing Gender and Gender Systems. These simplistic interpretations are not benign. They are used by those who want to appear to be aware of gender issues without wanting to trouble themselves to pursue the extensive scholarship—including Flax, ; Scott ; Chodorow ; Nicholson ; Barriteau , B; Moham- med —on this aspect of feminist analysis.

At least there is an historical precedence for this usage Baron Feminist investigations and insights on the pervasiveness of the social re- lations of gender reconceptualized the meaning of the term to refer to a com- plex system of power differentials played out in the different experiences of women and men. In interrogating the project of modernity, I develop and use three interre- lated aspects of the concept of gender. These are: the construct of relations of gender and gender systems, the methodologies of gender analysis, the distin- guishing features of gender systems. I define gender to mean complex systems of personal and social relations through which women and men are socially created and maintained and through which they gain access to, or are allo- cated, status and power and material resources within society Barriteau ; My definition recognizes that there is an important per- sonal dimension to gender as well as the cultural and the political.

I support the arguments of Nancy Chodorow for the relevance of understand- ing the contributions of personal meanings to gendered subjectivity. How- ever, in this analysis I emphasize the political, economic and cultural dimen- sions of gender. I am especially interested in highlighting the interaction of the political, economic and ideological dimensions of gender in the public domain, since this is an area that is largely undertheorized in our analyses.

I use postmodernist feminist insights to define a concept of gender that sees women as socially constructed beings subjected to asymmetrical gender relations. In this definition women cannot be understood ontologically or epistemologically through androcentric perspectives. The socially con-.

From a postmodernist femi- nist perspective, both women and men experience relations of gender, al- though they experience these from radically different locations of personal, social, economic and political power. Gender relations constitute the continuous social, political, economic, cultural and psychological expressions and interactions of the material and ideological aspects of a gender system. Gender relations encode and often mask unequal power relations between women and men and between women and the state. The extent to which the material and ideological di- mensions of gender relations reinforce each other is frequently ignored.

An unequal gender relation is a relation of domination. Its inequality is rooted in an asymmetry of power that has differential material and ideologi- cal outcomes. It does not necessarily follow that, because contemporary gen- der relations are relations of domination, those experiencing that domination are permanently victims. Women are not automatically or intrinsically vic- tims—and neither are men. By gendered relations I refer to the asymmetry in the contemporary social relations of gender that generally inscribe inequalities for women materially and ideologically.

This asymmetry places one socially constituted being at a disadvantage because of the absence of gender neutrality. Gender neutrality assumes impartiality towards women and men in a social environment, irre- spective of the issues at stake. We limit an understanding of gender relations to the level of interpersonal relations between women and men and the op- erations of gender ideologies.

We do not view economic or political relations between women and the state, or men and the state, as also influenced by relations of gender. There is a desire to privatize gender relations, to confine and relegate discussions of gender to the private sphere of society. Classic contradictions confront women when they interface.

A paradoxical state of affairs mediates the meanings of gender and the deployment of gender analysis. Most analyses of gender relations concen- trate on the construct of gender ideologies and the processes of gender social- ization. They focus on the ideological dimensions of gender systems. Fre- quently what is missing is a focus on the material relations of gender.

They are not mutually exclusive but instead continuously reshape and mold each other. Policy makers and analysts assume they do not overlap. When a state removes discriminatory wage differentials between male and female workers, it alters the material aspects of gender. They did so without paying sufficient attention to the need for changes in the ideological dimensions of gender or how changes in the material relations complicate and reconfigure ideological relations of gender. For an epistemological project and to advance political agency, Caribbean feminist scholarship cannot afford to have the concept of gender reduced to an adjective, a descriptive term that modifies other words.

We should not attempt to do gender analysis without a commitment to understanding, in- vestigating and explaining the multiple relations of domination that women experience. The social relations of gender intersect with other oppressive relations such as those that arise from race, class, ethnicity, age, sexual pref- erences and any other social relation that has the potential for individuals and groups to dominate each other.

Henrietta Moore correctly argues that the concept of gender has no meaning outside its interactions with other social relations The Methodologies of Gender Analysis. Mary Hawkesworth categorizes the multiple and var- ied contributions of the concept to feminist investigations: feminist scholars have used the concept analytically to repudiate biological determinism, ana- lyze the social organizations of relationships between men and women, in- vestigate the reification of human differences, conceptualize the semiotics of.

