Emil Augustus and The Fight for Freedom

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Patrick O'Toole. Larry Dunne. Monty Fitch. Rene Latour. Gray dedicates his cameo to the memory of. Kilorenzos Smith in Talks Himself - Winner. Himself - Guest. TV Series Himself - Wetten, dass..? Himself - Singer. Show and Trailer Tribute! Governor Anthony Cloyden Hayes. TV Movie documentary Himself. Lawrence uncredited. Lawrence clip from Lawrence of Arabia uncredited. Lawrence - Fade Out, Fade In Clarence, Earl of Emsworth.

Tinseltown's Bombs and Blockbusters Documentary T. Tycoons Documentary T. Lawrence [in 'Lawrence of Arabia']. Colonel Edgar Carey-Lewis uncredited. Robin MacGregor. Related Videos. Alternate Names: Peter O'toole. Edit Did You Know? Personal Quote: I enjoyed it. The only thing that wasn't enjoyable was in the green room. I said, 'Can I have a drink? No drink? Georgi Zhukov: Zhukov was the U. Moshe Dayan: Israeli commander Dayan served as chief of defense staff and as minister of defense. Harold G. Lewis B. Matthew B. There, he revitalized U. Mao Zedong: A successful leader against Nationalist Chinese and Japanese opponents , Mao Zedong was both a practitioner and a theorist of unconventional warfare.

Winfield Scott, the longest-serving general in U. So too Gen. Omar Bradley, U. The Japanese had ships, he had He is considered by many historians as being on par with Admiral Nelson. Missed Korean Admiral Yi-Sun Sin, the odds he faced were probably among the greatest in naval history. You can make your own list.

See below. His slicing and dicing of the Iraqi army during Desert Storm was worthy of mention. Joshua is a mythical figure that it is absurd to feature here. Google it. Why should other people do YOUR research to back up your claim?

A myth, indeed. Augustus does not deserve to be on that list. He was a brilliant politician, but a very very mediocre commander. Agrippa and also Antony while they were allied was the sole reason for his military success. Pompey Magnus and Pyyrhus deserve a spot. Would also like to add Sir Isaac Brock and Tecumseh from the war of Great list. Made his own Tassigny line, and even defeated Giap on several occassions. Cancer and his eventual death, halted the French initiative he had gained, and his successors lost the war. Definitely a great, innovative, flexible, skilled and popular military leader who held commands, and fought with success in three different wars, in three different eras and with vastly different types of conflicts.

Plus he also had some successful small scale engagements in the French colonies between the world wars. Deserving a mention I would say:. Can any general defeat the biggest, strongest, and most powerful empire in the world at the medieval time, Mongolian Empire, for not just one but three time? If you missed him in the list, your list is a crap.

And how can Mao Zedong be in this list? The one who force with Japanese is Chiang Kai Shek, not him. This list is wrong. Ney horribly mishandled the French forces at Waterloo. Massena was competent enough as a number 2 serving under Napoleon in Italy but when he went to the Spanish Peninsula Wellington utterly trouced him. Uploaded the wikipedia articles of all of these generals as Audiobooks, and its in this playlist. Your banana republic beat Japan even though you got entirely highlighted under its empire?

You were also dying, not conquering. Scene 53 of the Bayeux Tapestry. Alan was unique among the barons in promoting Englishmen over Normans. He strengthened the English navy. In addition, he founded many civil institutions, including Parliament, innovated the architecture of both castles and abbeys, promoted domestic free trade, founded markets and ports at his own expense, and was probably the mastermind behind the Domesday Survey.

To do this, he employed cunning diplomacy the Treaty of Arras , reformed French government finances, changed how the French armies were trained, and led the forces that retook Paris and Normandy. Galileo presents to Cesi, founder of the Lincean Academy, a "little eyeglass" a microscope.

The invention will enable the Linceans to study natural objects with unprecedented precision. They will start with bees, then move on to flies and dust mites. English settlers occupy the islands of Barbados and St. Aurochs go extinct. The book established the circulation of the blood and was a landmark in the history of physiology. Just as important as its substance was its method. Harvey combined observations, experiments, measurements, and hypotheses in extraordinary fashion to arrive at his doctrine.

