Eggs are a primary and inexpensive more Animal welfare is now becoming an increasingly prominent international issue, and as such, will potentially affect not only the United States, but animal production practices globally. The OIE began the process of developing global standards and also proposed a definition of animal welfare, which has been accepted by the OIE member countries and territories:.
Animal welfare is how an animal copes with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if as indicated by scientific evidence it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behaviour, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear, and distress. Good animal welfare requires disease prevention and appropriate veterinary treatment, shelter, management and nutrition, humane handling and humane euthanasia or humane slaughter….
OIE, This definition echoes many of the points in the Five Freedoms. The OIE already has global animal welfare standards for transport and slaughter as well as the production of beef and chicken, which are the two most internationally traded commodities. Genetic selection should always take into account the health and welfare of animals. The physical environment, including the substrate walking surface, resting surface, etc. Political factors and policy development have considerable influence on animal agriculture decision making and therefore necessarily affect the future research agenda.
Requirements for animal production and trade in animal protein products vary widely from country to country. Additionally, policies that affect animal agriculture in the United States and other countries are dynamic and change over time. Likewise, research needs are not static and must consider the shifting political realities and controlling policy decisions.
Examples of policies that affect animal agricultural research needs are easy to find. The United States has an aggressive ethanol production mandate that has resulted in dramatic price increases in corn, with cascading impacts on land uses, especially in the Midwest Donner and Kucharik, ; Wright and Wimberly, The increase in ethanol production in the United States compels the need for additional research in alternative feeds for animal production, a topic that would not be a top priority except that it arises from ethanol policy.
Internationally, however, China, Russia, Taiwan, and other countries have banned the use of beta-agonists Centner et al. Differing international requirements create trade and production challenges to animal agriculture industries. Protein trade is also subject to disparate phytosanitary inspection practices at international borders which may not be related to food safety but instead are designed to address unrelated political concerns. The trade implications of animal welfare standards are becoming obvious in Thailand, Argentina, and other rapidly developing countries, which are increasing their export markets for animal products by producing according to EU- or European country—specific standards Bowles et al.
In addition, some multinational companies are beginning to harmonize and enforce their animal welfare standards or preferences globally. For example, Unilever recently announced that after having significantly increased its purchase of cage-free eggs in Europe and the United States, it will purchase only cage-free eggs globally by WorldPoultry, These types of changes could have significant effects on global development of animal agriculture as well as the level of food availability by influencing which producers can supply to those companies, potentially favoring larger, better-capitalized producers able not only to produce sufficient products but to commit resources toward ensuring compliance.
Although partly attributable to social habits and practices, food waste and food loss are other areas that are driven by policy choices. Food safety requirements and government-imposed shelf-life requirements related to mandatory expiration dates cause considerable loss of food regardless of actual health threats. The loss of this food volume has been estimated to be approximately one-third of food produced for human consumption Gustavsson et al. Government-imposed political and policy choices certainly present an ongoing challenge concerning the future considerations and corresponding direction of animal research efforts going forward.
Even if a food animal system in some region of the world is considered to be sustainable in an environmental or social sense, it cannot thrive or survive unless that system is also economically sustainable. Animal industries face economic constraints from numerous sources, including domestic and international regulations and trade barriers, market structure, knowledge, access to resources, financing, access to veterinary care, cost of inputs, and technology Box These constraints are not uniform throughout the world and can vary even within regions. For example, producers in developed countries, utilizing more intensive systems may be constrained by government intervention in the markets, whereas smallholders in developing countries may be more constrained by risk and uncertainties in weather and market vagaries in the regions where they operate Jarvis, Economic Forces in Animal Agriculture.
The role of economic forces in constraining the ability of livestock industries to meet growing food demand and contribute to global food security can be illustrated by adapting the Mosher framework as elaborated more The sustainability of food animal production is particularly affected by existing economic policies Schillhorn, ; Upton, ; Otte et al.
Policies that enhance the efficient functioning of markets allow food animal producers to receive appropriate signals regarding resource allocation and costs Upton, Food animal markets are sensitive to both economic and technical forces Steinfeld et al. Consequently, food animal development strategies and policies must be informed by a clear understanding of not only the various production constraints faced by producers in and across regions and countries but also the demand for different food animal products Otte et al.
Paris-compliant healthy food systems Archives - Global Food Security
Although government intervention in markets is often distortive, some intervention is justified on various social grounds, such as protection of populations from animal diseases and communities from land grabbing, the restriction of imports to protect producers from international dumping, or the need to initiate long-term industry development Upton, In general, food animal development in most countries can improve domestic welfare, help alleviate poverty, and reduce food security concerns if food animal markets operate free of distortive intervention and investments are made in complementary research, infrastructure, and animal health programs to support the sustainable growth of the industry Jarvis, , ; Schillhorn, ; Otte et al.