Jane Flax and Joan Scott indicate how our understandings of particular social worlds and histories and the perceived differences between the sexes will change when gender is used as an analyti- cal category. Deploying gender as an analytical category changes what is asked in research.

Nevertheless, many aspects of that analytical shift to a methodology of gender need to be problematized and theorized if we are to minimize the conceptual and practical confusion that now bedevils the use of the concept. Practically it reveals ongoing attempts to simultaneously maintain rigid gender rules for women as a way of separating women from any belief that they are free and equal citizens with autonomy over their lives.

The twentieth-century Caribbean state inherited a set of social relations in- fluenced by the Enlightenment discourses of Liberalism. Gender systems con- stitute a significant aspect of that inheritance. I define a gender system to comprise a network of power relations with two principal dimensions, one ideological and the other material.

These dimensions map out the broad contours of gender systems. The material dimension reveals access to and the allocation of power, status and resources within a given community or soci- ety. The material dimension exposes how women and men gain access to or are allocated the material and nonmaterial resources within a state and soci- ety.

The ideological dimension concerns the construct of masculinity and femi- ninity. The ways in which masculinity and feminin- ity are constructed reveal the gender ideologies operating in the state and society. The social expec- tations and the personal constructions of gender identities form the core of gender ideologies within a particular society.

They encode differing penalties, rewards and outcomes for Caribbean women and men who transgress them. At times these boundaries are rigid and overt, and the penalties for attempting to subvert them are great. Sub- verting societal boundaries that encode gendered relations of power invokes the greatest penalties for women in patriarchal societies. At other times the boundaries for the expression of appropriate gender identities are more nu- anced.

At times Caribbean society may permit women to take on responsi- bilities essentially constructed as masculine as long as these do not produce a corresponding shift in gendered relations of power. Tara Atluri examines the penalties for Caribbean men who dare to pursue homosexuality in homophobic, heterosexist, patriarchal Caribbean societ- ies. Homosexuality is dismissed, loathed and ig- nored by Caribbean culture.

The maneuvers of the ideological and the material dimensions of a gender system disclose whether it is just or unjust. In a just gender system there would be no asymmetries of access to, or allocations of, status, power and resources in a society, or in the control over and the capacity to benefit from these resources Barriteau 4. There would be no hierarchies of gender identities, or of the meanings societies give to the concepts of the masculine and the feminine.

Conversely, in an unjust gender system there is unequal distribution of and access to resources and power. Accordingly the thesis of the marginalization of the black male implies that Caribbean gender systems are unjust for men. On the contrary, I maintain that Caribbean gender sys- tems are unjust for women. Feminists and male marginalization theorists will agree that Caribbean gender systems are unjust, but differ on which sex is disadvantaged. It is of course possible for gender systems to be unjust for both sexes or for men, if it is the latter then they must be altered.

When I argue that they are unjust for women, I am accused of conflating gender. This misconstrues my argument, which is simply that the historical and contemporary evidence exposes injustices for women, and to the extent that injustices exist, the system as a whole is unjust. For the skeptics, imagining this requires making an ideological transition that is extremely difficult for women and men steeped in the seeming natural- ness of patriarchal practices that they do not wish to see disturbed.

Which male professional among us seriously entertains the possibil- ity that where his equally professional wife works is more important than where he works? Which of us is prepared to accept a job at a very small or very isolated or very undistinguished institution merely to en- able his tender comrade to accept a job at a large or distinguished insti- tution? This premise is entirely con- sistent with the history of western society; so is the concentration of women in elementary school teaching rather than university teaching, nursing rather than doctoring, stenography rather than business ad- ministration, and so on.

I deploy the concept of gender justice to reposition it as a tool of feminist political inquiry. The concepts of equity and equality are too deeply located within the Enlightenment discourse of Liberalism and inherit the problems of that construct. They imply sameness, homogeneity and linear measurement. Both concepts are incapable of indicating when conditions of inequality will cease for women and instead suggest equality has been attained when certain structural indicators are met.

The pursuit of equality under these condi- tions guarantees permanent inequality. Instead the concept of gender justice can be used as an analytical tool to interrogate developments within society and how these affect women or men. For there to be gender injustice, conditions of injustice do not have to exist for both sex groups. For example, there is no gender justice if women face ongoing overt or covert attempts to maintain their subordination. Simi- larly, there is no gender justice if men face sustained efforts to deprive them of access to resources or to treat them as inferior to women.

