Following the deaths of three teenagers during a attack on Netzarim in central Gaza, Hamas banned attacks by children and "called on the teachers and religious leaders to spread the message of restraint among young boys". Human rights groups and Gazans have accused the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip of restricting freedom of the press and forcefully suppressing dissent.
Both foreign and Palestinian journalists report harassment and other measures taken against them. More widely, in late August the group was accused in The Telegraph , a conservative British newspaper, of torturing, detaining, and firing on unarmed protesters who had objected to policies of the Hamas government.
Government security forces beat several gathering supporters and journalists. Several hours after the announcement, 17 Fatah members were released. The IFJ said that journalists' leaders in Gaza have faced a campaign of intimidation, as well as threats designed to force them to stop their union work.
Some of these journalists are now facing charges of illegal activities and a travel ban, due to their refusal "to give in to pressure". The IFJ said that these accusations are "malicious" and "should be dropped immediately". The IFJ explained that the campaign against PJS members began in March , after their election, and included a raid organized by Hamas supporters who took over the PJS offices in Gaza with the help of the security forces, and subsequently evicted the staff and elected officials. Other harassment includes the targeting of individuals who were bullied into stopping union work.
There were scheduled to participate in a conference in Cairo, Egypt. After being questioned by security forces, their passports were confiscated. Reporters Without Borders Secretary-General Christophe Deloire said "As living conditions in the Gaza Strip are disastrous, Hamas wants to silence critics and does not hesitate to torture a journalist in order to control media coverage in its territory. In June , the Independent Commission for Human Rights based in Ramallah published a report whose findings included that the Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip were subjected in to an "almost systematic campaign" of human rights abuses by the Palestinian Authority and Hamas, as well as by Israeli authorities, with the security forces belonging to the PA and Hamas being responsible for torture, arrests and arbitrary detentions.
In , the Human Rights Watch presented a 43 page long list of human rights violation committed by Hamas. Among actions attributed to Hamas the HRW report mentions beatings with metal clubs and rubber hoses, hanging of alleged collaborationists with Israel, and torture of individuals. According to the report, Hamas also tortured civil society activists and peaceful protesters. The report also slams Hamas for harassment of people based on so called morality offenses and for media censorship. On May 26, Amnesty International released a report saying that Hamas carried out extrajudicial killings, abductions and arrests of Palestinians and used the Al-Shifa Hospital to detain, interrogate and torture suspects during the Israel—Gaza conflict in It details the executions of at least 23 Palestinians accused of collaborating with Israel and torture of dozens of others, many victims of torture were members of the rival Palestinian movement, Fatah.
Also in , Fatah activist from Gaza Raed Abu al-Hassin was beaten and had his two legs broken by Hamas security officers. Al-Hassin was taken into custody by Hamas after he participated in a pro-Abbas demonstration in the Gaza Strip. Hamas has always maintained leadership abroad. The movement is deliberately fragmented to ensure that Israel cannot kill its top political and military leaders.
Hamas's political bureau was once located in the Syrian capital of Damascus before the start of the Syrian civil war. Instead, Hamas backed the Sunni rebels fighting against Assad. As a result, Iran cut funding to Hamas, and their terror proxy Hezbollah ordered Hamas members out of Lebanon. Since then, Iran and Hezbollah have tried to mend fences with Hamas. Like Egypt, they designated the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization and Hamas was viewed as its Palestinian equivalent.
Both give Hamas public and financial assistance estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Last year on U. Hamas is a political party. Qatar called Gaza's blockade unjust and immoral, which prompted the Hamas government in Gaza, including former Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh, to thank Qatar for their "unconditional" support. Qatar then began regularly handing out political, material, humanitarian and charitable support for Hamas. Some have argued that the money Qatar gives to reconstruct Palestine is an excuse to pour even more money into Hamas. Some began to label Qatar a terrorist haven in part because it is harboring Hamas leader Meshaal.
Al-Arouri is alleged to have orchestrated the June abduction and killing of three Israeli teenagers and to have started the day war between Israel and Palestine, and now lives in Turkey. Speaking in reference to Qatar's support for Hamas, during a visit to Palestine, Qatari official Mohammad al-Emadi, said Qatar is using the money not to help Hamas but rather the Palestinian people as a whole. He acknowledges however that giving to the Palestinian people means using Hamas as the local contact. Emadi said, "You have to support them.
You don't like them, don't like them. But they control the country, you know.
But Hamas claims that having contacts with various Arab countries establishes positive relations which will encourage Arab countries to do their duty toward the Palestinians and support their cause by influencing public opinion in the Arab world. During that period there were conflicts between Israeli troops and Palestinian protestors in the Gaza Strip, due to the decision of the United States to move their embassy to Jerusalem.
He reaffirmed support from China to the Palestinian people's right to establish an independent state. In June , China voted in support of a United Nations Security Council resolution vetoed by the US that criticized Israel of excessive, disproportionate and indiscriminate force by the Israeli forces against Palestinian civilians in Gaza during the Gaza border protests.
