However, there is also a prevailing belief in Hindu astronomy that this conjunction takes place at the beginning of a Day and Night of Brahma, comprising of a Yuga Cycles. Similar information regarding the conjunction of planets is also present in the ancient Greek texts. There can be no doubt that the BC date for the Kali Yuga was not based on any information in the Surya Siddhanta or any other Sanskrit text.
The end of the Kali Yuga in 2025: Unraveling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle
The date virtually pops out of nowhere. Before CE, this date was not mentioned in any Sanskrit text. From where, then, did Aryabhatta obtain this date? There seems to be no indication that Aryabhatta had computed this date himself. There is a single, stray reference to this date in the Sanskrit text Aryabhatiya, where Aryabhatta mentions that the text was composed 3, years into the Kali Yuga, when he was 23 years old.
The statement, by itself, does not reveal any information about the astronomical basis on which the date was calculated, or whether the calculation was performed by Aryabhatta himself. It is possible that this date was adopted by Aryabhatta from some other source. The vagueness surrounding the origin of this date makes its validity highly suspect.
The task of figuring out this date from the ancient Sanskrit texts, however, is fraught with difficulties, since a number of inaccuracies have crept into the Yuga Cycle information contained within them. However, certain texts, such as the Mahabharata and the Laws of Manu , still retain the original value of the Yuga Cycle as 12, years.
Many other ancient cultures — the Chaldeans, Zoroastrians and Greeks — also believed in a 12, year Cycle of the Ages. The renowned Sanskrit scholar and nationalist leader of India, B. Tilak had mentioned in his book, The Arctic Home in the Vedas , that:. Yukteswar also clarified in the book The Holy Science , that a complete Yuga Cycle takes 24, years, and is comprised of an ascending cycle of 12, years when virtue gradually increases and a descending cycle of another 12, years, in which virtue gradually decreases.
Interestingly, the Surya Siddhanta specifies a value of 54 arc seconds per year for precession, as against the current value of This translates into a Precessional Year of exactly 24, years! This raises the possibility that the current observed value of precession may simply be a temporary deviation from the mean.
Satya Yuga (Dawn Of Golden Age)
The concept of an ascending and descending cycle of Yugas is not a proposition that Yukteswar conjured out of thin air. This idea is still prevalent among the Jains of India, who are one of the oldest religious sects of the country. The Jains believe that a complete Time Cycle Kalachakra has a progressive and a regressive half. During the progressive half of the cycle Utsarpini , there is a gradual increase in knowledge, happiness, health, ethics, and spirituality, while during the regressive half of the cycle Avasarpini there is a gradual reduction in these qualities.
Each half cycle is comprised of six smaller periods, and together these two half cycles constitute a complete Time Cycle. These two half cycles follow each other in an unbroken succession for eternity, just like the cycles of day and night or the waxing and waning of the moon. It is possible that Yukteswar may have been influenced by the belief system of the ancient Jains; or he may have based his ideas on ancient oral traditions that are not a part of the mainstream documented knowledge.
The idea of an ascending and descending Cycle of Ages was also prevalent in Greek myths. The Greek poet Hesiod c. This is highly interesting. The evidence from different sources supports the notion of a complete Yuga Cycle of 24, years, comprised of an ascending and descending cycle of 12, years each. This brings us to the question of the relative durations of the different Yugas in the Yuga Cycle, and the transitional periods, which occur at the beginning and end of each Yuga, and are known as Sandhya dawn and Sandhyansa twilight respectively. The following values are provided in the Sanskrit texts for the duration of the Yugas and their respective dawns and twilights.
Since so many inaccuracies have crept into the Yuga Cycle doctrine, as pointed out by Yukteswar and Tilak, we also need to question the accuracy of the relative durations of the Yugas mentioned in the Sanskrit texts. This is quite surprising. Nearly all the accounts tell us that virtue and righteousness decreases as we move from the Golden Age to the subsequent ages.
Some of them specifically mention that virtue decreases by a quarter in every age. However, there appears to be scant mention of the durations of the ages themselves. In the few accounts where the durations of the Yuga are specified, we find that each age in the Yuga Cycle is of the same duration.
For instance, the Zoroastrians believe that the world lasts for 12, years, which is divided into four equal ages of 3, years each. A Mexican source known as the Codex Rios also referred to as Codex and Codex Vaticanus A states that each age lasts for , , and years respectively for a total of 17, years. We can see that in this case also the duration of each age is nearly the same. Therefore, the durations of the four Yugas mentioned in the Sanskrit texts i. The duration of each Yuga, in this sequence, decreases by years from the previous one.
