Im Goldland Kalifornien: Roman (German Edition)

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After the Assyrian period, about four centuries provide limited archaeological finds in the Golan. The Maccabean revolt saw much action in the regions around the Golan. It is possible that the Jewish communities of the Golan were among those rescued by Judas Maccabeus during the Galilee and Gilead Transjordan campaign mentioned in Chapter 5 of 1 Maccabees ; but the Golan remained in Seleucid hands until the campaign of Alexander Jannaeus from 83 to 80 BC.

Jannaeus established the city of Gamla in 81 BC as the Hasmonean capital for the region. Following Agrippa's death in 44, the Romans again annexed the Golan to Syria, promptly to return it again when Claudius traded the Golan to Agrippa II , the son of Agrippa I, in 51 as part of a land swap. Although nominally under Agrippa's control and not part of the province of Judea , the Jewish communities of the Golan joined their coreligionists in the First Jewish-Roman War , only to fall to the Roman armies in its early stages.

Gamla was captured in 67; according to Josephus , its inhabitants committed mass suicide, preferring it to crucifixion and slavery. Agrippa II contributed soldiers to the Roman war effort and attempted to negotiate an end to the revolt. In return for his loyalty, Rome allowed him to retain his kingdom but finally absorbed the Golan for good after his death in In about , the Ghassanids , Arab Christians from Yemen , established a kingdom that encompassed southern Syria and the Transjordan, building their capital at Jabiyah.

Like the later Herodians, the Ghassanids ruled as clients of Byzantine Rome; unlike the Herodians, the Ghassanids were able to hold on to the Golan until the Sassanid invasion of Following a brief restoration under the Emperor Heraclius , the Golan again fell, this time to the invading Arabs after the Battle of Yarmouk in Following the assassination of his cousin, the Caliph Uthman , Muawiya claimed the Caliphate for himself, initiating the Umayyad dynasty. Over the next few centuries, while remaining in Muslim hands, the Golan passed through many dynastic changes, falling first to the Abbasids , then to the Shi'ite Fatimids , then to the Seljuk Turks , then to the Kurdish Ayyubids.

During the Crusades , the Heights represented a formidable obstacle the Crusader armies were not able to conquer, and the area was a part of the Emirate of Damascus during this time.

Golan Heights

For many centuries nomadic tribes lived together with the sedentary population in the region. At times, the central government attempted to settle the nomads which would result in the establishment of permanent communities. When the power of the governing regime declined, as happened during the early Muslim period , nomadic trends increased and many of the rural and agricultural villages were abandoned due to harassment from the Bedouins. They were not resettled until the second half of the 19th century. In the 16th century, the Ottoman Turks conquered Syria. During this time, the Golan formed part of the southern district of their empire.

Some Druze communities were established in the Golan during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Ottomans encouraged them to settle in southern Syria, particularly the Golan Heights, by granting them land with a year tax exemption. In there were still open stretches of uncultivated land between villages in the lower Golan, but by the mids most was owned and cultivated. Soon afterwards, the society regrouped and purchased 2, dunams of land from the village of Bir e-Shagum on the western slopes of the Golan. Between and , Baron Edmond James de Rothschild purchased around , dunams of land in the Golan and the Hawran for Jewish settlement.

The Agudat Ahim society, whose headquarters were in Yekatrinoslav, Russia, acquired , dunams of land in several locations in the districts of Fiq and Daraa. A plant nursery was established and work began on farm buildings in Djillin. A later attempt to resettle the site with Syrian Jews who were Ottoman citizens also failed. Great Britain accepted a Mandate for Palestine at the meeting of the Allied Supreme Council at San Remo , but the borders of the territory were not defined at that stage.

The treaty also established a joint commission to settle the precise details of the border and mark it on the ground. When the French Mandate of Syria ended in , the Golan Heights became part of the newly independent state of Syria and was later incorporated into Quneitra Governorate. During the following years, the area along the border witnessed thousands of violent incidents; the armistice agreement was being violated by both sides.

The underlying causes of the conflict were a disagreement over the legal status of the demilitarised zone DMZ , cultivation of land within it and competition over water resources. Syria claimed that neither party had sovereignty over the DMZ. Israel contended that the Armistice Agreement dealt solely with military concerns and that she had political and legal rights over the DMZ. Israel wanted to assert control up till the boundary in order to reclaim the Hula swamp , gain exclusive rights to Lake Galilee and divert water from the Jordan for its National Water Carrier.