Later the same day, China abstained from voting on a US drafted resolution that blamed Hamas for the escalated violence. Several U.
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Politics of Palestine Political parties Elections. Main article: Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades. Main article: History of Hamas. See also: First Intifada. Main article: Hamas Covenant. Main articles: Fatah—Hamas conflict and Battle of Gaza Main article: Israel—Gaza conflict. Main article: Fatah—Hamas reconciliation process. Main article: Al-Fateh.
Main article: Al-Aqsa TV. See also: Tomorrow's Pioneers. Main article: Islamization of the Gaza Strip. See also: Racism in the Palestinian territories. Main article: Criticism of Hamas. A rocket fired from the Gaza Strip into Israel , December Yad Mordechai Zikim. Eshkol Nir Oz Nirim Yesha. Sdot Negev Alumim Sa'ad.
See also: Palestinian militancy campaign. See also: Martyrdom in Islam. See also: Sinai insurgency. Main article: International positions on the nature of Hamas. See also: Children in the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. Palestine portal Terrorism portal Islam portal.
The leaders of the organization argued that Islam gave the Palestinian people the power to confront Israel and described the Intifada as the return of the masses to Islam. Since its inception, Hamas has tried to reconcile nationalism and Islam. Hamas claims to speak as a nationalist movement but with an Islamic-nationalist rather than a secular nationalist agenda. Retrieved January 6, Greenwood Publishing Group.
Hamas rule in Gaza : human rights under constraint
Challenges to the Cohesion of the Arabic State. Tel Aviv University. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved November 10, March 27, Retrieved June 15, April Retrieved January 6, — via www. Times of Israel. Retrieved September 4, The Diplomat. Retrieved May 18, May 13, The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved June 7, JTA, 7 December Indiana University Press. Dates differ, between December — January , and August Routledge, Dec 21, Council on Foreign Relations.
Retrieved August 2, The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 5, Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 6, Retrieved March 17, The Jerusalem Post JPost. July 16, NBC News. Hamas retaliated with a suicide bombing in Israel on August 19, , that killed 20 people, including 6 children. Since then Israelis have mounted an assassination campaign against the senior leadership of Hamas that has killed 13 Hamas members, including Ismail Abu Shanab, one of the most moderate leaders of Hamas.
After each of these assassinations, Hamas has sent a suicide bomber into Israel in retaliation. Retrieved April 28, Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved August 1, Cooperation and Conflict. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
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The New York Times. Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved July 17, Human Rights Watch. Retrieved July 11, BBC News. January 26, Retrieved April 22, Congressional Research Service. Archived from the original PDF on August 26, Clashes between the two groups steadily escalated until gunmen loyal to Hamas took control of Gaza in June, ousting the remnants of Fatah. Council of Foreign Relations. August 27, , "In the summer of , Hamas tensions with the Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, a Fatah man, came to a head and Hamas routed Fatah supporters, killing many and sending others fleeing to the West Bank.
The result was a de facto geographic division of Palestinian-held territory, with Hamas holding sway in Gaza and Fatah maintaining the internationally recognized Palestinian Authority government in the West Bank town of Ramallah. USA Today. Associated Press. March 29, Retrieved October 9, International Encyclopedia of Terrorism. MidEast Web. August 18, This date is based on a Hamas operation that assassinated the rabbi of the Israeli settlement of Kfar Darom inside the Gaza Strip.
Pierpaoli Jr. Clarke, Terrorism, Inc. Burfeindt, 'Rapprochement with Iran', in Thomas A. Johnson ed. CRC Press. Tauris , pp. Stanford University Press, p. Sullivan, 'Latin America: Terrorism Issues'. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, Infobase Publishing , p. Ahmad Yassin stated 'the PLO is secularist. It cannot be accepted as a representative unless it becomes islamic' p.
In , when fundamentalist protesters set fire to the office of the Red Crescent Society in Gaza, headed by Dr Haidar Abdel-Shafi, a Communist and PLO supporter, the Israeli army did nothing, intervening only when the mob marched to his home and seemed to threaten him personally'. Moreover, Hamas was created essentially because the Islamicists connected to the Muslim Brotherhood feared that without their direct participation in the first Intifada, they would lose supporters to both the PIJ and the PLO, the latter of which was anxious to reassert itself in the Palestinian territories after being marginalized following its expulsion from Lebanon.
As authors Mishal and Saela, explain, "The Mujamma's decision to adopt a 'jihad now' policy against 'enemies of Allah' through the creation of Hamas was thus largely a matter of survival. Memri TV. Retrieved July 22, The author of the Charter was one of the 'old guard' of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Gaza Strip, completely cut off from the outside world. Hamas will not adopt a hostile position in practice against anyone because of his ideas or his creed but will adopt such a position if those ideas and creed are translated into hostile or damaging actions against our people. It does not condemn the West or non-Muslims, but does condemn aggression against the Palestinian people, arguing for a defensive jihad.
