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In order to respond to technological, demographic and socio-economic changes, education systems began to make the shift toward providing their students with a range of skills that relied not only on cognition but also on the interdependencies of cognitive, social, and emotional characteristics.
Additional research has found that the top skills demanded by U. Fortune companies by the year had shifted from traditional reading, writing and arithmetic to teamwork, problem solving, and interpersonal skills. A report from MIT researchers countered the suggestion that students acquire critical skills and competencies independently by interacting with popular culture, noting three continuing trends that suggest the need for policy and pedagogical interventions:" .
States also convened teams of teachers to assist and provide feedback as well as they looked towards the National Education Association NEA and many other education organizations to provide constructive feedback. The skills and competencies that are generally considered "21st Century skills" are varied but share some common themes. They are based on the premise that effective learning, or deeper learning , a set of student educational outcomes including acquisition of robust core academic content, higher-order thinking skills, and learning dispositions.
This pedagogy involves creating, working with others, analyzing, and presenting and sharing both the learning experience and the learned knowledge or wisdom, including to peers and mentors as well as teachers. The classification or grouping has been undertaken to encourage and promote pedagogies that facilitate deeper learning through both traditional instruction as well as active learning , project-based learning , problem based learning , and others. A survey conducted by the American Management Association AMA identified three top skills necessary for their employees: critical thinking , communication and collaboration.
The Common Core Standards issued in were intended to support the "application of knowledge through higher-order thinking skills. Skills identified for success in the areas of literacy and mathematics:  . Following the release of A Nation at Risk , the U. Secretary of Labor appointed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills SCANS to determine the skills needed for young people to succeed in the workplace to foster a high-performance economy.
SCANS focused on what they called "learning a living" system. In , they issued their initial report, What Work Requires of Schools. The report concluded that a high-performance workplace requires workers who have key fundamental skills: basic skills and knowledge, thinking skills to apply that knowledge, personal skills to manage and perform; and five key workplace competencies. The P21 organization also conducted research that identified deeper learning competencies and skills they called the Four Cs of 21st century learning:.
These in turn build on traditional foundation skills and knowledge taught in school: traditional literacy, research, technical, and critical analysis skills. The skills identified were: . The report called for policymakers and educators to define 21st century skills, highlight the relationship of those skills to conventional academic standards, and recognize the need for multiple assessments to measure and evaluate these skills within the context of academic standards and the current technological and global society.
In , member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development launched the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA to monitor "the extent to which students near the end of compulsory schooling have acquired the knowledge and skills essential for full participation in society". In they recommended that graduates of higher education attain four skills - The Essential Learning Outcomes: . They found that skills most widely addressed in college and university goals are: .
All should now proceed smoothly on that front! Once the package installation has been successfully completed go back to the project's tsconfig. This file "reset" needs to be implemented as we won't be able to transpile the application if the commented line was left untouched. Definitely not good from a development perspective! This registers the service worker file - ngsw-worker. This file will be published to the application's www directory when a production build is generated.
Creating Mobile Apps for Mastering the Common Core
As these icons use the default Angular logo you will, of course, need to replace these with your own branding but for the purposes of this tutorial we'll simply continue as is. That covers the changes so let's now create a production build we'll simply use the default Ionic project as it is and deploy that to Firebase Hosting. Now this should run smoothly without any incident but unfortunately the production build failed having thrown up the following error as of early February :.
If you find yourself encountering this delightful event and until this particular bug is fixed here's how to resolve that:. Just for reference the amended section of the project's package-lock. With these changes you should now be able to create a production build for the ionic-pwa project. With this simple install - should you need to follow this step - you should now find the ionic build --prod command succeeds and your newly generated www directory which contains our PWA production-ready build files is ready for hosting.
Firebase hosting provides the following benefits for Ionic developers looking to host their PWAs:. We then follow the Set up hosting wizard which guides us through the steps necessary to configure and enable Firebase Hosting for the selected project:. If you haven't already done so outside of this tutorial follow the Set up hosting wizard instructions and globally install the Firebase CLI to your desktop machine with the following command:. If you should encounter permission errors on a Unix based system you might need to prefix the above command with sudo.
Return back to the command line and, with the Firebase CLI now installed, log into your firebase account like so:.
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Just try to change your mental map, follow the new rules, and it will be straightforward. Adding platform specific styles to your app is another common use case that changed in Ionic 4. You may want platform-specific styles for the whole ionic app or just for certain ionic pages. Fortunately, Angular has a way to apply styles based on some condition outside of a component's view.
Sometimes we need to change the layout or some UX behaviour that goes beyond simple CSS styling adjustments. In my experience, I found two alternatives. Either I clone the original Ionic component and adjust the code to my needs or I wrap the original Ionic component with a custom element that enhances the ionic component the way I need. The first alternative will give you more flexibility as you would be able to deeply modify the code and behaviour of the component. You may also find it not that trivial as the original Ionic component may rely and depend on other Ionic components, services and utils to work.
This is the approach we are going to explore in this ionic 4 tutorial.
The idea is to build a simple wrapper component with two inputs. We are going to use both ratio width and height in combination with some css to achieve the desired behaviour. We will also add a spinner to show the user while we load the image.
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For this purpose we are going to follow this css technique to ensure the image conserves a defined aspect ratio all the time to prevent content jumping around while images load. We achieve that by calculating the aspect ratio height and set the padding-bottom value to that value:. Finally some css where we apply the css technique mentioned before and some styles to properly show and hide loading indicators while the image loads:.
We improved the user experience by preventing content jumping around the page and by showing a loading indicator while the image loads. If you want to dive into even more advanced stuff, then follow me while we build a custom web component with Stencil. Stencil is a web component compiler for building fast, reusable UI components. It was built and is maintained by the Ionic Framework Team. This means that you can generate a collection of stencil components and use them in Angular, React, Vue or Polymer without any problem.
In this ionic 4 tutorial I want to explain how to build a simple web component using Stencil to show you how easy is to build, distribute, and integrate stencil web components into a front-end framework. I really like the idea and possibilities of multi-colored SVG icons, and Stencil is the perfect tool to create one. Long gone are the times of using images and CSS sprites to make icons for the web. With the popularity of web fonts, the icon fonts have turned into the main solution for displaying icons in web projects.
They derived the same benefit from the same CSS properties as text. As a result, you have full control over color, size and styles.
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You can add effects, transforms, and decorations such as rotations, shadows or underlines. Only SVG can do this. I think this is very important because icons and illustrations in general are super powerful micro-interactions, and if we can enhance them, then we will see gains in our user experience. We need multi-color support for our icons to increase expressiveness and improve our user experience. A great example of multi-colored icons and inspiration for this example is the Iconic icon set.
An advantage to the font icon file is that all of the icons are in one file. A disadvantage to the font icon file is that all of the icons are in one file. Moreover, large font files negatively affect a webpage's time to first paint. Most of the time, it might be smarter to ask for few svgs utilizing the web component method, although if a website page needs to demonstrate numerous icons at once, the font icon might be a better choice.
Stencil has a barebones starter project that will help you getting started building web components in a breeze. This stencil starter includes all the boilerplate, project structure and major configs you will need.