Historically, research, education, and nondistorted market signals have proven fruitful in the development of sustainable food animal production. Animal production systems are complex, and decisions about the direction of future research needed to improve their sustainability are influenced by an array of factors identified in this chapter.
Peterson characterizes the wicked problem of sustainability in animal agriculture as having four properties: 1 no definitive formulation of the problem exists; 2 its solution is not true or false, but rather better or worse; 3 stakeholders have radically different frames of reference concerning the problem; and 4 the underlying cause-and-effect relationships related to the problem are complex, systemic, and either unknown or highly uncertain.
Systems approaches have been advocated as a means to address wicked problems Williams and van't Hof, Much of the sustainability predicament stems from differences in values and interests from the different stakeholders involved Norton, Additionally, stakeholders in animal agriculture come from different sections of the production chain e. Different vocabularies are also used in different animal sciences disciplines and related fields of study e.
The sustainability of animal agriculture is further complicated because it involves addressing other inherently challenging problems, such as climate change, animal welfare, and food security. There is a temptation to try to resolve these kinds of complex problems by developing quantitative models. However, unintended or unforeseen consequences and externalities associated with a change in animal production will always exist and accordingly fall outside the capabilities of any model or research framework employed. Furthermore, integrating sustainability metrics is also influenced by values, which inevitably leads to a decision about what metrics are more important and how much more important e.
Many animal scientists are not trained to consider the role of their own and others' values in making decisions about sustainability issues related to the animal sciences. Ignoring differences in values, including differences in risk tolerance, creates significant challenges in making the problems associated with sustainability easier to solve. Incorporating quantitative approaches, such as participatory strategies Swanson et al.
Animal science research can contribute to assessments of sustainability by providing data that reduce the uncertainty about underlying causes and effects and define degrees of risk Goldstein, The involvement of social scientists in addressing these complex issues will lead to animal science research and technology transfer that is more relevant and consequential. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. Health and Disease Animal Health and Disease Considerable challenges to the health and well-being of animals and humans are presented by animal disease pathogens.
Related to research, the report recommends expanding fundamental research relevant to developing new antibiotics and alternatives for treating bacterial infections, including requesting dedicated funds for the National Institutes of Health NIH and FDA to support fundamental research aimed at understanding and overcoming antibiotic resistance, and for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA and Defense Threat Reduction Agency DTRA to support non-traditional approaches to overcoming antibiotic resistance. Animal Health During the last few decades, various regions of the world were infected with serious zoonotic diseases such as immunodeficiency viruses, SARS, MERS, and reemerging diseases such as tuberculosis, undulant fever and Rift Valley fever.
Food Safety Food safety concerns pertinent to foods of animal origin often relate to Salmonella, parasite infections, antibiotic residues, Listeria, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, and Clostridium. Antimicrobials Antimicrobials and improvement in vaccine efficiency have saved millions of human lives.
Sociocultural Considerations As discussed above, animal science research has contributed to remarkable increases in the production efficiency of agricultural animals. Community Welfare The number of hungry and malnourished people, due to the recent sharp increase in food prices both nationally and internationally, has increased the awareness of policy makers and of the general public to the fragility of the global food system.
Animal Welfare Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape the acceptability and adoption of food animal production technologies. Policy Constraints Political factors and policy development have considerable influence on animal agriculture decision making and therefore necessarily affect the future research agenda. Economic Considerations Even if a food animal system in some region of the world is considered to be sustainable in an environmental or social sense, it cannot thrive or survive unless that system is also economically sustainable.
Taming the unruly side of ethics: Overcoming challenges of a bottom-up approach to ethics in the areas of climate change and food security. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. Asche F. Atkinson D, Watson CA. The environmental impact of intensive systems of animal production in the lowlands.
Animal Science. Peak farmland and the prospect for land sparing. Population and Development Review. The Veterinarian's Role in Animal Welfare. The potential effects of climate change on ecosystem processes and cattle production on U. Climatic Change. Baro M, Deubel TF. Persistent hunger: Perspectives on vulnerability, famine, and food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Reviews of Anthropology.
Beef Central. Brazil's exports impacted by beta agonist use. Bertrand S. Animal welfare and developing countries: Opportunities for trade in high-welfare products from developing countries. Revue Scientifique et Technique. Boyd G, Roger C. Swine Herd: Brambell FWR, editor. Branson EJ, editor. Fish Welfare. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell; Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; A year comparison of the environmental impact and resource use of the U.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Capper JL. The environmental impact of beef production in the United States: compared with Journal of Animal Science. Should we reject animal source foods to save the planet? A review of the sustainability of global livestock production. South African Journal of Animal Science.
The environmental impact of dairy production: compared with Achievements in public health, Control of infectious diseases. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States. Press Briefing Transcript. Beta agonists in livestock feed: Status, health concerns, and international trade. Chicago Council on Global Affairs.
Chicago: Chicago Council on Global Affairs; Clay J. Consumer acceptance, valuation of and attitudes towards genetically modified food: Review and implications for food policy. Food Policy. A method using sustainability indicators to compare conventional and animal-friendly egg production systems.