When I examine gender ideologies and the unbalanced distribution of resources of power, status and material means, I conclude that twenty-first-. Contemporary gender systems are unjust be- cause there are inequalities built into and continuously reinforced in their structures and practices. These inequalities occur in both the ideological and material dimensions of gender systems. Furthermore, gender systems in the contemporary Caribbean continue to be unjust for women. The interactions and operations of gender systems are messy and contin- gent and are continuously contested and negotiated.

Gender systems, like other social structures and relations, can and do change over time. Particular interest groups of the state and civil society will try to keep certain features fixed or constant, and try to guarantee outcomes. The representations of gender ideologies and the ways in which women and men gain access to or are allocated resources of power, status and material means, as well as their capacity to benefit from these resources, are also constantly changing for more on this, see Barriteau B: Although a state may appear to act in the best interests of all its citizens something it never really does , this is insufficient to mediate unequal gender relations.

The policies governments implement may reproduce existing gen- der asymmetries, they may intensify them or decrease them or capture them for other state uses, but they are not and will not be gender neutral. To move towards gender neutrality, the state must confront the hierarchies created with the construct of the masculine and the feminine.

It is a construct that influences the distribution of resources and the capacity to benefit from them. It also encodes relations of domination. States should address the na- ture of the unevenness in their gender systems in the same way in which they take stock of their political and economic systems and attempt to address imbalances as defined by state interests.

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When states refuse to do this, the gendered nature of state policies becomes more evident and problematic. Unevennesses in contemporary gender systems that are ignored produce state policy that is gendered and expose gendered power relations. The fact that governments in the postindependence period have, by intro- ducing redistributive measures to facilitate their own goals, also given women access to public resources indicates the extent to which structural and material aspects of gender systems can and do change.

Examining these measures also indicates that governments have concen- trated on altering the material aspects of gender relations while deempha- sizing the ideological aspects and the interconnectedness of the two. Re- searchers generally analyze gender systems through ideological constructs. The challenge is to forge an inclusive analysis. Caribbean women persistently. One way we do this is by reconstruct- ing gender identities. This is a serious and welcome source of ruptures and change in our gender systems for women.

It is simultaneously resented by women and men opposed to rupturing the conservative, controlling ideolo- gies of old, patriarchal, capitalist relations. When a state exists with an unjust gender system, it cannot have gender- neutral policies. Gender-based powers permeate all social relations. This be- ing so it becomes difficult to argue that some state policies really reflect benign neglect.

If these policies are indifferent to existing gender relations, then the effect of these policies is to allow these situations to continue. For example, if racism is rampant within a state and state policies are indifferent to the asymmetric power relations that racism maintains, then those polices permit racism to flourish. Similarly, if state policies do not recognize the unevenness of gender relations, these policies are not neutral, they are gendered.

In some contemporary Caribbean societies, racist and gendered policies are allowed to flourish. The ideological foundation of the Caribbean state is the Enlightenment dis- course of Liberalism with all its inherent, embedded contradictions for women. The contemporary institutions and ongoing practices of the state are stubbornly—and, according to some critics, proudly—maintained according to the tenets of liberal political and economic theory Lewis — Some of the foundational features of this discourse are:.

The belief that rationality is the mechanism or means by which indi-. The notion that an individual and citizen is a male household head. The separation and differentiation of society into the private sphere. The gendering of that differentiation so that women are posed in. These features became significant in the postemancipation period. The notion that an individual and citizen is a male household head held no civic relevance for enslaved black women and men, since they were equal in their inequality under slavery.

After emancipation, that ideology promoted the notion of the male breadwinner and the depen-. It also generated subsequent psychic and material burdens for women and men. For women it introduced discrimination in land settlement schemes and the treatment of their labor as supplementary to the labor of men French The critical point is not that nineteenth-century British colonial policy took a vicious misogynist turn.

The idea of modernity embraces a linear view of progress. In the political economic expression of modernity, states are committed to pur- suing modernization theories of development. A bourgeois, liberal state structure expresses the sociopolitical dimension Barker, Hulme and Iversen Rather than focusing exclusively on the complications and continu- ities of the colonial legacy, I hold states and governments accountable for gendered features of civic and political life that continue and are sustained beyond the formal dismantling of the colonial relationship.

In other words, even as I recognize the Enlightenment legacy, I see potentially transformative spaces between what is bequeathed and what continues to be practiced. I want to make visible the new political agency of state systems that are over- looked, especially as these relate to transforming relations of gender and exploitative, capitalist and racist relations. To the extent that all states in the South face the hegemonic foreign policy and trade practices of Northern states, why do some countries in the South, for example Anglophone Carib- bean countries, fare comparatively better than others?

