Pourquoi 20 mains? Et pourquoi 10 rames pour une balle? Et pour le mariage civil. I — vous mitonner un quiz aux petits oignons — soit dit sans le moindre melon! Pline , lib. Merci pour les roses. Je viens de voir comme une apparition!.. Je vois TRS, merci. Hello, Jacques Saix. What about Sussex? Garde-la ; tu me la montreras dans trente ans. Dans trente ans tu seras belle encore, dans trente ans je serai encore amoureux.
Phasme feuille? La liste en est longue chez les Phyllinae …! Ah, vous chauffez, leveto! Mort de chez Mort. Je veux bien vous croire! Exit, le pluriel! Oups, pour le coup, il y a vraiment un couac. Mais pour le reste… soupir! Vous pouvez voir que je reste muet et ignorant. Mon royaume pour… la Quillet! Ah mais non mais non! Non habemus papas! Habetis papas! Mais que tiennent ces petits-petits putti? H Hum! Certes, si son premier nom est Piccolomini, le second est Forteguerra. Et oui, nos papes et nos empereurs romains, voyons! PS : Hum! H terrier, un fervant chasseur de coquilles? Moi aussi!
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On respire! De la Trappe au col de La Tulle pardon, Ph. En tout cas, merci pour ce savoureux vespetro , TRS. Il ne fut pas le seul dans ce genre. Yahpas dans le lecteur Yahoo! Mon boucher recommande le bouton droit, puis ouvrir dans une nouvelle hampe ou un autre onglet. Lien test pour savoir si le lecteur Yahoo sait afficher une image. Un homme sandwich! Mais si le fox terrier chasse le renard dans son terrier , si le bull terrier chasse le taureau idem , que peut bien chasser le yorkshire?
Il faut laisser du temps au temps, en toutes circonstances et avec le tempo convenable. Par BellesEtNues, merciX, et. Selon une information du Parisien. Catimini phasme. Yorkshire terrier la suite…. Pleurs en gouttes larmes, et du sanglot. Que je naisse autre et passe vide. Attention Gustaf! Le Caravage est excellent. Gustav 15h09 Tu ferais mieux de te relire avant de poster, vieil ivrogne du dimanche! Bon allez! Je fais un nouveau commentaire! Une cocotte on y revient! Oui , et alors?.. Trop tentant? Ex: Chess, Black narcissus.
Ah wordpress! Pour qualifier votre aplomb, Ph. Des images? Simply mention a movie title in quotes and if the Yahoo! Donc test! Le terrarium. Miguel Angel Estrella — Beethoven Sonata op. Pas un bravo pour saluer la performance? Snif…Pas de bol d … ——————- biscator, chiocciolino cabot. Ce mois-ci Ram et Sita rentrent chez eux.
Le Et si on faisait dans le pire … Le backward masking! Coucou salut.
Je laisse donc un commentaire et je vais diner. Le vide, ne serait-ce pas le fond de commerce de Casimir? Fi des cocottes! Comment ne pas penser au slogan de ladite biscotte? Une perfection je vous dis. Je moinsoie! Vous comprenez mieux pourquoi parfois on lui reproche des phrases peu audibles.
On ne retire pas ses pieds? Et alors? Catiminiphasme a disparu vive AudioMiniphasme. Lamid, soyez prudent! Dose maximale: milligrammes par jour ;. Mince alors, quel choc! Ah, ce vieil Edwards aux mains de vermeil? Une histoire de pavage. Un joyaux! Rien de plus simple. Ah bon? Retissant ou entouziasme, je vou le direz plu tar. Of course. Now, Ph. H, pas geek! Pas lamer du tout Ph. Pourrait-on avoir un rappel du corps des devinettes encore en cours? Vous voulez aussi le carnet de vaccination?
Merci Jacques C. Poor Cary! Mille millions de sabords! Petite consolation? Que voyez-vous? Je ne connaissais pas votre Perret. Merdre alors! Voyons…Sur cette rame!
