Students who know the multiplication and division facts and who understand the connection between multiplication are primed to learn the division facts. To ensure that students are primed to go, use grouping and sharing diagrams like the ones below.

## Multiplying 2-digit numbers (video) | Khan Academy

These diagrams will remind students of their multiplication facts and strengthen the connection between multiplication and division. Place four counters in each of the three groups and say, Three friends have four jelly beans each. Move the counters into one large group and ask, How many jelly beans are there in total? The number of friends and the number of jelly beans each friend has. Turn the diagram upside down and ask, How many jelly beans are there in total?

Share the counters into three groups and ask, How many jelly beans are in each share? What number tells us how many jelly beans there are in total? The number of friends and the number of jelly beans for each friend. What is the same about both stories? What is different? Multiplication and division both involve equal-sized groups and a total amount. With multiplication, we know the number of groups and the size of each group. The total is unknown. However, with division we know the total amount, but need to determine either the number of groups or the size of each group.

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In Grade 2, children do begin to study multiplication itself. Quite early Chapter 1, lesson 11 , they see a model for finding the pairings of objects from two sets in the context of phonics! Over the course of the year, they will use the intersection model for pairing shirts and pants, building two-story Lego buildings, counting how many sandwiches with various choices of bread and fillingâ€¦ See multiplication. The several chapters on multiplication in Think Math!

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Through grade 3, the focus is on what multiplication and division are, on developing facts and images, and on showing some of the uses e. In Grades 4 and 5, we use the same images to develop the algorithms for multiplication and division. See, for example, Think Math! Grade 4, Ch 2. We can picture 3x4 as an array and count the tiles.

In principle, we can also draw a 26x48 array and count the tiles, but counting one by one becomes impractical: too tedious, too unreliable. We can "sketch" the idea and count more efficiently. Here is a picture that shows, in fact, every tile, but the heavy lines and the colors help group regions that can be counted in simpler ways. The blue region is made up of large 10x10 squares, so some mathematical understanding saves us from counting the tiles in each square; we can just count the eight hundreds.

The red and yellow regions contain rectangles one of whose dimensions is 10; again, we can use mathematical knowledge multiplication by 10 to "count" the tiles in these regions. Attention also plays an important role by allowing children to monitor their efforts; for instance, to slow down and pace themselves while doing math, if needed. Temporal-Sequential Ordering and Spatial Ordering While temporal-sequential ordering involves appreciating and producing information in a particular sequential order, spatial ordering involves appreciating and producing information in an appropriate form.

Each plays an important role in mathematical abilities. Levine points out that "Math is full of sequences. Sequencing ability allows children to put things, do things, or keep things in the right order. For example, to count from one to ten requires presenting the numbers in a definite order. When solving math problems, children usually are expected to do the right steps in a specific order to achieve the correct answer. Recognizing symbols such as numbers and operation signs, being able to visualize -- or form mental images -- are aspects of spatial perception that are important to succeeding in math.

The ability to visualize as a teacher talks about geometric forms or proportion, for example, can help children store information in long-term memory and can help them anchor abstract concepts. In a similar fashion, visualizing multiplication may help students understand and retain multiplication rules. The Developing Math Student Some math skills obviously develop sequentially.

A child cannot begin to add numbers until he knows that those numbers represent quantities.

## Think Multiplication to Make Division Facts Easy

Certain skills, on the other hand, seem to exist more or less independently of certain other, even very advanced, skills. A high school student, for example, who regularly makes errors of addition and subtraction, may still be capable of extremely advanced conceptual thinking. The fact that math skills are not necessarily learned sequentially means that natural development is very difficult to chart and, thus, problems are equally difficult to pin down.

Educators do, nevertheless, identify sets of expected milestones for a given age and grade as a means of assessing a child's progress. Learning specialists, including Dr.

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Levine, pay close attention to these stages in hopes of better understanding what can go wrong and when. Levine outlines many of these milestones for four age groups, pre-school through grade Additional information about milestones and K math curriculum is available on The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Web site. NCTM's Principles and Standards for School Mathematics outlines grade-by-grade recommendations for classroom mathematics instruction for both content matter and process.

Basics of Mathematics Mathematics is often thought of as a subject that a student either understands or doesn't, with little in between. UP CLOSE: The Culture of Math Math and the jobs of the future It is tempting for a parent to dismiss a child's math disability, especially when the parent has a history with a similar learning problem. For many people, mathematics is the most difficult and intimidating school subject they will ever face.

### Basics of Mathematics

It is commonly thought of as a subject that either comes naturally to a person or will never be easy. Not long ago in the United States, math was a subject that could be fairly easily avoided in the professional world. In , only nine percent of all jobs were considered technical. Opportunities abounded, even for those who struggled in math. If you disliked the subject or felt you were incapable of grasping mathematical concepts, you simply settled into a career that allowed you to avoid working with numbers.