The Eastern liturgies, especially after the great theological controversies of the first four centuries, have favoured composed texts of prayers, hymns, and choral anthems that summarize the thought of many biblical passages, thus becoming short sermons or confessions of faith. The Divine Liturgy of the Eastern Orthodox churches contains many such composed texts, such as prayers that proclaim Orthodox theology e.
Psalms are sung extensively at the daily hours of prayer in the East as in the West. At the beginning of the Sunday service, entire psalms or more than one psalm are sometimes sung. More often, however, a psalm verse or two are combined with other material into a composite text of a hymn or anthem.
A mosaic of selected psalm verses may be used either as a text for music or a spoken prayer. In addition to such biblically based psalms and other hymns, there are the famous Cherubic Hymn of the Greek and Russian liturgies and the original texts of hymns that have become well known in the Western churches— e. Liturgical worship in both Judaism and Christianity is an action that moves within the framework of biblical ideas and explains itself in biblical language. Preoccupied with really different views from opposite windows, Jews and Christians have often overlooked the common heritage that they share.
This has likewise been true of the differences between Eastern and Western Christians. At Rome, the liturgy was sung and said in Greek until the 4th century and was probably more like the liturgy of Syria at that time than that of Rome after the 16th century. The Latin rite developed many distinctive features, but what happened in Rome happened also to some extent in the East. The biblical readings at mass were reduced to two: the first reading, formally called the Epistle, was usually from an apostolic letter but sometimes from the Acts of the Apostles or even the Old Testament, and the second was a Gospel passage selected as appropriate for that particular day in the Church Year.
The West, like the East, retained the Jewish week and developed a yearly cycle of Easter—Pentecost and Christmas—Epiphany celebrations with appropriate biblical selections. The development of the Church Year became so elaborate in the West, however, that the Roman calendar provided for every day in the year. In the West as in the East, monastic and other religious communities observed the daily hours of prayer, in which there was little Bible reading as such but a great deal of corporate praying as well as the reading or singing of psalms.
The mass is an abbreviation of a much longer liturgy. Many items are mere vestiges of more elaborate actions or texts. The same has occurred in other parts of the mass. Psalms were once interspersed among the readings of scripture. The traditional gradual was a formalized text sung between the Epistle and Gospel, but in the reformed mass it becomes a responsorial psalm between the first and second readings.
The short texts at the Offertory offering of the bread and wine and Communion are fragments in biblical language, but they are also masterpieces of the Latin genius for brevity , clarity, and order—as are the inimitable Latin collects prayers , each basing its definite petition on an equally definite biblical revelation.
For centuries the mass was heard only in Latin and repeated the same readings on the same days every year, with the result that only a limited number of unconnected passages were heard in church. The second Vatican Council —65 approved the plan of having a three-year cycle of biblical readings, providing an Old Testament lesson for every mass, a more nearly continuous reading from one of the Gospels each year, and a reading from one of the letters or other New Testament books over a period of weeks.
Among Anglicans, what was said of the Bible in the Roman Catholic liturgy would generally apply. It would also apply to most Lutherans in the 20th century, but not to all Lutherans. On the other hand, there have been and are Protestants who claim or tacitly assume that nothing but the Bible should be used in worship. The use of the Bible in Protestant liturgy lies between these extremes. In the 16th century, the New Testament was appealed to as a guide for reforming the worship as well as the doctrine of the time. Because the worship reflected in the New Testament is synagogue worship, Protestant worship of the less liturgical kind became, in many respects, a return to synagogue worship.
Protestants separated the two services instructional and Eucharistic that had been joined together in the historic liturgy of Christendom. The Protestant Sunday service is the Liturgy of the Learners, a new revision of the synagogue liturgy. It centres in the biblical word read and preached. The congregation worships in anticipation of and response to the scriptural word. Praise becomes corporate only in hymns sung by the congregation, and prayer voices human need and misery as revealed in the Bible and claims the promises heard there. The colophon fol. Unfortunately, the materials owned by Rosenthal comprised only 52 folios: most of 6-Bks.
After folio 38 are inserted eight folios from another manuscript containing Martyrdoms of Anba Quris and Yuhanna, and of the Three Virgins Thawuqtisti, Thawuzuta, and Udhaqsiyah and their mother Arthanasiyah. And inside the cover are two folios from yet another manuscript preserving portions of six mimars of Joseph of Serugh. We hear of the manuscript again in in bookseller Karl W.
Orientalische Manuskripte…des 7—18 Jahrhunderts Leipzig , which lists 53 manuscripts for sale originally from St. One of the manuscripts, no. It is followed by no. The Katalog also includes two images: pl. Samir; OCA ; Rome Baumstark recognized the folios as part of Hiersemann A fourth fragment, Add. The results, with some corrections from my own examination of the manuscripts, are as follows:. Quire 1: B fols. Quires 2—5: B fols.
Quire B fol.
Quire 2 missing folios; M 94 fol. Quire M 94, fol. Quires 14— L fols. Van Esbroeck returned to the manuscript in with an edition and French translation of its version of Acts Thom. At present there are plans to make the digital files accessible as part of the Muslim World project information HERE ; in the meantime, Hansen is happy to share the images with any scholar who is interested in seeing them. I was soon informed that the volume was too large. The first volume is around pages; the second is close to Eerdmans want some uniformity to the series and asked to reduce the book by pages.