Top Chrono, dirait MiniPhasme. Il a eu des filles? Allez, soyons magnanimes et laissons-lui le temps de raccrocher les wagons…. Ouh la la! Bravo Lamid! H HOOQ! Bon sang Martin , vous aviez raison de nous signaler cette Sainte. Welcome to Bienvenue qui a la sagesse de se passer de diacritique, elle. H et Martin….
Merci pour le tuyau. Mais de rien, cher vieux et devineur Martin : De neurones inaptes, je ne vois ni crois rien. Ne me remerciez pas pour ces conseils touristiques… Ils sont pour rien! Donc en hommage aux beuglements affectueux je veux pouvoir critiquer injustement les correcteurs : 1. Que nenni! Les passantes avaient mis leur capuchon. Je voulais me lever et partir. Et je vais vous en donner la raison. Je vous connais si bien que je peux vous faire quelques confidences.
Le Pet. III, 3. Au resto, ne pas confondre avec escalope. Honni e soit qui mal y pense. Allez, rame ma poule! Allez, tiens! Et que penser de cette confidence? Fiat Lux! Auber Villiers? Vous plaisantez? Le Phasme, par exemple. Ils avaient sans doute tous raison…. Cool Raoul …. Foin des conchyphages! Supprimer ou fausser arbitrairement toutes les indications concernant les destinations, les correspondances, les horaires, etc. Coupable de non-distribution, Descartes? Mais bon. Ticking away the moments that make up a dull day You fritter and waste the hours in an offhand way.
Kicking around on a piece of ground in your home town Waiting for soemone or something to show you the way. Tired of lying in the sunshine staying home to watch the rain. You are young and life is long and there is time to kill today. And then one day you find ten years have got behind you. No one told you when to run, you missed the starting gun. Every year is getting shorter, never seem to find the time. Tu parles Charles! I will stop, see I will stop for nothing Say the right things when electioneering I trust I can rely on your vote.
When I go forward you go backward Somewhere we will meet When I go forward you go backward Somewhere we will meet. I trust I can rely on your vote rockas. Merci pour cette exhumation. Corot si. Son stylo et son briquet aussi. Et hop. Merci Martin , pour ce coup de fil inattendu! Ce Saint-Rame! Exit Miromesnil! Puisse Der Bahndurchstich couronner votre Sainte- Victoire!
Tu me fends la poire! Un laguiole dans le cou? Est-ce une histoire de fous? The Full Monty. Il est sorti, le chef de gare!
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Ciao, Silvio! Bonnes nuits. A ce jour. So you can call your secret love And break the news to him. Oh I thought your little romance Was on the strict Q. So if you want your freedom P. Divorce me C. Well you can reach me down in Dallas General delivery So if you want your freedom P. Q Divorce me C. H, carabinier. Celui qui ne vous a fait aucun effet….
Puis au lit! Pour vous dire I. I owe you …. Archibald N. Bredouille, que signifie votre postscriptum? A wild goose chase too? Diiingue, non? Quel artiste a votre admiration? Pourquoi cet imparfait lamidinsky? Par bonheur, Alechinsky est toujours en vie, enfin Pierre Alechinski, le peintre, pour les autres Alechinski je ne sais pas…. Martin, vous ne devez pas avoir les bonnes lunettes ….
Apocalypse garantie et fin du Monde …. Tant pis pour lui,… mais il a les moyens. Aussi Bonnard et Rouault. Et quelques autres. Je vous rejoins. Pour quelque? Quant au brave papi rhinomorphe de Ghirlandaio, il va sans dire que son abandon est accidentel…. Un petit bijou. Enfin, comment ne pas succomber devant ce retour aux routses?.. Heu… Vos illusions sur quoi? Cet artiste,…etc. Le papier monnaie aussi. Et toc! Du fait de la pollution, elles deviennent un peu plus rares mais restent assez communes dans nos ruisseaux. Chapeau, la Phasme-Artiste! Mon premier?
Partie du corps. Mon deux? Mon trois? Particule des corps. Mon tout? P… de balises! Pour TRS qui aime les affreuse bestioles.. Et pour tous, bien entendu, cette petite devinette.