His work is a model of its kind. It had an immediate and far-reaching influence on Harvey's contemporaries. In the book, Harvey investigated the effect of ligatures on blood flow. The book also argued that blood was pumped around the body in a "double circulation", where after being returned to the heart, it is recirculated in a closed system to the lungs and back to the heart, where it is returned to the main circulation. Mount Vesuvius erupts.

Nicolaes Tulp shows Dr. Tulp explaining the musculature of the arm to medical professionals. Some of the spectators are various doctors who paid commissions to be included in the painting. The painting is signed in the top-left hand corner Rembrandt. This may be the first instance of Rembrandt signing a painting with his forename in its original form as opposed to the monogramme RHL Rembrandt Harmenszoon of Leiden , and is thus a sign of his growing artistic confidence. Galileo Galilei first describes the Principle of Relativity, the idea that the fundamental laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames and that, purely by observing the outcome of mechanical experiments, one cannot distinguish a state of rest from a state of constant velocity.

Under compulsion, Galileo rejects the Copernican system. Painting by Adriaen Brouwer : Tavern Scene. Brouwer left a small body of work amounting to about 60 works.

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Just a few of his works are signed, while none is dated. As Brouwer was widely copied, imitated and followed in his time, attributions of work to Brouwer are sometimes uncertain or contested. For instance, the The smoker Louvre showing a man exhaling smoke while holding a bottle of liquor was attributed for a long time to Brouwer, but is now given to Brouwer's follower and, possibly, pupil Joos van Craesbeeck.

The principal subject matter of Brouwer are genre scenes with peasants, soldiers and other 'lower class' individuals engaging in drinking, smoking, card or dice playing, fights etc. Brouwer also contributed to the development of the genre of tronies, i. Jan Morris has called it "one of the most Spanish of all pictures". Painting by Frans Hals : Lucas de Clercq , a Dutch cloth merchant known today for his and his wife's pendant marriage portraits painted by Frans Hals.

Colonial North America's slave trade begins when the first American slave carrier, Desire, is built and launched in Massachusetts. Justus Sustermans was a Flemish painter working in the Baroque style. He was born in Antwerp and died in Florence. Sustermans is chiefly notable for his portraits of members of the Medici family as he was their court painter. His work can be found in both the Palatina Gallery and the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, and in many other galleries around the globe.

A rare example of a work painted for the artist's own pleasure rather than for a commission, it shows a view of the Het Steen estate near Brussels, which he had acquired in , set in an early-morning autumn landscape. It has influenced artists including John Constable, during his period working for Sir George Beaumont, who then owned the painting and later donated it to the National Gallery in The painting features the first convincing depiction of a mackerel sky.

The painting is the first of its kind in pictorial tradition. No other artist at the time had painted this specific narrative moment. This painting was a gift to the House of Orange, Rembrandt's current patron of a few commissioned paintings. Harvard University is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Francesco Stelluti publishes a summary of research on fossil wood conducted by himself and fellow Lincean Academy member Federico Cesi. Though resulting from meticulous research, the work reaches the wrong conclusion, describing the origin of fossil wood as inorganic. Pierre de Fermat formulates his so-called Last Theorem , unsolved until This theorem was first conjectured by Pierre de Fermat in in the margin of a copy of Arithmetica where he claimed he had a proof that was too large to fit in the margin. Galileo Galilei demonstrates that unequal weights would fall with the same finite speed in a vacuum, and that their time of descent is independent of their mass.

Thus, freely falling bodies, heavy or light, have the same constant acceleration, due to the force of gravity. Jeremiah Horrox observes the first transit of Venus. Horrox or Horrocks was an English astronomer. He was the first person to demonstrate that the Moon moved around the Earth in an elliptical orbit; and he was the only person to predict the transit of Venus of , an event which he and his friend William Crabtree were the only two people to observe and record.

John Punch, a runaway black servant, is sentenced to servitude for life. His two white companions are given extended terms of servitude. Punch is the first documented slave for life. New Netherlands law forbids residents from harboring or feeding runaway slaves.

Painting by Georges de La Tour : Magdalene with the Smoking Flame has been allotted the date of , by analogy with the Saint Mary with a Mirror, which has been dated between and During the 17th century, great devotion was shown to Mary Magdalene in all Catholic countries. She was the perfect lover of Christ, her beauty made yet more appealing by reason of her repentance, which had a special attraction for a period so passionately interested in problems of mysticism, quietism and asceticism.