I suggest because some political directorates, with all their flaws, have a greater sense of ac- countability to their national constituencies. They know they are subordinate partners in a global economy, but some try to ensure accountability and investment in a social infrastructure that mediates a quality of life in spite of the colonial legacy. Another feature of late-twentieth-century state systems is the interaction of broad religious, political and capitalist ideologies. This has mutated into conqueror Christianity fused with crass capitalism Kintz We are see- ing the embryonic development of conqueror Christianity in the Caribbean.

This is accompanied by an insertion of Christian interpretations of many secular issues. As feminists we are challenged to problematize and publicize possible openings and insist that policy makers occupy them to subvert the legacy and transform existing practices. Therefore I avoid blaming colonial powers for the continuities in the modern constitution of asymmetric relations of gender, even though the colonial relationship bequeathed a particular legacy. As it relates to maintaining unjust gender systems, I argue that states have choices and they choose to maintain unjust gender systems because these satisfy spe- cific, indigenously defined objectives of state interests.

British colonial policy formally introduced modernization strategies of development to the Caribbean in the s. In the postindependence period many of the government policies that benefited women were deliberate attempts to create a modern labor force for expanded integration into a rapidly restructuring capitalist world economy.

These policies also generated ameliorative, reme- dial measures on the material dimensions of gender. Governments articulated these as part of the postcolonial project of modernity. The phenomenon of the postcolonial state actively introducing measures that generate benefits for women provokes contradictory and paradoxical outcomes. The state intervenes to free women for expanded gender-defined roles in a modernizing political economy.

In the process, some women gain by becoming empowered in ways that enable them to further challenge op- pressive gender relations and identities. Compounding these developments is the fact that the strategy the state employs destabilizes unequal gender rela- tions through material means. One of the consequences is that women have further ammunition to contest unequal ideological relations inscribed in hi- erarchical gender identities and roles. These developments fuel cries of the state selling out its interests to women at the expense of men, and of the state participating in the marginalization of men Miller This has led to two unwelcome consequences.

It has been unable to operate confidently in the face of a charge it has no interest in promoting. At the same time the movement has not developed a strategy to expose the false and fraudulent character of these accusations. Far too many men are willing to subscribe to an analysis of men as victims of a feminist conspiracy and to adopt a stance of wounded masculinity. The material changes the state oversaw were generated by a combination of factors: changes in the international political economy combined in some cases with pressure by donor governments, the activism of the Caribbean.

The Percy Amendment to this act tied aid to developing countries to the extent to which these countries attempted to integrate women into development policy Agency for International Development These rela- tions are a potential vehicle for subordination and domination, but they are not fixed, immutable or uncontested Power within the Caribbean state is neither centralized nor fixed nor im- manent. It is continuously created and continuously shifts its sphere of opera- tions between macro and micro institutional levels.

For example, state power is exercised by a minister of finance, and by customs officials charging duty at entry ports. The latter may daily extend the boundaries of state power in areas unknown both to the public and to ministers who may assume they alone define the scope of that power. The Enlightenment legacy remained unchallenged when the political sta- tus of Caribbean countries changed from British colonies to independent nations Howard ; Thomas ; Lewis A dominant, recurring feature of liberal political ideology is the division of society into private and public spheres.

In the dichotomies introduced into civic life, Liberalism theo- rizes and locates women in the private sphere and conceptualizes our activi- ties, contributions and relevance to society as occurring within that sphere. The difficulties occur in the hierarchies created in the dichotomies of Enlightenment thought. Not only is civil society divided into a public and a private sphere, but the private sphere is subordinate and inferior to the public.

Rationality, the use of reason, be- comes the means by which individuals free themselves of the constraints of domestic life and prepare for a public life of service, civic duty and freedom. Kant, however, excludes women from the use of reason. He assumes we are too embedded in domestic life. In Enlightenment thought, women represent the family and sexual life, not the. This establishes one of the enduring dilem- mas that Enlightenment thought poses for women. Liberal political and economic ideology continues to shape the institutions of the postcolonial Caribbean state. It sets the contours of the politics of participation.

It determines the development models followed, thus shaping the political, economic and social environment in which women exist. Liber- alism maintains one set of rules for the market, the polity and the arenas of public discourse, and another set for the household. Two outstanding features of Caribbean gender systems are their continuous ruptures and contestations and their absence of gender justice.