As a consolation, they promised that the excised material could appear in a third volume. Additional volumes were always a possibility but were contingent on the success of the first two. Eerdmans seems to be confident enough in the series for it to continue. But what texts do I cut? Some of our contributors are in the early stages of their careers; it is far more important for their work to be published sooner rather than later.
Several of us with multiple texts in the volume volunteered to hold off on some of our work and a few other contributors agreed to wait for volume 3. This is what we came up with:. As with volume 2, the line-up could, and likely will, change before publication.
I am grateful to Eerdmans for committing to a third volume and to the contributors for their continued involvement in the series. Other writers mention the oracle and the location of the altar, but most significant is a development made prior to the time of Pope Innocent III r.
For me, as for many Christian apocrypha scholars, Tib. And the Vision of Augustus is an ideal topic for this conference, not only because of its documentation in a large number of manuscript illuminations but also because of its concrete ahem representation in the Ara coeli. In the text Joseph recounts how he and other disciples built a church dedicated to Mary in Lydda.
Biblical literature - New Testament Apocrypha | wisolyvahode.tk
The synagogue of the city is torn down to make way for the church, leading to inevitable conflict with the Jewish community. The governor tries to settle the issue of who is the rightful user of the property by locking up the church for forty days and awaiting a sign. After the forty days, the doors are opened to reveal a painting of Mary. Rice connected this image with the Hodegetria, an image of Mary with the child Jesus said to have been painted by Luke and copied many times over the centuries.
Some traditions combine these two images, so that Luke is said to have made the Hodegetria by copying the Lydda painting. A century later it swam back to Constantinople. Story Jos. It is also not the only text that uses a miraculous image of Mary to establish a church dedicated to Mary.
A Coptic Homily on the Building of the First Church of the Virgin , attributed to Basil of Caesarea tells the story of the Virgin revealing the location of her buried icon and its placement on columns that miraculously float into a church consecrated by Peter and Paul in Caesarea Philippi. This text too is featured in MNTA vol.
The crude wall paintings include an image of Thecla being burned alive; a cloud hovers nearby, evoking the scene from the Acts of Paul where Thecla is saved from martyrdom by rain that douses the flame. Another image on the wall features seven women bearing torches walking toward a building. Opinions range over the identity of these virgins. Stephen Davis connects the two images and thinks this is a group of ascetic virgins dedicated to Thecla. Others have seen it as a representation of the seven virgins who work in the temple with Mary in Prot.
It may seem odd that a reference to a fairly obscure Christian ritual would show up in this church in the middle of the desert but the funerary inscriptions are just as surprising for the evidence they provide. Addai into the Acts of Thaddaeus , and less still in the Narratio this was my first exposure to it. In Doctr. Acts Thad. The same account is taken over into the Narratio but a sequel is added in which Ananias comes to Heliopolis and hides the cloth in a pile of tiles; fire comes out of the cloth and transfers the image to a tile which, the text reports, is still venerated in the town.
The Narratio also reports another tradition about the creation of the cloth; in this one, preferred by Constantine, the image is made when Jesus sweats blood in Gethsemane Luke and wipes it from his face with a cloth. Hardy connects the two accounts in the Narratio to a reluctance by some, including Eusebius, as expressed in his letter to Constantia, to paint images of Christ; Acts.
I find it interesting too how the inventio traditions get highjacked to include additional stories, such as the Heliopolis tile, to provide warrant for local holy sites and relics.
BIBLICAL LITERATURE: APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA
He discovered it to be an incipits amulet that includes the incipit of the Abgar letter along with the incipits of the canonical Gospels. The same combination is found in P. Of particular interest among these copies is a codex called P. The place where this handwriting will be affixed, no power of the adversary nor any unclean spirit will be able to approach not to reach into that place forever. Given sought other texts that could have some bearing on this phenomenon and found the Testament of Paham, the will of a Egyptian monk. Given also noted that Greek examples of the Abgar letters include seven seals at the end, which are found on Byzantine wills.
He finished with a mention of the Epistle of Christ from Heaven , a medieval chain letter said to be written by Jesus. Anyone interested in the Abgar Correspondence may want to watch a short docudrama on the text entitled Letters of Faith. It was produced in by the Newington-Cropsey Foundation but does not seem to be available anymore. After lunch, our attention turned to the intersection of Christian apocrypha and pilgrimage. The use of ampullae can be traced back to at least the time of the Piacenza Pilgrim in the sixth century, who mentions acquiring an oil flask in Jerusalem and touching it to the true cross.
Oh, sure, I get it — this is basically what writing and publishing are about. Life is too short, folks. The first in that series was over , words. Even GW is kind of a wreck, especially when it comes to plot and structure. GW had a rocky road both in its writing and its publication. I wrote it during the year I was dying from what turned out to be an incurable chronic illness go me! Thus began a series of temp jobs, sad and broken personal relationships, medical debt, and other fun stuff.
The book was my therapy. Building a world of shit that was shittier than my failed life really helped put things in perspective. Writing about somebody who had the pure strength of will to get up after being punched down repeatedly was pretty satisfying, too. Bug magic?
Bisexual heroine? Why not? Of course! Non-white protagonists? Old-school biblical violence?