The theme of the repentance of sinners and trials sent by God is illustrated in such subjects as the Repentance of St. Peter, Mary Magdalene and Job. A number of written works give evidence of the cult of the Magdalene and this cult was the more widespread since Provence owned two great sanctuaries dedicated to her: the grotto of La Sainte-Baume, and the Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer.

It has been suggested that Georges de La Tour took a gypsy as his model: at the time, there were many in Lorraine where he painted this picture. Massachusetts is the first colony to legalize slavery. The D'Angola marriage is the first recorded marriage between blacks in New Amsterdam.

Painting by Frans Hals : Regents of the St. Elizabeth Hospital. Painting by Simon Vouet : Presentation in the Temple. The Tokugawa Shogunate institutes Sakoku — foreigners are expelled and no one is allowed to enter or leave Japan. Permission is denied, but he will publish Men Before Adam anonymously 14 years later, inciting both outrage and mild amusement among religious leaders. Dutch anatomist Nicolaas Tulp produces the first formal description of an ape a chimp, bonobo or orangutan.

Art historian Ellis Waterhouse wrote of it as "a touchstone by which we can interpret the whole of Ribera's art". Commissioned by a Flemish dealer, the painting features a Neapolitan beggar boy with a deformed foot. Behind him is a vast and luminous landscape, against which the boy stands with a gap-toothed grin, wearing earth-toned clothes and holding his crutch slung over his left shoulder. This is one of the painter's last works, and one of the most bitter. The painting was completed in , at the peak of the Dutch Golden Age. It depicts the eponymous company moving out, led by Captain Frans Banning Cocq dressed in black, with a red sash and his lieutenant, Willem van Ruytenburch dressed in yellow, with a white sash.

With effective use of sunlight and shade, Rembrandt leads the eye to the three most important characters among the crowd: the two gentlemen in the centre from whom the painting gets its original title , and the woman in the centre-left background carrying a chicken. Behind them, the company's colours are carried by the ensign, Jan Visscher Cornelissen. Pascal's calculator or the Pascaline constructed. The mezzotint printmaking method was invented by the German amateur artist Ludwig von Siegen.

Mezzotint is a printmaking process of the intaglio family, technically a drypoint method. It was the first tonal method to be used, enabling half-tones to be produced without using line- or dot-based techniques like hatching, cross-hatching or stipple. Mezzotint achieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots made by a metal tool with small teeth, called a "rocker. A high level of quality and richness in the print can be achieved. Workers dig up a skeleton in Flanders. A court physician to the Danish king observes the excavation, measures the skeleton in "Brabantian cubits," and attributes the skeleton to a giant.

It will later be identified as a fossil proboscidian. Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer. Manchu dynasty established in China; end of the Ming line. The Manchu conquer China ending the Ming Dynasty. The subsequent Qing Dynasty rules until Giacomo Torelli of Venice, Italy invents the first rotating stage. Peter Stuyvesant appointed governor of New Amsterdam. Christiaan Huygens invents the pendulum and applies its workings to create highly accurate pendulum clocks. Franciscus Hackius publishes a lavish book on the natural history and medicines available from Brazil, Historia Naturalis Brasileae.

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King Charles I is executed for High treason, the first and only English king to be subjected to legal proceedings in a High Court of Justice and put to death. George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, is imprisoned at Nottingham. It is housed in the Galleria Doria Pamphilj in Rome. The painting is noted for its realism, in that it is an unflinching portrait of a highly intelligent, shrewd but aging man.

He is dressed in linen vestments, and the quality of the work is evident in the rich reds of his upper clothing, head-dress, and the hanging curtains. A contributing factor for this large advancement in the painter's career was that he had already depicted a number of members of Pamphilj's inner court. Yet the pope remained wary and cautious, and the painting was initially displayed to only his immediate family, and was largely lost from public view through the 17th and 18th centuries.

Irish archbishop James Ussher calculates the date of creation, based on the ages of biblical prophets. Using his calculations, theologians will identify the date of creation as on October 26, BC. William Harvey publishes Exercitationes de generatione animalium On Animal Generation explaining that all animal life begins as eggs, whether in birds, amphibians or mammals. According to Joseph Needham, in this work Harvey: 1 presented a doctrine of omne vivum ex ovo all life comes from the egg , the first definite statement against the idea of spontaneous generation; 2 denied the possibility of generation from excrement and from mud, and pointed out that even worms have eggs; 3 identified the citricula as the point in the yolk from which the embryo develops and the blastoderm surrounding the embryo; 4 destroyed once and for all the Aristotelian semen-blood and Epicurean semen-semen theories of early embryogeny; and 5 settled the long controversy about which parts of the egg were nutritive and which was formative, by demonstrating the unreality of the distinction.