Rame dans la rame
Apprenez pour votre gouverne, Ph. Chose promise …. Un grand gosse! TRS Excusez mon retard.
Le Comte de Monte-Cristo/Texte entier
Allez les vers! Je suis en retard … Il faut faire vite … Bon! Je refais un essai. Crop tonneau. Non mais des fois. Tiens, Lebanni avait raison : des bad thrips, il y en a partout. Mais les miens, ils aiment les fleurs bleues. Comme quoi, hein, praecox ejaculatio humanum est…. Pas moi!!! Et je vous remercie encore. Ave Martin! Faites-nous plaisir, descendez de ce train, vous en prendrez un plus tard, et allons boire un verre au buffet de la gare.
Si vous en avez assez du gris-de-Toul, on trouvera bien autre chose. Un si discret merci… pourquoi? Vamos Caballero, un abrazo, y vaya con Dios. Top chrono! Prenez soin de vous. Bien affectueusement. Merci Gus! Comment dire…? Quoi dire…? Je ne voulais pas partir sur la pointe des pieds sans dire merci. Encore merci. Au revoir. Bon sang de bonsoir! Vous me voyez venir avec mes tiags? Faut que vous parle. Mais que dire de son auteur? But the bulk of it comprised nineteenth-century paintings by English, French, Italian, and Spanish artists.
His Italian background accounted for his strong preference for Italian art, which alone amounted to about five hundred pieces. The quantity of artworks, which were crammed in every room of his house on Talcahuano Street fig. Works in his collection were also reproduced in the pages of illustrated magazines fig. His collection did not end up in a public institution. This signified the end of the sumptuous lifestyle of the turn-of-the-century elite. The end of this consumer cycle, with the dissolution of some collections and the passing of others into the public domain, represents a sort of closure for this first generation of collectors of European art, of which we have discussed only two key examples.
The French State and the Buenos Aires Art Market Several European nations were interested in the economic advantages offered by the purchasing power of the Buenos Aires public when it came to art. They designed strategies to send contingents of artworks to the city on a regular basis and sought to avoid customs taxes charged by the Argentinian government in order to obtain the greatest return for these commercial operations.
Evidently, these purchases are insignificant when compared to [the size of] the Argentinian population and the fortunes held by many Argentinians; considering their taste, considering the number of European families that would desire artworks by their compatriots.
The annual export of artistic paintings to Argentina should be proportionally the same as those sent to the United States, that is to say a million and a half francs, for its six million inhabitants, while we see only around Argentina, due to its economic growth, was considered the only South American country worthy of investing an effort. Three shows were held in Buenos Aires, in , , and , and in all of these we can see the cooperation of the dealers and private art galleries already mentioned.
Dubufe and Dawant were charged with the selection of artworks for the first two exhibitions, of and The third show, in , was under the control of painter Lucien-Victor Guirand de Scevola — and the aforementioned Jean Mancini. The exhibition of contained paintings and sculptures by contemporary artists, some of them already known to the Argentinian public, such as Bonnat, Henri Gervex — , and Alfred Roll — In four weeks, half of the pieces were sold for a total of , francs. Thanks to the registers of this gallery, it is possible to know the names of the buyers and the values of their transactions.
There are many rich Argentinians who are able to satisfy their desire for a picture; all of them have been in Paris and visited our exhibitions; if they are not always enlightened connoisseurs, at least they know the name of fashionable artists and will not allow us to send them what European amateurs did not want.
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The second exhibition, held in the same Pavilion in June , comprised a selection of contemporary artworks—primarily paintings but also sculptures and engravings—and shared many features with the previous one. These constituted the trademark pieces of the gallery and were favorites of the Buenos Aires inhabitants.
However, this second exhibition did not achieve the same success as the first one. Sales reached only 10, francs. As the documents suggest,  transportation, lighting, and publicity costs were bigger, but, more significantly, the news about the financial profits of the first show, announced by Dubufe in the Paris Le Figaro ,  must have inspired private dealers Allard and Bernheim to open their own exhibition in April, before the official salon, making sales of about , francs.