During the s, Syria registered two principal territorial accomplishments: it took over Al Hammah enclosure south of Lake Tiberias and established a de facto presence on and control of eastern shore of the lake. At first the militants entered via Lebanon or Jordan, but those countries made concerted attempts to stop them and raids directly from Syria increased. In the period between the first Arab—Israeli War and the Six-Day War, the Syrians constantly harassed Israeli border communities by firing artillery shells from their dominant positions on the Golan Heights.

Five nations sponsored a resolution criticizing Syria for its actions but it failed to pass due to a Soviet veto. Former Israeli General Mattityahu Peled said that more than half of the border clashes before the war "were a result of our security policy of maximum settlement in the demilitarised area. Israel in turn would retaliate with military force. The Syrians responded by firing at the tractors and shelling Israeli settlements. The new ceasefire line was named the Purple Line. In the battle, Israel lost men, with another wounded.

An estimated 2, Syrians were killed, with another 5, wounded. During the war, between 80, [] and , [] Syrians fled or were driven from the Heights and around 7, remained in the Israeli-occupied territory. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants reported that much of the local population of , fled as a result of the war, whereas the Syrian government stated that a large proportion of it was expelled.

Israeli settlement in the Golan began soon after the war. Merom Golan was founded in July and by there were 12 settlements. On 19 June , the Israeli cabinet voted to return the Golan to Syria in exchange for a peace agreement, although this was rejected after the Khartoum Resolution of 1 September Allon died in and his plan never materialised. During the Yom Kippur War in , Syrian forces overran much of the southern Golan, before being pushed back by an Israeli counterattack.

Israel and Syria signed a ceasefire agreement in that left almost all the Heights in Israeli hands. The ceasefire agreement between Israel and Syria delineated a demilitarized zone along their frontier and limited the number of forces each side can deploy within 25 kilometers 15 miles of the zone.

In , following the ceasefire agreement, Israel returned a narrow demilitarised zone to Syrian control. Some of the displaced residents began returning to their homes located in this strip and the Syrian government began helping people rebuild their villages, except for Quneitra. In the mids the Syrian government launched a plan called "The Project for the Reconstruction of the Liberated Villages". This part was incorporated into a demilitarised zone that runs along the ceasefire line and extends eastward. Mines deployed by the Syrian army remain active. As of , there had been at least landmine casualties in the Syrian-controlled Golan since , of which were fatalities.

Although the law effectively annexed the territory to Israel, it did not explicitly spell out a formal annexation. Secretary of State Dean Rusk explained that U. Syria continued to demand a full Israeli withdrawal to the borders, including a strip of land on the east shore of the Sea of Galilee that Syria captured during the —49 Arab-Israeli War and occupied from — Successive Israeli governments have considered an Israeli withdrawal from the Golan in return for normalization of relations with Syria, provided certain security concerns are met.

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Prior to , Syrian president Hafez al-Assad rejected normalization with Israel. The region has 1, square kilometers. The district has 36 localities, of which 32 are Jewish settlements and four are Druze villages. The plan called for the creation of 34 settlements by , one of which would be an urban center, Katzrin, and the rest rural settlements, with a population of 54,, among them 40, urban and the remaining rural.

By , 32 settlements had been created, among them one city and two regional centers. The population total had however fallen short of Israel's goals, with only 12, Jewish inhabitants in the Golan settlements in In , a group of Druze lawyers petitioned the Supreme Court of Israel to allow elections for local councils in the Golan Druze towns of Majdal Shams , Buq'ata , Mas'ade , and Ein Qiniyye , replacing the previous system in which their members were appointed by the national government.

On 3 July , the Interior Ministry announced those towns would be included in the Israeli municipal elections. The UN Human Rights Council issued a Resolution on Human Rights in the Occupied Syrian Golan on 23 March that included the statement "Deploring the announcement by the Israeli occupying authorities in July that municipal elections would be held on 30 October in the four villages in the occupied Syrian Golan, which constitutes another violation to international humanitarian law and to relevant Security Council resolutions, in particular resolution ".