Massachusetts requires all black and Indian servants to receive military training. Rhode Island passes laws restricting slavery and forbidding enslavement for more than 10 years. The work belongs to the collection of the Mauritshuis in The Hague, Netherlands. The feeder consists of two half rings and a blue container. The bird is sitting on the top ring, to which it is chained by its foot. In the 17th century, goldfinches were popular pets because they could be trained to draw water from a bowl with a miniature bucket.

The Dutch title of the painting pertains to the bird's nickname puttertje, which refers to this custom and translates literally as 'little weller'. Aristotle, world-weary, looks at the bust of blind, humble Homer, on which he rests one of his hands. This has variously been interpreted as the man of sound, methodical science deferring to Art, or as the wealthy and famous philosopher, wearing the jeweled belt given to him by Alexander the Great, envying the life of the poor blind bard.

It has also been suggested that this is Rembrandt's commentary on the power of portraiture. After three months, the Nominated Assembly passes a motion to dissolve itself and Cromwell establishes the Protectorate. A Virginia court grants blacks the right to hold slaves. Scotland incorporated with the English Commonwealth. Otto von Guericke invents a vacuum pump consisting of a piston and an air gun cylinder with two-way flaps designed to pull air out of whatever vessel it was connected to, and used it to investigate the properties of the vacuum in many experiments.

Guericke demonstrated the force of air pressure with dramatic experiments. In , he machined two inch diameter hemispheres and pumped all the air out of them, locking them together with a vacuum seal. The air pressure outside held the halves together so tightly that sixteen horses, eight harnessed to each side of the globe, could not pull the halves apart. It would have required more than 4, pounds of force to separate them. Painting by Rembrandt : The Polish Rider depicts a young man traveling on horseback through a murky landscape.

When the painting was sold by Zdzislaw Tarnowski to Henry Frick in , there was consensus that the work was by the Dutch painter Rembrandt. This attribution has since been contested, though this remains a minority view. There has also been debate over whether the painting was intended as a portrait of a particular person, living or historical, and if so of whom, or if not, what it was intended to represent. Both the quality of the painting and its slight air of mystery are commonly recognized, though parts of the background are very sketchily painted or unfinished.

It has been in the collection of the Louvre in Paris since A similar painting is in Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, possibly by Rembrandt himself but probably by one of his pupils, perhaps Fabritius. Other similar, paintings attributed to Rembrandt or his circle, are held by museums in Budapest and Philadelphia. Rembrandt made a drawing of a similar scene c. Another, pre, painting of a slaughtered ox the example in Edinburgh, now attributed to Rembrandt's circle but formerly to Rembrandt was perhaps inspired by a lost earlier work by Rembrandt himself.

In northern Europe, the month of November was traditionally the season slaughtering livestock in northern Europe, before winter made feed difficult to find. The island of Jamaica is captured from the Spaniards by the English. Danish scholar Ole Worm publishes Musei Wormiani Historia , a successful book about his cabinet of natural curiosities. Because of these complexities, Las Meninas has been one of the most widely analyzed works in Western painting.

The painting shows a large room in the Royal Alcazar of Madrid during the reign of King Philip IV of Spain, and presents several figures, most identifiable from the Spanish court, captured, according to some commentators, in a particular moment as if in a snapshot. Some look out of the canvas towards the viewer, while others interact among themselves.

The young Infanta Margaret Theresa is surrounded by her entourage of maids of honour, chaperone, bodyguard, two dwarfs and a dog. In the background there is a mirror that reflects the upper bodies of the king and queen. Las Meninas has long been recognised as one of the most important paintings in Western art history. The Baroque painter Luca Giordano said that it represents the "theology of painting" and in the president of the Royal Academy of Arts Sir Thomas Lawrence described the work in a letter to his successor David Wilkie as "the true philosophy of the art".

The first persecution of Quakers occurs in Massachusetts. Cromwell dies and his son Richard becomes Lord Protector. Jesuit missionary Martino Martini publishes a manuscript explaining that documented Chinese history predates the time generally understood to mark Noah's flood 2, BC. Richard Cromwell is pressured into dissolving the Protectorate; the Rump Parliament is restored. John Tradescant deeds his family treasures to fellow collector Elias Ashmole.