When the material and ideological dimensions of gender systems advance opposing interests, major disjunctures and contestations occur. It is possible to have the material and ideological dimensions overtly pur- suing the same goals and yet have an unjust gender system. In addition, the constellation of power relations may mean the state can enforce the official ideologies governing access and representation.

The appearance of equilibrium may mean that resistance to dominat- ing relations of gender is not at the level of organized groups or movements, or the latter may have been forced to be more circumspect in their quest to promote gender justice. It may mean challenging constructs at the personal level.

From slavery and indentureship through to the contemporary Carib- bean, women have always attempted to overcome violations of gender justice Reddock ; Mohammed ; Brereton ; French ; Vassell. Throughout the twentieth century, gender systems have been unstable and unjust for women. Table 1 historicizes and summarizes some of the features of Caribbean gender systems. My analysis is clustered around three historical periods in the political, social and cultural economy of the region. Each pe- riod registers significant developments in the political economy of Caribbean states and the changing character of gender systems in the twentieth century.

Each period exposes the ruptures within relations of gender see Barriteau 49— State of Gender Relations. Ideological Relations of Gender. Material Relations of Gender. Table 1. Historicizing Gender Systems in the Anglophone Caribbean. Political Economy. Features of. The twentieth century began with the region mired in deep poverty. The economic base was agricultural. These countries depended on the export of primary agricultural crops of sugar, cotton and cocoa.

Trinidad began an embryonic industrialization program after pitch and petroleum were discov- ered Drayton The great depression of the s following on the heels of the First World War exacerbated the now endemic poverty of the region. This level of economic deprivation had its roots in the inequities of slavery and the institutionalization of economic, political and economic in- justice for the vast majority of women and men in the postemancipation period. The British Caribbean colonies were becoming more deeply inte- grated into the world economy, and they experienced the traumas and shocks of widespread unemployment and political upheaval.

In this period gender systems were distinguished by a mutual reinforce- ment of the societal belief in the inferior, subordinate status of women. At the level of the state and society, both the material and ideological dimensions of gender actively supported the unjust character of early-twentieth-century gender systems. As a result, gender systems appear to have been stable. Major social groups mounted no organized, widespread challenge to the ideological and material relations of gender.

Combined, these relations foreclosed any notions of economic equality, civic relevance and political participation for women. The elite, propertied and educated could vote, but the majority of women did not have the right to vote, and their social status was derived from the male heads of households. Although it is the woman who keeps the family together, it is the man who rules. In Trinidad, educated middle-class women resisted this restrictive defini- tion of womanhood. Maxine Henry-Wilson observes that before in Jamaica the rules for admission to the civil service made married women ineligible for any ap- pointment Bridget Brereton records a similar situation for women in Trinidad: in government rules required that married teachers resign from teaching What about working-class women, women who would not be denied permission to hold onto jobs after marriage be- cause they would not have those jobs in the first place?

In Jamaica at the. Women were primarily involved in own-account activities, such as dressmaking, hairdressing, higglering. According to the census, about 40 per cent of women were em- ployed as domestics. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, there were two significant characteristics of the Jamaican labour force participation.

First, the sexual division of labour in industry relegated women to the routine, labour intensive, monotonous and sedentary. Secondly, there were significant differences in the wage structure and working conditions of males and females. Henry-Wilson For Indo-Caribbean women the rigidity of Asian cultural traditions com- pounded the inequalities in gender systems. Young women from the middle class were educated to serve men as accomplished wives and homemakers. Those from the working class were trained to serve as domestics, seamstresses and laborers Carty.

As the case of the teacher demonstrates, working women did not receive comparable wages for comparable work. This did not only apply to white- collar occupations. Women laborers also received lower wages than men. Women had limited access to employment in the public sector. On marriage they were forced to resign these positions. The ideological belief in the infe- riority of the woman as citizen was supported by the economic realities of restricted access to or allocation of public and private resources.

Ideologi- cally and materially the social relations of gender confirmed and reinforced the inferior status and position of women in the early twentieth century. The second period began with great economic and political upheaval in the region. A wave of unrest swept through the Caribbean in —38 French ; Reddock ; Howe This appeared first as spontaneous pro- tests over wages and labor conditions but subsequently revealed fundamental political and economic dissatisfactions among Caribbean women and men. The various British commissions appointed to investigate the sources of West Indian discontent became acutely aware of the precarious conditions under which women lived.