Nor does it matter whether we believe or not, the word is sacred even for those who refuse transcendence. Luzi invokes an orginary word springing up from the beginnings, at the source of sound and lightning, one that therefore carries a more resonant meaning. One of the specific means he adopts to achieve an originary utterance in Italian is through the use of Latin phrases and idioms.
His tendency towards such a word follows in the footsteps of Giuseppe Ungaretti whose poetry expresses the dilemma between innocence and memory. For Ungaretti memory always prevents the poet from attaining innocence, but he nevertheless is continuously drawn toward it. Intanto la parola evoca subito il silenzio: parola e silenzio uniscono e separano. Che uno sia credente o non lo sia non ha importanza, la parola ha qualcosa di sacro anche per chi rifugge da pensieri trascendenti. Indiscreet daughter of ennui, Memory, sotto umana specie. My eyes would rediscover innocence, I could see eternal Spring, and finally new, Oh Memory, you would be honest.
Translation mine. The experience of the world and its histories are not excluded. We have seen how this word does not depend on transcendent movement. And the title itself also brings us to the earthly or historically present moment constantly rediscovered in these superb poems. One of the last poems of Under Human Species evokes such a figure.
Rough, just slightly seduced by tales and parables, but full of strength and charity — so the new century awaits him and he will not miss it — Orpheus in him and he in Orpheus, he is sure of it, will re-awaken justly. This particular elaboration of the 9 The numbers in parenthesis refer to the Garzanti edition of the original Sotto specie umana, Milano, This lyric poem Song XII stands out from the neo-platonic considerations of the prose because of its beautiful retelling of the Orpheus and Eurydice story.
Boethius rekindles the tale by adding details absent in the Virgilian version. The message declares that whatever excellence one possesses, it may not be taken above if one averts his gaze to the Tartarean cave below. Heu, noctis prope terminos Orpheus Eurydicen suam Vidit, perdidit, occidit. Vos haec fabula respicit Quicumque in superam diem Mentem ducere quaeritis. Nam qui Tartareum in specus Victus lumina flexerit, Quidquid praecipuum trahit Perdit, dum videt inferos.
This connection confirms 10 The Consolation by Boethius refers to Tantalus and his terrible punish- ment by the vulture. In Vergil Persephone warns Orpheus that he must not look back until they are in the light. There are numerous other differences between the two versions. Despite these magnificent sources of inspiration, the pragmatic dimensions of the word are not lost upon Luzi.
In the Dantesque tradition he still believes in the practical value of poetry and its positive effect on civilization. I often ask myself what mankind would be without poetry, if Dante and Leopardi had not existed, without those moments in which the meaning of life and civilization coincide with the word.
An introductory note explains the frame to us. We find a similar note in Under Human Species. Luzi tells us that this volume is a fictitious reconstruction of the journal of a certain Lorenzo Malacugini. At his death his friends expected to read his diary but discovered only three pages, which are inserted in italics at various points in Under Human Species. The rest of his diary has been recomposed from traces, reminiscences and mysti- cal confessions to his companions.
Table of contents
Luzi tells us that the ordinary symbolism of language no longer satisfied Malacugini and that he strove toward a discourse that was voice and immediacy of the liv- ing multitudes. However, 12 Translation mine. The insistent and repeated use of interrogatives. Out of the poems comprising the volume, 84, more than half, contain questions.
Clearly we must ask ourselves what is the function of such a pervasive use of interrogative forms? This is consistent with the perspective of a novice, or of one in the process of discovering the world around him or herself, but these repeated questions are also anti-dogmatic especially in the religious sense, but also philosphically. Like Luzi, the Nineteenth Century Romantic poet possessed a style which was lyrical and questioning at once.
This is especially evident in his masterpiece the Operette morali, beautifully translated into English as Essays and Dialogues by Giovanni Cecchetti. The first poem imagines what Porphyry might discover at death while the second challenges him to abolish the difference between mortality and immortality.
Courage, strip death of its mortality, Porphyrius. Some of the most beautiful poems create innovative and grace- ful formulations while mingling the modern anglicisms of Greek origin such as flash with Latinisms quid, quasi, etc. In Italian such an operation is much rarer. On the other hand, transform- ing a noun, lizard, lucertola into an adverb is more or less impossible in English. Raining hard, ancient Spring pours down over the ancient city walls, scours the city. There is a fluid and effortless musicality to all the poems, a sort of weightlessness that constitutes a serious challenge for any translator; it reminds us that translating poetry is a rigorous form of constraint writing.
Furthermore, Luigi Bonaffini enjoyed an ex- cellent rapport with Luzi himself and was able to benefit from his willingness to answer questions concerning translation. Barbara Carle sotto umana specie. Ma quando il suo povero bagaglio postumo fu rovistato, si vide che ne aveva lasciato sopravvivere solo tre pagine. Sono quelle che riporto in corsivo. Tuttavia quello del noviziato incessante di lui mi pare riconosci- bile. But when they searched through his meager posthumous possessions, they saw that he had allowed only three pages to survive.
The ordinary symbolism of language no longer satisfied him. He yearned for a discourse that could be the voice of the multiplicity and simultaneity of life and shared by it. Such total resolves eventually find expression in miniature, through allu- sions. That is what his friends have gathered: I one among them. The request that should be least made in this case is the distinction of subjects and themes that are intentionally only one. Nevertheless that of his endless apprentiship seems recogniz- able to me. I know full well that you and I must grow together mutually — it was written in the stone of his final mile and well within himself.