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Ashmole will later donate the collection to Oxford University, stipulating that a separate building is to be constructed for it. For the first time, women began to act in plays in London. Previously men had portrayed both male and female roles. This painting was documented by John Smith in , who wrote: "This grand and affecting picture exhibits the ruins of a church and convent upon the summit of a hill, occupying the whole extent of the view in the second distance, the declivity of which presents a cemetery, interspersed with large stones. On the foreground are a broken tree lying across a rapid stream, a tomb of black marble, with an inscription on it; a row of three sarcophagi extending along the front; and on the left stands a cluster of large umbrageous trees, the verdant hues of whose foliage is contrasted by the leafless trunk of a beech.

Three persons in black are seen near a small tomb on the side of the hill, musing amidst the tombs. The grandeur and solemnity of the scene is strikingly enhanced by rolling stormy clouds, in which may be perceived the evanescent colours of a rainbow. End of Puritan rule in England; restoration of the Stuarts.

The Commonwealth of England ends and the monarchy is brought back during the English Restoration. Foundation of the Royal Society, London, for the promotion of mathematical and physical science. Robert Boyle publishes The Sceptical Chymist helping to transform alchemy into chemistry. Though an alchemist himself with his own cache of secret notebooks, Boyle begins writing up experiments for use by others. Massachusetts reverses a ruling dating back to , which allowed blacks to train in arms. New York, Connecticut, and New Hampshire pass similar laws restricting the bearing of arms.

Until the s, most settlers in the region are small landowners from Barbados. In Gloucester County, Virginia the first documented slave rebellion in the colonies takes place. German physician Otto von Guericke pieces together bones from different species to make a fossil "unicorn.

Maryland is the first colony to take legal action against marriages between white women and black men. The State of Maryland mandates lifelong servitude for all black slaves. It forms a pendant with the Regentesses of the Old Men's Almshouse. Though it is no longer known which name belongs with which face, the regents portrayed were Jonas de Jong, Mattheus Everzwijn, dr. Frans Hals painted them in his "loose style", with rough brush strokes.

The painting is traditionally dated , though no archival evidence has yet been found to confirm this. The date is chosen as the middle of the term that the sitters served as regents. Though the paintings as pendants seem to belong together, they did not hang together, and as was the case in the St. Elisabeth hospital across the street, they probably each hung in a separate regents' meeting room; the one for the ladies in the ladies' meeting room and the one for the men in the men's meeting room.

In his private museum in Rome, Virgilio Romano exhibits a Hippopotamus major canine tooth found in Pleistocene gravels along the Via Nomentana. Isaac Newton discovers that white light is composed of different colors. Painting by Rembrandt The Jewish Bride. Robert Hooke observes cork under a microscope and uses the word cells to describe the tiny chambers that he sees. He publishes drawings of these cells, of fleas, and of other small creatures, in his book Micrographia. Samuel Morland builds a mechanical calculator that will add and subtract.

Virginia declares that Christian baptism will not alter a person's status as a slave. Milton's Paradise Lost is published. Svetlana Alpers describes it as unique and ambitious; Walter Liedtke "as a virtuoso display of the artist's power of invention and execution, staged in an imaginary version of his studio Its composition and iconography make it the most complex Vermeer work of all. Niels Stensen Steno describes his dissection of the head of a giant white shark and correctly identifies shark teeth, still generally thought despite arguments to the contrary from Rondelet and Colonna in the preceding century to be serpent tongues.

The Mission of Sault Ste. Marie, in what will become Michigan, is founded by Father Marquette. Natural historian John Somner finds woolly rhino teeth near Canterbury in Kent, and figures they might be the remains of a sea monster. John Somner. Francesco Redi publishes Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti Experiments on the Generation of Insects , which is regarded as his masterpiece and a milestone in the history of modern science.

At the time, prevailing wisdom was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat.

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Redi took six jars and divided them into two groups of three: In one experiment, in the first jar of each group, he put an unknown object; in the second, a dead fish; in the last, a raw chunk of veal. Redi covered the tops of the first group of jars with fine gauze so that only air could get into it. He left the other group open. After several days, he saw maggots appear on the objects in the open jars, on which flies had been able to land, but not in the gauze-covered jars.