This is an arithmetic progression which is rarely, if ever, found in natural cycles. This seemingly unnatural sequence raises the question whether the Yuga durations were deliberately altered at some point in the past, in order to give the impression that the duration of each Yuga decreases in tandem with the decrease in virtue from one Yuga to the next. This gives the superficial impression that the duration of each Yuga is reducing by a quarter from one to the next.
But that is actually not the case. They are decreasing by a fixed number of years i. Here is the most startling fact: Two of the most famous astronomers of ancient India, Aryabhatta and Paulisa, both believed that the Yuga Cycle is comprised of Yugas of equal duration!
In the 11 th century, the medieval scholar Al-Beruni had travelled across India for 13 years, questioning and conversing with learned men, reading the Sanskrit texts, observing the religious rites and customs, and had compiled a comprehensive commentary on Indian philosophy, sciences and culture. He makes an interesting statement in this regard:.
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The fact that Aryabhatta believed the four yugas to be of equal duration is extremely pertinent! Did he have access to sources of information that are lost to us now? Surprisingly, it was not only Aryabhatta, who held this point of view. The latter number represents three-fourths of the years of a caturyuga.
This clearly indicates that two of the most respected astronomers of ancient India, Aryabhatta and Paulisa, believed in a Yuga Cycle that comprised of 4 Yugas of equal duration of 3, divine-years each. However, their opinion was overshadowed by the contradictory view held by Brahmagupta. He railed against Aryabhatta and the other astronomers who held differing opinions, and even abused them. Al-Beruni says about Brahmagupta:. They are not capable of letting him see their faces. It is possible that this manipulation was introduced because people were inclined to believe that the duration of a Yuga should decrease in tandem with the decrease in virtue and human longetivity from one Yuga to the next.
A neat formula was devised in which the total duration of the Yugas added up to 12, years. However, there was one problem. If the Kali Yuga is of 1, years duration, then it should have been completed many times over, since its proposed beginning in BC. In order to circumvent this potentially embarrassing situation, another complexity was introduced. Humanity became consigned to an interminable duration of darkness. The original Yuga Cycle doctrine appears to have been very simple: A Yuga Cycle duration of 12, years, with each Yuga lasting for 3, years.
It was used extensively during the Maurya period in the 4 th century BC, and is still in use in some parts of India. They are regarded as the enlightened rishis who appear at the beginning of every Yuga to spread the laws of civilization. In accordance with the current convention, this intervening period can be broken up into two separate periods of years each, one occurring at the beginning of the Yuga, known as Sandhya i.
It is agreed by historians that the Saptarsi Calendar that was in use during the Maurya period in the 4 th century BC, started in BC. In fact, the recorded choronology of Indian kings goes back further than BC as documented by the Greek and Roman historians Pliny and Arrian. It is obvious from the accounts of Pliny and Arrian that they must have identified a specific king in the Indian kings list, who corresponded to the Greek Dionysus or Roman Bacchus, and whose reign had ended at around c.
Who could that have been? Rama is also found, in other points, to resemble the Indian Bacchus. Both Pliny and Arrian were aware of these associations. The identification of Dionysus with Rama provides us with fresh perspectives. This implies that the BC date for the beginning of the Saptarsi Calendar, which is a years after Dionysus i.
Rama, indicates the beginning of the Dwapara Yuga in the descending cycle. But, as Dr. As Magha is the tenth naksatra in a count beginning with Asvin, one needs to add years to find the epoch for the beginning of the cycle. This takes one to BC. One more complete Saptarsi Cycle of 2, years before that brings us to BC. We also know that the Saptarsi Calendar used during the Mauryan period was used for tracking the genealogical records of the Mahabharata war kings. Since the Mahabharata describes events that transpired in the Dwapara Yuga, there cannot be any doubt that the Saptarsi Cycle beginning BC marks the beginning of the descending Dwapara Yuga.
If we use this date as the anchor point, and the Saptarsi Calendar as the basis for the Yuga Cycle durations i. Yuga duration of 2, years, with transitional periods of years , then the entire timeline of the Yuga Cycle gets unraveled:.
This agrees very well with the Indian tradition, since the Mahabharata mentions that in the ancient tradition the Shravana nakshatra was given the first place in the Nakshatra cycle. The timeline also indicates that the ascending Kali Yuga, which is the current epoch in which we are living, will end in CE. The full manifestation of the next Yuga — the ascending Dwapara — will take place in CE, after a transitional period of years.
