He retumes from the war in Hemingway's main character in A Farewell to Arms is also an ambulance driver during the war. The repressive Nazi regime, with its thought control and book bumings, helps inspire the society in Ray Bradbury's novel Fahrenheit His novel Catch will use a similar wartime setting. The unused portions of his original manuscript are published in as American Hunger.
Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin first makes the claim that there are over known Communists working in the federal government, setting off the "Red Scare" that leads to government hearings and blacklisting of suspected Communists. This emphasis on conformity influences several novels of the era, including Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit and J. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye is published July 16, , and Salinger avoids the publicity by traveling to Europe. Fahrenheit , his first novel, is the expanded version of that novella and is published in October, The book is published in It is the first unsolicited manuscript accepted by its publisher in twenty years.
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Novels for Students Litr:rary Gabriel Garcfa Marquez's Love in the Time of Cholera, published in , is based in part on his parents' marriage. Following is a list of the copyright holders who have granted us permission to reproduce material in this volume of NfS. Every effort has been made to trace copyright, but if omissions have been made, please let us know. VI, Winter, Reprinted by permission of the publisher. The CEA Criuc, v. Reproduced by permission. CIA Journal, v. XXII, June, Copyright, by The College Language Association. Reproduced by permission of The College Language Association.
Copyright, , Los Angeles Times.
MELUS, v. The Midwest Quarterly, v. XV, January, Modem Fiction Studies, v. XIV, Autumn, All rights reserved. Modem Language Quarterly, v. XXV, December, Reproduced by permission of Duke University Press. The Nation, New York, v. The New Republic, v. Reproduced by permission of The New Republic. Nineteenth-Century Fiction, v. Reprinted by permission of the publisher and the author. Notes and Queries, v. Reproduced by permission of the publisher and the Literary Estate of Milton Millhauser. Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, v.
From Telling lies in Modern American Autobiography. The University of North Carolina Press, Reproduced by permission of the publisher and the author. Baker, Carlos. Edited by Wallace Stegner.
Karl Ove Knausgård
Basic Books, Brown, Julia Prewitt. Edited by Marcia McClintock Folsom. Modem Language Association of America, Reproduced by permission of the Modem Language Association of America. Johnson, Wayne L. From Ray Bradbury.
Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, Kneedler, Susan. Dorothy H. Edited by Mari Evans. Anchor PresslDoubleday, Neuhaus, Ron. Nicholas J. Karolides, Lee Burress, John M. Kean, eds. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Scarseth, Thomas. Sewall, Richard B. From The Vision of Tragedy.
Yale University Press, Renewed by Richard B. Reproduced by permission of the author. Wood, Diane S. Edited by James Whitlark and Wendall Aycock. Texas Tech University Press, Copyright Texas Tech University Press. Reproduced by permission of the publisher. APlWide World Photos. Guest, Judith in striped sweater , , photograph. Helier, Joseph, photograph. Garcia Marquez, Gabriel, photograph. Morrison, Toni bandanna on head , photograph.
Morrison, Toni accepting Nobel Prize , , photograph. Plath, Sylvia, photograph. Salinger, J. Tan, Amy, photograph. Archive Photos. Bradbury, Ray, photograph. Archive Photos, Inc. Archivel Paramount. Steinbeck, John, photograph. Wright, Richard, photograph. English ambulance driver standing next to truck , c. Field hands sitting on bagged wheat, c. Garcfa Marquez, Gabriel being interviewed, on couch , photograph. Laborers weighing cotton, horse and wagon, c. Mississippi riverboat loading logs, print by Currier and Ives.
Corbis-Bettmann, Reproduced by permission. Nazi youths burning books, , Berlin, photograph. Nurse attending patient sleeping on floor, photograph. Office workers seated at desks, large windows along side, , photograph. Puritan with musket standing in doorway, , woodcut. Street scene buses, rickshaws, carriers in street , Chungking, China, , photograph.
Temple, Shirley as a child, curtseying in accordion-pleated dress , photograph. Troops of the 85th Division march through the Porta Maggiore, , Rome, photograph. Two young men standing outside Swing Rendezvous club, , Greenwich Village, photograph. Wright, Richard seated, typing next to window , photograph. Hans MalmbergIBlack Star. Detroit : Map of Colombia, illustration. Gale Research Inc. The Kobal Collection. Christie, Julie, and Oskar Wemer in the movie "Fahrenheit ," photograph. Garson, Greer and Laurence Olivier in a scene from the motion picture "Pride and Prejudice" , photograph.