In the second experiment, meat was kept in three jars. One of the jars was uncovered, and two of the jars were covered, one with cork and the other one with gauze. Flies could only enter the uncovered jar, and in this, maggots appeared. In the jar that was covered with gauze, maggots appeared on the gauze but did not survive. Knowing full well the terrible fates of out-spoken thinkers such as Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei, Redi was careful to express his new views in a manner that would not contradict theological tradition of the Church; hence, his interpretations were always based on biblical passages, such as his famous adage: omne vivum ex vivo "All life comes from life".

Jan Swammerdam dissects a caterpillar for Cosimo de Medici, demonstrating that the butterfly wings already exist inside the caterpillar's body. A year later, he will publish Historia Insectorum Generalis. Robert Hooke presents a lecture to the Royal Society claiming that earthquakes, not the biblical flood, have caused fossils to be found on mountaintops and buried in stone. Painting by Willem Kalf : Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar is a sumptuous still life displaying the sort of costly wares that flowed through the Netherlands during its heyday as a trade center.

In Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar, Kalf selected an array of precious objects with which to showcase the wealth and refinement of the Netherlands and his own skills as a painter. Everything is expensive, imported, or both. The citrus fruit, glassware from Venice, and Chinese porcelain jar are evidence of Dutch sailors' enterprise.

Local talent is displayed by Dutch silver and a rummer, or wineglass, with a cherub holding a cornucopia at its base. They stand on a marble tabletop with a carelessly crumpled oriental rug. Amid all that luxury is a lesson: a ticking watch on the silver platter reminds the viewer that such earthly riches are fleeting, and worth far less than eternal salvation. The carefully balanced composition, rich colors, and warm tonalities make this painting an object of beauty as well as moral edification.

Niels Stensen Steno publishes Forerunner, showing diagrammatic sections of the Tuscany area geology, making the important point that sediments are deposited in horizontal layers. The State of Virginia prohibits free blacks and Indians from keeping Christian i. The Hudson Bay Company is incorporated. Agostino Scilla publishes Vain Speculation Undeceived by Sense arguing for the organic origin of fossils. The Greenwich Observatory is built.

The book describes Newton's analytic methods, which would now be called calculus. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invents the Staffelwalze stepped drum, or stepped reckoner , the first mechanical calculator that could perform all four mathematical operations. Its intricate precision gearwork, however, was somewhat beyond the fabrication technology of the time; mechanical problems, in addition to a design flaw in the carry mechanism, prevented the machines from working reliably.

Despite the mechanical flaws, it suggested possibilities to future calculator builders. The operating mechanism, invented by Leibniz, called the stepped cylinder or Leibniz wheel, was used in many calculating machines for years, and into the s with the Curta hand calculator. In discussing his invention, Leibniz wrote Indignum enim est excellentium virorum horas servii calculandi labore perire, qui Machina adhibita vilissimo cuique secure transcribi posset — For it is unworthy of distinguished men to waste their time with slavish calculations, which can be done safely with the use of this machine by anyone else.

The Mississippi River is discovered. Apothecary and antiquary John Conyers finds an elephant tusk and a nearby handaxe about 12 feet below ground at Gray's Inn Lane, London. The Gray's Inn Lane handaxe will later be dated at , years old. Leeuwenhoek begins corresponding with the Royal Society of London describing his discoveries under the microscope. New York declares that blacks who convert to Christianity after their enslavement will not be freed. Painting by Jan Steen : Merrymaking at an Inn combines the Flemish tradition of low-life tavern scenes with the more elegant Dutch merry companies.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek creates a simple microscope with only one lens. He developed glass-handling techniques that allowed him to create lenses with magnifying power up to x — by far the most powerful magnifying lenses available. Although compound microscopes had been invented in the s, nearly forty years before Leeuwenhoek was born, there were technical difficulties in building them, meaning that early compound microscopes such as used by Robert Hooke had a maximum magnification of only 20x or 30x.

Leeuwenhoek's more powerful lenses allowed him to discover protozoa and other single-celled organisms and to be the first to observe bacteria. The war is named for Metacomet, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the English name Philip due to the friendly relations between his father and the Mayflower Pilgrims. The war continued in the most northern reaches of New England until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April The war was the single greatest calamity to occur in seventeenth century Puritan New England and is considered by many to be the deadliest war in the history of European settlement in North America in proportion to the population.