During United States—brokered negotiations in —, Israel and Syria discussed a peace deal that would include Israeli withdrawal in return for a comprehensive peace structure, recognition and full normalization of relations. The disagreement in the final stages of the talks was on access to the Sea of Galilee. Israel offered to withdraw to the pre border the Paulet-Newcombe line , while Syria insisted on the frontier.

The former line has never been recognised by Syria, claiming it was imposed by the colonial powers, while the latter was rejected by Israel as the result of Syrian aggression. In June , it was reported that Prime Minister Ehud Olmert had sent a secret message to Syrian President Bashar Assad saying that Israel would concede the land in exchange for a comprehensive peace agreement and the severing of Syria's ties with Iran and militant groups in the region.

Syria broke off the talks to protest Israeli military operations. Israel subsequently appealed to Turkey to resume mediation. In May , Prime Minister Netanyahu said that returning the Golan Heights would turn it into " Iran 's front lines which will threaten the whole state of Israel. In March , Syrian President Bashar al-Assad claimed that indirect talks had failed after Israel did not commit to full withdrawal from the Golan Heights. In August , he said that the return of the entire Golan Heights was "non-negotiable," it would remain "fully Arab," and would be returned to Syria. In June , Israeli President Shimon Peres said that Syrian President Assad would have to negotiate without preconditions, and that Syria would not win territorial concessions from Israel on a "silver platter" while it maintained ties with Iran and Hezbollah.

Syrian President Assad claimed that there was "no real partner in Israel. In , Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman said: "We must make Syria recognise that just as it relinquished its dream of a greater Syria that controls Lebanon The atrocities of the Syrian Civil War and the rise of the terrorist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant , which from to controlled parts of the Syrian-administered Golan, have added a new twist to the issue. In , it was reported that Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu asked US President Barack Obama to recognize Israeli claims to the territory because of these recent ISIL actions and because he said that modern Syria had likely "disintegrated" beyond the point of reunification.

On 17 April in the aftermath of the missile strikes against Syria by the United States , France , and the United Kingdom about Druze in the town of Ein Qiniyye , carrying Syrian flags and portraits of Bashar al-Assad , marched in support of the Syrian president on Syria's Independence day and in condemnation of the American-led strikes, chanting "Bashar defeated the terrorists" and "Bashar beat the American bombers". On 31 July , after waging a month-long military offensive against the rebels and ISIL, the Syrian government regained control of the eastern Golan Heights.

Claims on the territory include the fact that an area in northwestern of the Golan region, delineated by a rough triangle formed by the towns of Banias , Quneitra and the northern tip of the Sea of Galilee , was part of the British Palestine Mandate in which the establishment of a Jewish national home had been promised. One of the aspects of the dispute involves the existence prior to of three different lines separating Syria from the area that before was referred to as Mandatory Palestine.

From the Sea of Galilee north to Lake Hula the boundary was drawn between 50 and meters east of the upper Jordan River , keeping that stream entirely within Mandatory Palestine. The British also received a sliver of land along the Yarmouk River , out to the present-day Hamat Gader. During the Arab-Israeli War, Syria captured various areas of the formerly British controlled Mandatory Palestine , including the meter strip of beach, the east bank of the upper Jordan, as well as areas along the Yarmouk.

While negotiating the Armistice Agreements , Israel called for the removal of all Syrian forces from the former Palestine territory. Syria refused, insisting on an armistice line based not on the international border but on the military status quo. The result was a compromise. Under the terms of an armistice signed on 20 July , Syrian forces were to withdraw east of the old Palestine-Syria boundary.

Israeli forces were to refrain from entering the evacuated areas, which would become a demilitarised zone, "from which the armed forces of both Parties shall be totally excluded, and in which no activities by military or paramilitary forces shall be permitted. There were three distinct, non-contiguous enclaves—in the extreme northeast to the west of Banias, on the west bank of the Jordan River near Lake Hula, and the eastern-southeastern shores of the Sea of Galilee extending out to Hamat Gader, consisting of Following the armistice, both Israel and Syria sought to take advantage of the territorial ambiguities left in place by the agreement.

This resulted in an evolving tactical situation, one "snapshot" of which was the disposition of forces immediately prior to the Six-Day War , the "line of June 4, ". After Israeli troops left Lebanese soil , the UN announced the resolution had been respected. However, Lebanon continues to claim a small portion of the area occupied by Israel and administered as part of the Golan Heights.