It also calls for fraternal relations with the other Palestinian nationalist groups'. Yale Law School. Retrieved February 15, But I say the opposite-the Bible is our mandate, the Bible is our deed'. Yitzhak Rabin at the time charged that "Bibi Netyanyahu is a Hamas collaborator. Hamas and Likud have the same political goal. Hamas also calls attention to the clauses in the Likud charter that explicitly denounce a two-state solution.
A double standard, says Hamas. But we do consider this as an acceptable solution to have a Palestinian state on the borders of '. Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting. Retrieved March 18, Apr 22, Retrieved April 16, Retrieved February 25, December 1, The Times of Israel. Retrieved March 29, Tablet Magazine. Retrieved March 31, Philipp Holtmann, p. Migdal, pp. New York: Grove Press, The Hunt for the Engineer. Lyons Press, Yale University Press, Retrieved January 5, The Guardian. Retrieved May 4, January 30, Palestine, January 31, The Telegraph.
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Retrieved June 17, The Washington Post. June 18, December The ISA, he said, believes that the best option now is a large-scale ground incursion into the Gaza Strip that allows the IDF to take over the southern part of the Gaza Strip and to stop smuggling and increase pressure on Hamas. December 23, Retrieved December 27, January 1, Retrieved January 9, January 15, Retrieved January 15, January 7, January 9, January 18, Retrieved January 19, Daily Nation.
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May 16, November 11, Archived from the original on July 20, Archived from the original on August 5, Archived from the original on August 4, London: BBC. Archived from the original on October 9, Retrieved Retrieved February 3, Moghadam ed. January 3, Archived from the original on May 14, March 20, Retrieved March 27, August 17, Archived from the original on August 7, Jonas Otterbeck.
Contemporary Islam. Volume 2, Number 3, —28, doi : Associated Press , July 13, Foreign Affairs. They will see that we are closer to Erdogan. June 21, Sawaf's West Bank office in Ramallah has been destroyed, and the Palestinian paper Al Ayyam has refused to continue printing his paper in the West Bank. The Commentator. February 6, Retrieved July 21, The Independent. July 11, June 20, November 14, Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved 27 May Herald Tribune. Retrieved November 21, The Australian.
January 10, Retrieved January 10, Retrieved July 10, Arab American News. The Guardian opinion. Los Angeles Times. April 21, Archived from the original on February 7, Retrieved September 16, Retrieved August 31, August 31, The Jewish Week. March 1, August 2, Stockholms Fria Tidning. Pope, at Dartmouth. Some of the very early operations aborted. The first successful suicide bomb attack occurred in the Jordan Valley in October The first bus attack happened in Afula in northern Israel in April Archived from the original on April 16, August 28, May 23, Retrieved September 22, Intelligence and Terrorism Information Cente Report.
Israel Intelligence Heritage and Commemoration Center. May Archived from the original PDF on October 13, Retrieved June 5, Archived from the original on April 3, Retrieved June 1, Jerusalem Post. Retrieved July 19, Israel News. Archived from the original on November 5, The Times of India. The Rakyat Post.
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June 13, August 14, August 15, This is in addition to the extrajudicial execution of 30—40 people during the Israeli assault. S News". July 29, Archived from the original on November 22, Retrieved September 30, Their leader, Mohammed Dormosh, is well known for his ties to the Hamas leadership. Al Jazeera. January 23, Archived from the original on October 6, July 4, We kidnapped Gilad Shalit and handed him over to Hamas.
January 2, Due to the gravity and consequences of Hamas's use of terrorism as a tactic, all other aspects of Hamas, including its extensive social services programs and its role as a political party are overshadowed and often ignored by policy makers. Others recognize the complexity of Hamas as an organization and suggest that Hamas will continue to transform itself into a full political party and eventually disarm and cease all violent tactics.
They view Hamas as a complex organization with terrorism as only one component, which is likely to evolve into a non-violent political party. While supporting the elections in the Occupied Territories and confirming their regular development, the EU was not willing to accept the results in the light of perceived security concerns and mounting pressure from the US and Israel to boycott Hamas.
July 26, The lower court had found that the listing was based on media and internet reports rather than decisions by a "competent authority".
But the ECJ said such decisions were not required for groups to stay on the list, only for their initial listing. Retrieved July 14, Tauris pp. New Zealand Police. July 20, Copeland ed. Whittaker ed. Israel;Gaza Strip. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. January 11, January 13, See in the video. March 4, Archived January 2, , at the Wayback Machine Time. January 12, August 6, July 9, IDF Blog.
August 25, Archived from the original on January 1, Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Developing a normative framework for evaluating non-state actors in the absence of formally binding obligations, this study is the first detailed human rights analysis of Hamas conduct and governance in the Gaza Strip.
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