The ascending Dwapara Yuga will then be followed by two more Yugas: the ascending Treta Yuga and the ascending Satya Yuga, which will complete the 12, year ascending cycle. Here, Krishna says that after 5, years of Kali Yuga there will be a dawn of a new Golden Age which will last for 10, years Text 50, This can be immediately understood in the context of the Yuga Cycle timeline described here. We are now ending the Kali Yuga, nearly 5, years since its beginning in BC. And the end of the Kali Yuga will be followed by three more Yugas spanning 9, years, before the ascending cycle ends.
Sri Yukteswar’s Hindu Yuga system
According to the Yuga Cycle doctrine, the transitional periods between Yugas are always associated with a worldwide collapse of civilizations and severe environmental catastrophes, which wipe out virtually every trace of any human civilization. The new civilization that emerges in the new Yuga is guided by a few survivors of the cataclysm, who carry with them the technical and spiritual knowledge of the previous epoch. They possessed infinite wisdom and power, could travel over land and water, and took on various forms at will.
Were they the survivors of the previous Yuga or visitors from outer space? Opinions differ on this point, but surely neither option can be discarded without proper scrutiny.
In any case, the main point is that the transitional periods between Yugas must necessarily correlate with the severe cataclysmic events that regularly impact our planet, as reflected in the archeological records. As we shall see, the Yuga Cycle timeline proposed here correlates with these catastrophic events with a stunning accuracy. In addition, the transitional periods can also be correlated with dates recorded in various ancient calendars and traditions. This is the time when the last Ice Age came to a sudden end; the climate became very warm quite abruptly, and several large mammalian species such as the woolly mammoth became extinct.
A number of scientific studies show that a devastating global flood occurred at around BC. This event has also been recorded in the flood myths of many ancient cultures, which almost uniformly talk of enormous walls of water that submerged the entire land to the highest mountain tops, accompanied by heavy rain, fireballs from the sky, intense cold and long periods of darkness.
When Does the Kali Yuga End? – New Dawn : The World's Most Unusual Magazine
The survivor of this great deluge was Manu, the progenitor of mankind, who is placed at the head of the genealogy of Indian kings. What could have led to this sudden worldwide deluge? Archaeologist Bruce Masse of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico had examined a sample of flood myths from different cultures around the world and concluded that the environmental aspects described in these events, which is also consistent with the archaeological and geophysical data, could have only been precipitated by a destructive, deep-water, oceanic comet impact.
More recently, in , an international team of scientists concluded that the earth was bombarded by a meteorite storm nearly 12, years ago, which effectively ended the ice age, and led to the end of a prehistoric civilization and the extinction of many animal species. The Black Sea once used to be a freshwater lake. That is, until the Mediterranean Sea, swollen with melted glacial waters, breached a natural dam, and cut through the narrow Bosphorous Strait, catastrophically flooding the Black Sea.
The Mahabharata mentions that Dwapara Yuga was over soon after Krishna left this world; and then the seas swelled up during a storm, and submerged the island-city of Dwarka, which was located off the coast of western India. This further lends support to the inference  that the present Kali-Yuga began in BC. End of Kaliyuga: In an earlier article  we had presented details of the estimated total span of Kaliyuga which sans the twilight transition periods is about years.
Hence, considering the above-stated date of the time of onset of Kaliyuga, we can easily see that we are currently going through the last decade of the Kaliyuga, which would end by CE. Scriptural descriptions of different traditions also indicate  approximately similar dates regarding end of the Dark Age Kaliyuga. For instance c. That means, by CE, the world will see the manifestation of a Golden Age. This corresponds to the predictions of the Bhagvat cited above , as the specific alignment of the Sun, Moon and Jupiter had occurred on 1 st August AD.
This can be immediately understood in the context of the span of Kali-Yuga described in this article. And the complete end of the Kali-Yuga will be followed by the ascending phase of three successively brighter eras of bliss, benevolence, peace and prosperity spanning over years. Reference:  Burgess E. Oriental Soc. Vol VI. The book also contains detailed commentary by the author.
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Unraveling the Yuga Cycle Timeline. Part-I of a Web Article. Bulletin of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research. And Shambhudass editors : Change of Era — When? Yug-Parivartana Kaise aur Kaba? Akhand Jyoti Sansthan, Mathura.