The Buenos Aires market was not big enough to absorb all the art stock sent from France. Besides that, the local public was becoming more selective and began to reject low quality artworks and exaggerated prices. There were Impressionist paintings by artists such as Armand Guillaumin — , Monet, and Renoir, and a small number of academic paintings by artists like Jules Flandrin — , Jean-Paul Laurens — , and Jules Lefebvre.
A considerable number of paintings showed bourgeois genre scenes in several of the different styles of the late nineteenth century: Naturalism, Impressionism, and Symbolism, by such artists as Aman-Jean, Albert Besnard — , Pierre Bonnard — , Paul Chabas — , Maurice Denis — , Gaston Hochard ca. The presence of sculpture was also significant, including works by Antoine Bourdelle — , Jules Desbois — , and Auguste Rodin — France was not satisfied with sending only paintings and sculptures by contemporary artists. It also displayed rooms of decorative arts, which caught the attention of local amateurs and were a great success in terms of sales.
Thus, the French section realized a net profit of , francs for the artists, more than three times the initial investment. Among the thirteen participating nations, France gained one-fifth of the total sales. Most purchases were made by private buyers, but fifteen went to the MNBA,  which bought more works from France than from all other nations. The final exhibition that closed this series in Buenos Aires was that of The committee had changed.
The number of works shipped, paintings, was smaller than previously. The results of this exhibition were different, perhaps due to the proliferation of commercial expositions in the city. On this occasion, the Argentinian Commission of Fine Arts decided to turn down the retrospective section, and it also refused the reductions and exceptions in customs duties that had been given in the previous years. The National Museum of Fine Arts had now moved to the Argentinian Pavilion, and it was suspected by local artists to house exhibitions organized by dealers instead of works by living artists who wished to make their production known.
As the art market grew, native artists became interested in cornering at least a part of it. The art produced by Argentinians was known and stimulated by amateurs but was not considered something worthy of collecting. Local collectors clearly privileged foreign production both for decorating their houses and for building their collections. Epilogue While these foreign exhibitions were taking place, local artists made themselves heard through the pages of the main artistic journal, Athinae. They questioned the use of a public site for the organization of commercial exhibitions that charged for entry.
Every painter or sculptor favored by any of our collectors must feel proud of his victory, even if the price paid for his work is not too high. He has overcome the existing prejudice that the only things of value are the imported ones, that there is no Argentinian art, that every creation of local artists not only has no value, but can never have value.
These words may function as a possible epilogue for the process I have described. At the same time when the large exhibitions of foreign art described in the previous section were taking place, the Academy of Fine Arts was nationalized and the National Salon of Fine Art was established and thereafter held every September to allow Argentinian artists and foreign artists living in Buenos Aires to show and sell their artworks to the state for placement in the MNBA and to the general public. All of this positioned the art made by Argentinians in an unprecedented situation of availability.
In the nineteenth century, local production existed, but it was small and its spaces of circulation were restricted to a limited group of connoisseurs and amateurs. Some of them even formed organized groups; for example, Italians gathered around the Associazione Artistica with the aim of exhibiting together. Suplemento Semanal Ilustrado , December 11, , In that year, Buenos Aires founded its first patriotic government, the Primera Junta, replacing the viceroy, but it was not until —after many intervening battles between the royalists and the patriots—that Argentinian independence was declared.
Alsina, , — It officially opened in with the viceroy presiding over the ceremony. There was a time when these exhibitions lost their expected periodicity, but they continued to exist—even with discontinuity—throughout the nineteenth century. Maraliz de Castro Vieira Christo, exh. Apparently, this branch was never established in Buenos Aires.
Paolo Serafini, exh. Rovigo: Palazzo Roverella, , 69— Francisco Llobet was one of the leading clients and promoters of Impressionist painting in Buenos Aires. He bought four works—in and —and in three of them Allard appeared as middleman. The Santamarina family, one of the most powerful landowner families of Argentina, included various collectors like Enrique — and Antonio — This last formed the most exquisite group of Impressionist painting in the country.