Hutton, Timothy and Dinah Manoff in a scene from the motion picture "Ordinary People" , photograph. Karloff, Boris walking in village , in movie "Frankenstein," , photograph. First illustration of the Frankenstein Monster, by Mary Shelley. Hawthome, Nathaniel, photograph. Jane Austen's home at Chawton, photograph. Novels for Students The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Although probably no other work of American literature has been the source of so much controversy, Mark Twain's The Adventures ofHuckleberry Finn is regarded by many as the greatest literary achievement America has yet produced.
Inspired by many of the author's own experiences as a riverboat pilot, the book tells of two runaways-a white boy and a black man-and their journey down the mighty Mississippi River. When the book first appeared, it scandalized reviewers and parents who thought it would corrupt young children with its depiction of a hero who lies, steals, and uses coarse language. In the last half of the twentieth century, the condemnation of the book has continued on the grounds that its portrayal of Jim and use of the word "nigger" is racist. The novel continues to appear on lists of books banned in schools across the country.
The strong point of view, skillful depiction of dialects, and confrontation of issues of race and prejudice have inspired critics to dub it "the great American novel. There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since. On the heels of this triumph, Clemens married 01ivia Langdon and moved to the East, where he lived for the rest of his life. In the East, Clemens had to confront the attitudes of the eastern upper class, a group to which he felt he never belonged.
Nevertheless, he did win influential friends, most significantly William Dean Howells, editor of the Atlantic Monthly. There he absorbed many of the influences that would inform his most lasting contributions to American literature. During his youth, he delighted in the rowdy play of boys on the river and became exposed to the institution of slavery. He began to work as a typesetter for a number of Hannibal newspapers at the age of twelve.
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In the late s, he became a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River. This job taught him the dangers of navigating the river at night and gave him a firsthand understanding of the river's beauty and perils. After a brief stint as a soldier in the Confederate militia, C1emens went out west, where he worked as a reporter for various newspapers.
He contributed both factual reportage and outlandish, burlesque tales. This dual emphasis would characterize his entire career as a journalist. During this phase of his career, in , he adopted the pseudonym Mark Twain, taken from the riverboat slang that means water is at least two fathoms twelve feet deep and thus easily travelled. Shortly afterwards, he began to compose a sequel to Tom's story, an autobiography of Tom's friend, Huck Finn. He worked sporadically on the book over the next seven years, publishing more travel books and novels in the meantime.
When it was finally published, The Adventures ofHuckleberry Finn was an immediate success, although it was also condemned as inappropriate for children. The book draws on Clemens's childhood in Hannibal, including his memories of the generosity of whites who aided runaway slaves, in addition to the punishments they endured when caught. In fact, in , his father had served on the jury that convicted three whites for aiding the escape of five slaves.
In the s, Clemens's extensive financial speculations caught up with him, and he went bankrupt in the depression of With an eye to paying back his many debts, he wrote a number of works, including continuing adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn. He spent his final decade dictating his autobiography, which appeared in Clemens died on 21 April Petersburg, Missouri, on the Mississippi River, "forty to fifty years" before the novel was Novels for Students Glossary ofLiterary Terms A Abstract: As an adjective applied to writing or literary works, abstract refers to words or phrases that name things not knowable through the five senses.
Aestheticism: A literary and artistic movement of the nineteenth century. Followers of the movement believed that art should not be mixed with social, political, or moral teaching. The statement "art for art's sake" is a good summary of aestheticism. The movement had its roots in France, but it gained widespread importance in England in the last half of the nineteenth century, where it helped change the Victorian practice of including moral lessons in literature.
Allegory: A narrative technique in which characters representing things or abstract ideas are used to convey a message or teach a lesson. Allegory is typically used to teach moral, ethical, or religious lessons but is sometimes used for satiric or political purposes. Allusion: A reference to a familiar literary or historical person or event, used to make an idea more easily understood. Analogy: A comparison of two things made to explain something unfamiliar through its similarities to something familiar, or to prove one point based on the acceptedness of another.
Similes and metaphors are types of analogies. Antagonist: The major character in a narrative or drama who works against the hero or protagonist. Volume Anthropomorphism: The presentation of animals or objects in human shape or with human characteristics. The term is derived from the Greek word for "human form. Antiheroes typically distrust conventional values and are unable to commit themselves to any ideals. They generally feel helpless in a world over which they have no control. Antiheroes usually accept, and often celebrate, their positions as social outcasts. Apprenticeship Novel: See Bildungsroman Archetype: The word archetype is commonly used to describe an original pattern or model from which all other things of the same kind are made.
This term was introduced to literary criticism from the psychology of Carl lung. It expresses lung's theory that behind every person's "unconscious," or repressed memories of the past. These memories are said to prompt illogical associations that trigger powerful emotions in the reader. Often, the emotional process is primitive. Archetypes are the literary images that grow out of the "collective unconscious.