Poultry Science. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Corn-based ethanol production compromises goal of reducing nitrogen export by the Mississippi River; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; EC European Commission. Edgerton MD. Increasing crop productivity to meet global needs for feed, food, and fuel.
- Food and nutrition security and sustainability transitions in food systems.
- A planetary health approach to secure, safe, sustainable food systems: workshop report.
- The America Play by Susan Lori-Parks: An Analysis;
- Checking Her Cherry (the *original* taboo tale)!
Plant Physiology. Nutrient, carbon, and mass loss during composting of beef cattle feedlot manure. Journal of Environmental Quality.
EPA U. Environmental Protection Agency. FAO; Rome: FAO; How to Feed the World in Rome: FAO; a. Rome: FAO; b. Gateway to Farm Animal Welfare. Ferket PR. Poultry nutrition moves towards higher standards. World Poultry; General principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: The underlying science and its application. Veterinary Journal. The impact of animal production systems on the nitrogen cycle. Washington, DC: Island Press; Gapminder Agriculture. Goldstein BD. The precautionary principle and scientific research are not antithetical.
Environmental Health Perspectives. The epidemiology of infections caused by Escherichia coli OH7, other enterohemorrhagic E. Epidemiologic Reviews. Penang, Malaysia: World Fish Center; Stirling, UK: Institute of Aquaculture; Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; Ecological services to and from rangelands of the United States.
Ecological Economics. Livestock, livelihoods and the environment: Understanding the trade-offs. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1; Hribar C. Green Revolution: Curse or Blessing? Jarvis LS. Cattle as capital goods and ranchers as portfolio managers: An application to the Argentine cattle sector.
Journal of Political Economy. Livestock Development in Latin America.
FUTURE DEMAND FOR ANIMAL PROTEIN
Washington, DC: World Bank; Journal of Environmental Management. Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. One health, food security, and veterinary medicine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Veterinary medicine's increasing role in global health. Lancet Global Health. Kerr S. Food supply and food safety issues in China.
Food Values Applied to Livestock Products. Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in Food values. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Measuring Methane Production from Ruminants. By the world's population is projected to grow by one-third, reaching between 9 and By the world's population is projected to grow by one-third, reaching between 9 and 10 billion.
With globalization and expected growth in global affluence, a substantial increase in per capita meat, dairy, and fish consumption is also anticipated. Food for the Gods. Although he? Using a political-economic approach supplemented with insights from human ecology, this volume analyses the long-term Using a political-economic approach supplemented with insights from human ecology, this volume analyses the long-term dynamics of food security and economic growth.
The book begins by discussing the nature of preindustrial food crises and the changes that have occurred since This publication contains the main report of a study championing the case for increased public This publication contains the main report of a study championing the case for increased public support to agricultural and food security in sub-Saharan Africa SSA. It advances some main reasons why agriculture in SSA deserves more public support. SSA governments Food Security and Poverty in Asia and the.
Ensuring a secure supply of food is essential, given the world's and especially Asia's growing Ensuring a secure supply of food is essential, given the world's and especially Asia's growing population, high and volatile food prices, increasingly scarce resources, and changing environment. This publication discusses the drivers behind food insecurity in Asia and points to Food Security in the Middle East.
Poor soil, inefficient water use, and a lack of access to plant breeding resources, nutritious animal feed, high-quality seed, and fuel and electricity-combined with some of the most extreme environmental conditions on Earth—have made yields in crop and animal production far lower in these regions than world averages.
Lost Crops of Africa Scenes of starvation have drawn the world's attention to Africa's agricultural and environmental crisis. Some observers question whether this continent can ever hope to feed its growing population.
Yet there is an overlooked food resource in sub-Saharan Africa that has vast potential: native food plants. Africa has more than 2, native grains and fruits—"lost" species due for rediscovery and exploitation. Lost Crops in Africa Volume I: Grains focuses on native cereals, dispelling myths about the nutritional value, flavor, and yield of African grains.
The authors present information on where and how each grain is grown, harvested, and processed and list its benefits and limitations as a food source. Lost Crops in Africa Volume II: Vegetables and Lost Crops in Africa Volume III: Fruits describe the characteristics of 18 little-known indigenous African vegetables including tubers and legumes and 24 little-known indigenous African cultivated and wild fruits that have potential as food- and cash-crops but are typically overlooked by scientists and policy makers and the world at large.
The book assesses the potential of each vegetable to help overcome malnutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and create sustainable landcare in Africa. Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology Many developing countries are exploring whether biotechnology has a role in addressing national issues such as food security and environmental remediation, and are considering the putative benefits of the technology to biodiversity, health, and local jobs.
The Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology: Workshop Report , PDF KB summarizes a workshop held in on the potential applications of biotechnology and what developing countries might consider as they contemplate adopting biotechnology.