This source referred to sales in francs. The amount was equivalent to 95, pesos. Mancini, exh. Mancini, Dubufe, and A. Dawant to Mr. Paris: Imprimerie F. Jourdan, Paris: Imprimerie Jourdan, Buenos Aires: M. Paris: Imprimerie Georges Petit, These shows had poor sales results. A central book about the formation of the artistic field in Buenos Aires during the late nineteenth century is Costa, Los primeros modernos , chap.
Blanc selected men from his own circle for the work. Anatole de Montaiglon, archivist and bibliographer, offered a critical biography and an up-to-date bibliography that enhanced the scholarly character of the monograph. During the unsettled years immediately before and after the Franco-Prussian War and the Commune, approaches to art changed rapidly, and challenges to the institutions that governed it steadily gained ground.
As France emerged from the Franco-Prussian War and the Commune, republicanism won the day politically, but little was certain during that first decade. In response to the tumult of war and the Commune, a conservative reaction gripped the nascent republic, and it was not until that a true secular republic was realized.
The first decade of the Third Republic saw no flowering of progressive policies and art institutions, but instead an emphasis on moral order, Catholicism, and continuity with the monarchical past prevailed. A journey into the thought of Michelangelo is a Dantesque adventure, something like a visit to the forbidden country. The hero appears to us in the light.
His career and sculpture embodied the academic system. He accumulated a number of state commissions that he carried out with the regularity of an irreproachable industrialist. That conservative work, exhibited in the Salon of and purchased by the state, reveals his embrace of the academic system and unwillingness to indulge in any form of excess. Although his upbringing imbued him with monarchical beliefs, his apparent political indifference may have led to his success as a fine-arts administrator and teacher in the Second Empire and Third Republic. Developed and overseen by Guillaume, the curriculum, rooted in measurement and geometry, required students to move systematically from copying drawings of cubes and spheres, to drawing from actual geometric solids, through to copying plasters of antique sculpture and decorative ornament.
Guillaume ended his career in Rome as the Director of Villa Medici, a post he held from —, and spent his remaining months in Rome, dying in Until the opening of the Buonarroti archive in , artists and scholars had little documentary evidence to shape their studies of Michelangelo. As with Vasari and Condivi before them, their images of Michelangelo took the form of fabrications created to fit the demands of their time.
Enthusiasm for Michelangelo began in the late eighteenth century and continued throughout the nineteenth century in Europe. After all, between and four biographies appeared in Europe along with studies of his art, images depicting episodes from his life, fanciful stories, and plays.
The enduring nineteenth-century image of Michelangelo as a solitary, quarrelsome, passionate artist has its roots in the writing of the Romantic man of letters, Stendhal Marie-Henri Beyle. For in Paris we do not force strangers to wear a band of red wax on the thumbnail; and we do not believe in ghosts, astrology, and miracles.
Like many writers who came after him, Stendhal discussed Michelangelo principally as a painter in his History of Painting in Italy , but turned his attention to Michelangelo as a sculptor in his call for a new art. What torrent of new sensations and pleasures he would release among a public already well primed by the theatre and novels!
Perhaps he would create a modern sculpture and compel the art to express passion, if indeed it can express passion. Instead, Michelangelo, a man of his time, responded to Renaissance Florence—a city poised between salvation and redemption by Savonarola, churning from tyranny to republic and back again—producing work that expressed terror and dark ferocity.
The critic and historian Hippolyte Taine, whose historical interpretation was rooted in positivism, rejected the notion that art was the product of genius. It is Michelangelo raising up his giants before the Virgins of Raphael; it is Delacroix breaking the lines that M. Ingres straightens out. Raphael offers us the image of a river flowing gently along its way across a vast plain, with a large number of tributaries that increase it and accelerate it along its course without interruption. Michelangelo suggests an enormous body of water surging over uneven territory, accelerating sometimes in rapid torrents, retarded at other times by great boulders, eventually overcoming all obstacles and reaching the sea, but only after having changed its names several times.