They may also appear as stereotyped characters. Burlesque: Any literary work that uses exaggeration to make its subject appear ridiculous, either by treating a trivial subject with profound seriousness or by treating a dignified subject frivolously. The word "burlesque" may also be used as an adjective, as in "burlesque show," to mean "striptease act. Burroughs, and Lawrence Ferlinghetti-who rejected established social and literary values.
Using such techniques as stream of consciousness writing and jazz-influenced free verse and focusing on unusual or abnormal states of mind-generated by religious ecstasy or the use of drugs-the Beat writers aimed to create works that were unconventional in both form and subject matter.
Bildungsroman: A German word meaning "novel of development. Bildungsroman is used interchangeably with erziehungsroman, a novel of initiation and education.
When a bildungsroman is concerned with the development of an artist as in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , it is often termed a kunstlerroman. Black Aesthetic Movement: A period of artistic and literary development among African Americans in the s and early s. This was the first major African-American artistic movement since the Harlem Renaissance and was closely paralleled by the civil rights and black power movements. The black aesthetic writers attempted to produce works of art that would be meaningful to the black masses.
Key figures in black aesthetics included one of its founders, poet and playwright Amiri Baraka, formerly known as LeRoi Jones; poet and essayist Haki R. Madhubuti, formerly Don L. Lee; poet and playwright Sonia Sanchez; and dramatist Ed Bullins. Also known as Black Arts Movement. Black Humor: Writing that places grotesque elements side by side with humorous ones in an attempt to shock the reader, forcing him or her to laugh at the horrifying reality of a disordered world.
Also known as Black Comedy. The actions of characters are what constitute the plot of a story, novel, or poem. There are numerous types of characters, ranging from simple, stereotypical figures to intricate, multifaceted ones. In the techniques of anthropomorphism and personification, animals-and even places or things-can assume aspects of character. This may be done in a variety of ways, including I direct description of the character by the narrator; 2 the direct presentation of the speech, thoughts, or actions of the character; and 3 the responses of other characters to the character.
The term "character" also refers to a form originated by the ancient Greek writer Theophrastus that later became popular in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It is a short essay or sketch of a person who prominently displays a specific attribute or quality, such as miserliness or ambition. Climax: The turning point in a narrative, the moment when the conflict is at its most intense. Typically, the structure of stories, novels, and plays is one of rising action, in which tension builds to the climax, followed by falling action, in which tension lessens as the story moves to its conclusion.
CoUoquialism: A word, phrase, or form of pronunciation that is acceptable in casual conversation but not in formal, written communication.
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It is considered more acceptable than slang. Coming of Age Novel: See Bildungsroman Concrete: Concrete is the opposite of abstract, and refers to a thing that actually exists or a description that allows the reader to experience an object or concept with the senses. Connotation: The impression that a word gives beyond its defined meaning. Connotations may be universally understood or may be significant only to a certain group. Convention: Any widely accepted literary device, style, or form. Novels for Students Glossary D Denotation: The definition of a word, apart from the impressions or feelings it creates connotations in the reader.
Novels for Students Volume 1
Denouement: A French word meaning "the unknotting. The denouement follows the climax and provides an outcome to the primary plot situation as well as an explanation of secondary plot complications. It masterfully reckons with questions of identity and culture. It is a wonderful way to discover important contemporary poets of the global African Diaspora.
A wonderful read. Each short story starts in the familiar and then leads to unexpected and compelling revelations. Of particular note is the anthology edited by Mahogany L. Notable in nonfiction is the timely anthology, edited by the incomparable Roxane Gay, Not That Bad : Dispatches From Rape Culture, showcasing important, necessary reflections from a diverse cross section of authors. When Barracoon , a powerful account of slavery by Zora Neale Hurston, is released, we will have access to a previously unpublished work by one of the most groundbreaking and visionary voices in African-American literature.
A rewarding, carefully crafted read. Activist-scholar-writer Darnell L. MEM , by Bethany C. Morrow, is a fantastic science fiction novel exploring memory and identity, set in the glamorous early s.
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An inventive, fast-paced narrative. National Endowment for the Arts Award winner Renee Simms publishes her debut short story collection, Meet Behind Mars , and it is a lovely, vivid read. As part of the Zane Presents series, romance author Ruth P. Watson releases Strawberry Spring , set in the s South, that explores the importance of family and legacy.
A must-read for literary fans of all kinds. Novelist-filmmaker Mitchell Jackson gives us his gripping second book, Survival Math: Notes on an All-American , a nonfiction account of family, race and institutional racism. Retrieved October 4, The New Yorker. Magazine's Literary Innovator risked everything by writing 'My Struggle,' a 3,page account of his life".
The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 June Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 21 June Aschehoug Agency. Retrieved 6 February Archipelago Books. The Paris Review. Retrieved December 14, Die Welt in German. Retrieved 24 September Swedish Academy in Swedish.