The territory, known as the Shebaa Farms , measures 22 square kilometres 8. Maps used by the UN in demarcating the Blue Line were not able to conclusively show the border between Lebanon and Syria in the area. Syria agrees that the Shebaa Farms are within Lebanese territory; however, Israel considers the area to be inside of Syria's borders and continues to occupy the territory. The village of Ghajar is another complex border issue west of Shebaa farms. Before the war this Alawite village was in Syria. Residents of Ghajar accepted Israeli citizenship in Residents of both parts hold Israeli citizenship, and in the northern part often a Lebanese passport as well.

Today the entire village is surrounded by a fence, with no division between the Israeli-occupied and Lebanese sides. There is an Israeli army checkpoint at the entrance to the village from the rest of the Golan Heights. The international community, with the exception of the United States, considers the Golan to be Syrian territory held under Israeli occupation. Currently there are more than 1, UN peacekeepers there trying to sustain a lasting peace.

The great strategic value of the Heights both militarily and as a source of water means that a deal is uncertain. Members of the UN Disengagement force are usually the only individuals who cross the Israeli-Syrian de facto border cease fire "Alpha Line" , but since Israel has allowed Druze pilgrims to cross into Syria to visit the shrine of Abel on Mount Qasioun.

Since , Druze brides have been allowed to cross into Syria, although they do so in the knowledge that they may not be able to return. Though the cease fire in the UNDOF zone has been largely uninterrupted since the seventies, in there were repeated violations from the Syrian side, including tanks [] and live gunfire, [] though these incidents are attributed to the ongoing Syrian Civil War rather than intentionally directed towards Israel. Israel demolished over one hundred Syrian villages and farms in the Golan Heights. Quneitra was the largest town in the Golan Heights until , with a population of 27, It was occupied by Israel on the last day of the Six-Day War and handed back to Syrian civil control per the Disengagement Agreement.

But the Israelis had destroyed Quneitra with dynamite and bulldozers before they withdrew from the city. The population of the Quneitra Governorate numbers 79, In , there were 20, Druze with Syrian citizenship living in the Israeli-occupied portion Golan Heights. The Druze living in the Golan Heights are permanent residents of Israel. They hold laissez-passers issued by the Israeli government, and enjoy the country's social-welfare benefits.

Hence their fear of a return to Syria, though most of them identify themselves as Syrian, [] but feel alienated from the " autocratic " government in Damascus. According to the Associated Press , "many young Druse have been quietly relieved at the failure of previous Syrian-Israeli peace talks to go forward. The Economist likewise reported that "Some optimists see the future Golan as a sort of Hong Kong , continuing to enjoy the perks of Israel's dynamic economy and open society , while coming back under the sovereignty of a stricter , less developed Syria.

Since , Druze clerics have been permitted to make annual religious pilgrimages to Syria. Since , Israel has allowed Druze farmers to export some 11, tons of apples to the rest of Syria each year, constituting the first commercial relations between Syria and Israel. Since the breakout of the Syrian Civil War in , the number of applications for Israeli citizenship is growing, although Syrian loyalty remains strong and those who apply for citizenship are often ostracized by members of the older generation. Israeli settlement activity began in the s.

The area was governed by military administration until when Israel passed the Golan Heights Law , which extended Israeli law and administration throughout the territory. The international community rejects the validity of the Golan Heights Law as an attempted annexation by force, illegal under the UN Charter and the Geneva Conventions. The Israeli-occupied territory is administered by the Golan Regional Council , based in Katzrin , which has a population of 6, There are another 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim.

In , the Israeli settler population was 10, On 23 April , Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced that he will bring a resolution for government approval to name a new community in the Golan Heights after U. President Donald Trump. The Golan Heights features numerous archeological sites, mountains, streams and waterfalls. Throughout the region 62 ancient synagogues have been found dating back to the Roman and Byzantine periods.

Banias is an ancient site that developed around a spring once associated with the Greek god Pan. Kursi is the ruins of a Byzantine Christian monastery. Katzrin is the administrative and commercial center of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. Katzrin Ancient Village is an archaeological site on the outskirts of Katzrin where the remains of a Talmud -era village and synagogue have been reconstructed.

A special focus concerns Gamla and excavations of synagogues and Byzantine churches.