His achievement was even more remarkable because he accomplished it all with so few good models. The Romantic Michelangelo made appearances in painting as well as history and criticism. To cite only two examples, Horace Vernet presented Raphael au Vatican fig. This is not to say that the image of a Romantic Michelangelo completely dominated in the first decades of the nineteenth century. Indeed, as Francis Haskell noted, most images of Michelangelo depicted a kindly, often old, man, rather than the now more familiar, quarrelsome, prideful figure.
While most viewed Michelangelo from within the confines of the art world, by some writers considered him a political actor as well. The Medici Chapel, completed after the siege and the restitution of Medici power, became a site that embodied the conflict of republicanism and tyranny. He produced sculpture that was not merely beautiful but a beneficial, wholesome saine reiteration of the classical style. Unlike the writers who preceded him, Guillaume employed newly available primary sources published by Florentine scholars Gaetano Milanesi and Aurelio Gotti in Milanesi, curator of all Florentine state archives, published letters, contracts, and other records in Le lettere di Michelangelo Buonarroti and Aurelio Gotti, director of all Florentine museums and the first director of the Buonarroti archive, published the first biography employing the materials from the Florentine archives in his two-volume Vita di Michelangelo Buonarroti While Guillaume employed the materials of a modern empirical approach to history, he did not deny his own very conservative roots.
The same foundational rules and principles shaped both the artist and the art, inculcating each with the moral order prized by Guillaume. The Julius Tomb figures and the Medici Chapel stand as mature works, and Guillaume permits himself a more subjective, admiring tone while interpreting those sculptures in a manner that corresponds to his overall goal of presenting Michelangelo as a precursor of the academic approach.
Michelangelo began drawing from unspecified prints in the studio, then from the drawings of his master, progressing to imported German engravings by artists such as Martin Schongauer. That would be natural. The professorial Guillaume patiently noted that the young artist had not submitted himself to the demands of the discipline yet, and so the relief was all fire and no phlegm.
An epic fire reigns in this combat scene. It is not completely finished and marks of the toothed chisel that Michelangelo used so often remain. He has introduced no variety in the forms and all of the figures originate from the same ideal that was already his own: this relief is certainly Michelangelo and one can understand the value that it always held for him. When Michelangelo undertook Battle of the Centaurs , it is doubtful that old Bertoldo was asked for his opinion; nothing, really, has less resemblance to a work that a student of Donatello would have preferred.
Michelangelo worked closely with Bertoldo, creating versions of the relief in marble and in bronze as the old sculptor taught him both tradition and technical skills. Michelangelo began that process of moving from craftsman to artist when Lorenzo the Magnificent died and Michelangelo found his life completely changed by that single, abrupt event.
Guillaume cautioned the reader not to focus on what Michelangelo might have learned about anatomy from this close examination of cadavers, but rather to consider what this experience taught him about the distinction between empirical study and art. He warned the reader that while such bodies may be appropriate for the depiction of the dying or ascetic, the rendering of robust, healthy figures might suffer from such an objective study focused on accuracy rather than art.
Michelangelo understood this first. The studies he made after the antique sculptures in the gardens of San Marco exercised a decisive influence on his genius. Penetrated by these models, in which gleamed the qualities of art missing from his contemporaries: force and power, he brought to his anatomical studies a superior direction, as the knowledge of anatomy kept him from studying the antique as a dead language. He got rid of all pathology. He knew how to bring them back to life. What was the role of the human body in sculpture?
For Guillaume, the answer was clear. The human body served as theoretical matrix from which sculpture might come forth, but art did not consist of the accurate translation of flesh into stone. Instead, art was the transformation of fleshy, temporal reality into disciplined and timeless form. For others it was not so clear, and the intersection of real, fleshy bodies and the classical ideals would occur in Rome with the creation of Bacchus.