In the space of little more than a year, twelve of the region's towns were destroyed and many more damaged, the colony's economy was all but ruined, and its population was decimated, losing one-tenth of all men available for military service. More than half of New England's towns were attacked by Indians. By early July, over had surrendered to the colonists, and Metacomet took refuge in the Assowamset Swamp below Providence, close to where the war had started. The colonists formed raiding parties of militia and Indians.

They were allowed to keep the possessions of warring Indians and received a bounty on all captives. He was shot and killed by an Indian named John Alderman on August 12, After his death, his wife and nine-year-old son were captured and sold as slaves in Bermuda. Philip's head was mounted on a pike at the entrance to Fort Plymouth, where it remained for more than two decades. His body was cut into quarters and hung in trees. Alderman was given Metacomet's right hand as a reward. In Virginia, black slaves and black and white indentured servants band together to participate in Bacon's Rebellion.

From the observation that the periods of Jupiter's innermost moon Io appeared to be shorter when the Earth was approaching Jupiter than when receding from it, he concluded that light travels at a finite speed, and estimated that it takes light 22 minutes to cross the diameter of Earth's orbit. The habeas corpus act is passed in England.

The State of Virginia forbids blacks and slaves from bearing arms, prohibits blacks from congregating in large numbers, and mandates harsh punishment for slaves who assault Christians or attempt escape. Royal Society member Neremiah Grew examines the "sea serpent teeth" found by John Somner in and recognizes that they are rhino teeth. Amsterdam physician Gerard Blasius publishes Anatome Animalium examining animals' internal anatomy and skeletal structure.

The first museum of natural history is established in London. Virginia declares that all imported black servants are slaves for life. It is signed, dated with the year, and inscribed with the subject at centre bottom , as Claude sometimes did with his less common subjects. It was Claude's last painting, and is perhaps not quite finished; it therefore does not appear in the Liber Veritatis, where he made drawings to record his finished works. His date of birth is uncertain, but he was at least in his late seventies when he painted it, perhaps as old as What will become Pennsylvania is colonized by William Penn.

Penn founds Philadelphia. Also, with other Friends, Penn purchases East Jersey.

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Peter the Great becomes joint ruler of Russia sole tsar in Neremiah Grew publishes The Anatomy of Plants with microscopic observations of plant features. The Ottoman Empire is defeated in the second Siege of Vienna. Oxford opens the Ashmolean Museum, the world's first public museum.

The museum's practice of allowing entry to anyone who pays the admission fee horrifies scholars from continental Europe. Dublin doctor Thomas Molyneux shows that a "giant's tooth" from the collection of Ole Worm really belongs to a whale, and a "giant's hand" shown in London is really the fin of a porpoise.

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Filippo Buonanni publishes Ricreatione dell' occhio e della mente. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz publishes a description of his invention of the differential calculus. Edict of Fontainebleau outlaws Protestantism in France. King Charles II dies. Timothy Nourse anticaptes eugenics with the argument that a gentleman "ought at least to be as careful of his race as he is of that of his horses, where the fairest and most beautiful are made choice of for breed. He is credited with introducing the idea that the motion of objects in the heavens such as planets, the Sun and the Moon can be described by the same set of physical laws as the motion of objects on the ground like cannon balls and falling apples.

The Pennsylvania Quakers pass the first formal antislavery resolution. Giovanni Ciampini describes remains of the extinct straight-tusked elephant, Elephas antiquus , found in the town of Vitorchiano in the region of Latium. John Locke publishes his first Letter Concerning Toleration. Its initial publication was in Latin, though it was immediately translated into other languages. Locke's work appeared amidst a fear that Catholicism might be taking over England, and responds to the problem of religion and government by proposing religious toleration as the answer.

This "letter" is addressed to an anonymous "Honored Sir": this was actually Locke's close friend Philipp van Limborch, who published it without Locke's knowledge. South Carolina passes the first comprehensive slave codes. Virginia passes the first anti-miscegenation law, forbidding marriages between whites and blacks or whites and Native Americans. Virginia prohibits the manumission of slaves within its borders. Manumitted slaves are forced to leave the colony. The colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts are united.

Witchcraft mania begins to take over new England. Naturalist John Ray publishes Three Physicotheological Discourses about the Creation, the Deluge and the Conflagration , discussing conflicting theories about the nature of fossils. Rice cultivation is introduced into Carolina.



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