Golan Heights Winery , a major Israeli winery , and the mineral water plant of Mey Eden , which derives its water from the spring of Salukiya in the Golan. One can tour these factories as well as factories of oil products and fruit products. Two open air strip malls , one which holds the Kesem ha-Golan Golan Magic , a three-dimensional movie and model of the geography and history of the Golan Heights.

It is also the site of a large waterfall, an ancient Byzantine church, and a panoramic spot to observe the nearly vultures that dwell in the cliffs. Israeli scientists study the vultures and tourists can watch them fly and nest. Rujm el-Hiri is a large circular stone monument similar to Stonehenge. Excavations since have not uncovered material remains common to archaeological sites in the region. Archaeologists believe the site may have been a ritual center linked to a cult of the dead. Um el Kanatir is another impressive set of standing ruins of a Jewish village of the Byzantine era.

The site includes a very large synagogue and two arches next to a natural spring. The Nimrod Fortress was built against the Crusaders , served the Ayyubids and Mamluks , and was captured only once, in , by the Mongols.

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It is now located inside a nature reserve. A ski resort on the slopes of Mount Hermon features a wide range of ski trails and activities. Several restaurants are located in the area. The Lake Ram crater lake is nearby. The archaeological site includes excavations of the city's forum, the small imperial cult temple, a large Hellenistic temple compound, the Roman city gates, and two Byzantine churches. On a visit to Israel and the Golan Heights in , Cornelius Ough, a professor of viticulture and oenology at the University of California, Davis , pronounced conditions in the Golan very suitable for the cultivation of wine grapes.

During the Yitzhak Rabin administration — , the permits were suspended as efforts were undertaken to restart peace negotiations between Israel and Syria. During that time, it was decided that INOC's drilling permits would be returned to the state. Human rights groups have said the drilling violates international law as Golan Heights is an occupied territory.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Disputed territory. Main article: Status of the Golan Heights. Main article: Syrian towns and villages depopulated in the Arab—Israeli conflict. The US is the first country to recognize the Golan as Israeli territory, while the rest of the international community still considers it Syrian territory occupied by Israel [3] [4].

The situation of workers of the occupied Arab territories International government publication ed. International Labour Office. In , a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by —1 in favour of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees , United Nations, 5 December Also, "the Golan Heights, a square mile portion of southwestern Syria that Israel occupied during the Arab-Israeli war.

Retrieved 27 March Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 November Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land Paperback ed. Ancient synagogues: historical analysis and archaeological discovery. Retrieved 2 March Meyers Oxford University Press. Jewish Virtual Library. Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 4 December United Nations. Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 25 March The White House. The New York Times. Myers Cambridge University Press. Brill Academic Publishers.

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Schmidt, A. Bundschu, Charles. Germans in San Francisco ff. See Gold'nen Thor in Periodical File. Germans in San Jose :. See bookplate of San Jose Deutschen B. Sonntagschule in CHS Collection. Germans in San Francisco - ca. Liberty Loan Third , SF. San Francisco Schuetzen-Verein. Loomis, Charles Grand, The German theater in SF. Berkely, Univ. Press Germans in San Francisco. Order der Hermanns-Sohne, SF. Neuzehnhundertste Jahresfeier der Schlacht im Teutoburger Wald.

Hermanns-Soehne, Germans in San Franisco View of Turnfest, May , in SF. Wild West newspaper. Churches in SF. German Lutheren Chruch. North side Pine St. Markde "tt" on U. Coast Survey at the Mechanics Institute. March 10, Germans in San Francisco :. Goethe-Schiller Denkmal Gesellschaft. Erinneringen an den "Deutschen Tag" der Calif.

Midwinter intenational exposition Goethe -Schiller Denkmal Gesellschaft. Kadelburg, Heinrich. Fuenfzehn Jahre des deutschen Theaters in SF. Kaufmann, Heinrich. Translated from. Compiled by Heinrich Kaufmann. Press of the Louis Roesch Co. At head of title: Hansen Co. Erstes Saengerfest des Pacific Saengerbundes. September 1,2,3 und. San Francisco , the Hansen Co. Constitution and by-laws, SF. German General Benevolent Society. Allgemeine Deutschen Unterstuetzungs-. Gesellschaft SF. Sigel Rifles, SF. Fusilier Co. Independent Order of.

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