For Guillaume, Rome meant everything. One might train elsewhere, learn theory and technique, but Rome was where one became an artist. In Rome, Michelangelo created the first major work of his initial Roman period, Bacchus —97 , pointing the way toward his more mature style. If he erred it was his taste that went wrong and not his skill. What one certainly must note, and what surprises, is the exactitude with which the myth of Bacchus is expressed and the fidelity of the artist who submits himself to the mythology without falling into servility.
Nothing resembles an Antique Bacchus less than this in the fifteenth century, and yet, in the manner of conceiving of the subject, nothing among the modern works is closer to antiquity. The critical terms are fidelity and submission. This Michelangelo is not a wholly original artist responding as an individual genius to his turbulent time, nor is he the product of race-milieu-moment or temperament.
In Rome, Michelangelo thoroughly internalized the classical tradition that he had simply learned to imitate as a student in the gardens of San Marco and made it his own. He wrote,.
The Bacchus is more Greek than any of his other works. The tranquility dies out entirely in the colossal David and he was the terrible Michelangelo. We had to follow the starts and stops, the comings and goings of he who first looked everywhere to uncover his genius.
It is helpful to see all the efforts, the varied approaches and ardent attention he gave to different projects. He, whom we call le terrible , was never destined to appear out of nowhere like a bolt of lightning. His genius escapes no law; it is part of the order of things; he deduces and develops; he roughly sketched himself out, so to speak, and disengaged himself bit by bit until the moment when he stood alone. The period marked by those projects was politically tumultuous and the focus of those nineteenth-century writers who explored Michelangelo from a political perspective.
In the years after the Franco-Prussian War and the Commune, some Parisians associated Michelangelo with progressive, if not outright republican, politics. He stood with his patrie , the Florentine Republic, defending it against the tyranny of the Church and the later Medici during the Last Republic —30 and Siege of Florence — While others saw a turbulent, politicized artist in Michelangelo, Guillaume withdrew Michelangelo from politics. Guillaume turns first to the never fully realized commission for the tomb of Pope Julius II.
He offers the reader a history of the commission and its eventual resolution in the wall tomb in San Pietro in Vincoli. The latter group of figures, still partly encased in the marble block, overwhelmed him. Never before had the art of Michelangelo been so moving. Amid the light reflecting around them, these phantoms, these larvae of marble escaped from the hands of the great artist, appear to us as the borders of his thought.
Closer examination, though, reveals that Guillaume did not accept the figures as works that could stand on their own as complete. Instead, the figures long to be finished. If sculpture should be force and passion distilled and rendered into stone with discipline, order, and grandeur, no figure exceeds Moses fig.
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It became a special pilgrimage site in , when artists and art lovers from across Europe descended on Florence for the Michelangelo Festival. Objecting to contemporary, purely aesthetic interpretations of the chapel and its figures, Guillaume emphasized the importance of understanding its historical significance. In the Giuliano and Lorenzo figures, Guillaume found the two extremes of Medici rule, benevolent tyranny and despotism.
Giuliano, open and at ease, embodied all that was best in the Medici and their dominion over Florence. His relaxed but dynamic pose, noble aspect, and tranquil expression recalled a time when Florentine republicans found their concerns represented by the de facto monarch, and government was delicately balanced between Medici domination and the desire for a truer republic. The head appears lugubrious.
The visage funereal: a fixed eye, haggard, seems to follow his spirit descending down to his lowest depths. Although that figure might have the poetic title, Le Penseur fig. The political charge of the site could not be denied, given the history of its creation. Imprisoned by the Medici for his activities, he was forgiven and required to complete the chapel.
On all sides, abandonment and failure; the people submit themselves to a foreign power with blind resignation; they mock their masters and they suffer under them; they condemn the very battle they sought; only a few stay on the sidelines with a stoic attitude and refuse to express their feelings and opinions; to them any justification appeared to be a mockery, an abasement; they keep silent and keep the honor of the patrie intact waiting for the hour to avenge and recreate it.
To support his interpretation, he turns to the famous poetic exchange concerning Night between Giovanni di Carlo Strozzi and Michelangelo. Sleep is dear to me and, being of stone is dearer, As long as injury and shame endure; Not to see or hear is a great boon to me; Therefore, do not wake me—pray, speak softly. Day , with his Herculean body and unfinished face, also avoids the political conditions of Florence. Guillaume wonders if the face, shrouded in stone, was left incomplete by fate or by design. Perhaps, Guillaume asks, might Michelangelo, like the Greek sculptor of a veiled Agamemnon have found the indignation or shame of Day impossible to realize in the stone?
Michelangelo chose the discipline imposed by the marble block. But this particular type of force comprises the genius of Michelangelo: he forced his sculptural idea to take hold in a block of marble with a silhouette that he severely limited, just as he compelled his poetic thought to enter into the narrowest form of prosody. At the end of his essay, Guillaume summed up his principal themes with all of the ends neatly tied up. Turning back to those who saw only passion and force in Michelangelo, Guillaume delivered his final blow, reminding his reader,.
For all of that, Michelangelo is absolutely classic, the most classic of the modern artists, although daring. It is a mistake and an injustice to see nothing but extremes of force, an excess of life, complacent execution, to find only a kind of startling violence, a challenge to our modest expectations and a science that humbles us. Michelangelo is incomparable. Salon exhibitions continually faced pressure to be more inclusive, admitting and awarding more diverse subjects and styles in sculpture and painting.
Independent shows and galleries also challenged the authority of the Academy. His attempt to recast Michelangelo in the academic mold was likewise a failure, and Michelangelo only grew in importance as a precedent for modern sculpture. Indeed, eight years later in , Octave Mirbeau styled Rodin, an artist who represented everything Guillaume opposed, as a new Michelangelo.
First presented at a session of the Renaissance Society of America in , the subject of this article has been shaped by further research generously supported by a Columbus State University Faculty Research Grant and additional funding provided by the endowment of the William B. The final quality of this article is a reflection of the patient assistance of Petra Chu, careful editing of Robert Alvin Adler, and support of my colleagues, and I thank them all.
London: J. Nimmo, stands as the first modern biography of the artist and a landmark in gay studies. The festival was also widely covered in the Parisian press at the time. London: Palgrave Macmillan, , 27— Pat Rogers London: Penguin, , David Wakefield London: Phaidon, , Nelson, , Jacques Le Brun Geneva: Droz, James M. I tell you sir, this man is Michelangelo, and you do not know it. This issue ushers in our sixteenth year of publication and our thirty-sixth individual issue.
Averaging five articles and ten reviews per issue, we have published approximately articles and book and exhibition reviews. It is an accomplishment to which many have contributed. We are pleased to announce that Alexandra Provo will join the editorial board as Access and Preservation Advisor. She succeeds Deborah Ultan Boudewyn, whom we thank very much for her past contributions.
Since last fall, NCAW editors have been busy promoting digital publishing. At the annual meeting of the College Art Association, they ran a professional development workshop on digital publishing during which prospective authors interested in digital art history or simply in publishing in digital formats consulted with others who have already done so. They also organized a meeting with editors of other digital journals for the purpose of sharing information and experiences. As always, we thank all of you who have helped and are helping to make NCAW a success: our editors, copy editors, and web developer, our authors and reviewers, and our readers across the world.
Please contact us and send us your feedback so that we can continue improving your reading experience. All articles are available as PDFs. When last checked the page no longer existed at its original location. Volume 18, Issue 1 Spring Her dissertation, which is scheduled for publication in , focuses on the history of the nineteenth-century print dealer and art gallery La Maison Goupil. She is the recipient of numerous awards, including a Senior fellowship from the Center for the History of Collecting at the Frick Collection and Art Reference Library, where she conducted research on the history and legacy of Goupil and Knoedler in America at the turn of the 20th century.
Email the author: agnespenotlejeune[at]gmail. The International Art-Union , exh. The Spy , Oil on canvas. Manhattan: Broadway - 9th Street East , The Knoedler Gallery at Broadway appears in the lower right corner of the photograph. Collector and Art Critic 1, no. Her current research focuses on the idea of a global modernity in Latin America — Email the author: mbaldasarre[at]unsam.