Amen sotto umana specie. So despite the black work of fate those papers really were in the perpetual happening. Invariable was only the action of the air that leafs through them, turns them, consumes them, transmutes them with itself into something else. So it seemed, so it was. Furente il gelsomino, a sprazzi, in quella raffica acuisce il suo profumo, esacerba il suo richiamo. Ibi ipse est. Addio, dove vai giorno, dove ti accompagna il fiume? The jasmine rages fitfully, it sharpens its fragrance in that blast, redoubles its call.
The whole garden is in agony that he from the pavilion barely grazes with his sultan eyes used to the seasons, to their deceits, conscious of the many shufflings of the only principle. The water is lazy, the slash of a last slanting light from the west still muddles its molten lead. Farewell, where are you going day, where does the river lead you? A single immutable pace unites them and connects them day and river toward annihilation and toward the great return at the top of morning that reconquers all and illuminates all.
A che? Quel pane, quelle mani che lo frangono, lo sguardo, il troppo lesto addio. Sarebbe stata poi — lo sapevamo noi di Emmaus — questa la materia del racconto. Vennero e se ne andarono al primo far del giorno. Chi era che veniva a quale incontro col passato o col presente? To what?
My companion glances at him, and I too take care to observe him without seeming to. That bread, those hands that break it, the gaze, the all too-sudden farewell. This was to be later — we from Emmaeus knew it — the subject of the tale. They came and left by early morning. Who was coming to what meeting with the past or present? Sarebbe senza me uniforme, pieno, invasato della propria inopia, festoso. Why am I entering that swoon? Without me it would be uniform, full, obsessed by its own want, festive. So life descends, so descends, seemingly unopposed, its ruin to regenerate itself in death for the after, for the beginning.
The gold glimmer of the plane trees turns to sky, it has no hour or season, or rather it does have them and this jubilation burns them, this invincible alchemy exhales them in clarity, it unites them and purifies them to the luminous essence of the end and the beginning.
Come fulmine in cristallo la chiamata venne. Lo avrebbe poi la roccia sinuosa del cammino mostrato e occultato mille volte il termine del pellegrinaggio. Continuamente era e non era chiaro, chiara era la sua dura andatura desiderata, necessaria. Oh non mancasse mai strada al suo lungo insaziabile itinerario! The towns teemed high and far in that blue. Like lightning in crystal came the call. Oh may no road be wanting to its long insatiable itinerary!
Suddenly that sea of matter light air caught fire in the depths of his thoughts, that music, that radiance entered the labyrinth and every cavity of his skull — but man was or seemed aleatory, his history precarious in that climate. Burnt in the unity? I hope. O heaven, was time to come sotto umana specie. Non si ha notizia. O ce ne sfugge il ricordo… sotto umana specie. There they are in front of him in that infant chasteness of the painting. They were not emissaries or ambassadors of anyone in the world, they were there, suspended, between grace and desire, bystanders of the perpetual event: or rather Because he was.
There is no word. Or the memory of it escapes us Si guarda meravigliata. She looks in wonder at herself. She enters the platinum and gold of that morning fire. That white radiance brightens the high and low, it has wholly suffused the haze. Where is she? Oh flos. Dopo di che a lungo era piovuto pioggia e tedio, a lungo era indurato sole, plenilunio, assedio.
Chi vinceva il tempo? Colori e luci non ne offre la tana al mio risveglio, mulinano sotto umana specie. And in light, in pure name it blazes in her. After, it had rained for a long time, rain and tedium, long had lasted sun, full moon, siege Who conquered time?
My lair does not offer any color or light when I awake, sotto umana specie. E lui teneva acceso quel furente assedio sotto umana specie. O pelagic fire, o mutual mutation, of the multiple appearances and the only substance, pure life, pure persistence of life beyond its matter in the uncontainable blazing— will I be in you or you in me? Is it him, not a mariner from other worlds, not a double? He is beside himself, those features are his, something surely his, left at the edges of the grind and of the scene in the stopovers, the tie-ups, overflows from them mortified.
Or so the image may be reintegrated before the final fadeout? And it kept that furious siege burning sotto umana specie. Suoi dardi bersagliavano infuocati il costato da ogni parte. Suoi messaggi e sussurri cercavano pertugi a penetrarci dentro il sangue. E questo era il tributo, questa la mutua ricompensa. Infine si dichiara, appare ora aperto quel sigillo.
A lungo ne trattenne quel brillio Roma tra le sue ferme ciglia. Its flaming arrows riddled the ribcage from every side. Its messages and whispers sought openings to penetrate our blood. Creation blazed for us creatures like a disease or like a loving arrogance For us on the threshold, yes, but now we had already become its substance because in him was the pearl of our knowledge and we would descend from year to year ever deeper to capture it. And this was the tribute, the mutual reward. At last it declares itself, that seal now appears open. Finally the penultimate fraction of its duration caught fire among the branches, then the last, the final one.
For quite a while Rome held that sparkle between her steady lashes. And now — does he imagine or remember? Mournful — but what does it matter — is the first black glow of things in the room where incredibly it dawns. The tossed butterfly of its continuity wavers between yes and no but now awaiting him on the threshold, drawing him in and at once dazzling him is the world flooded with reality, present — oui, on est bien au dedans.
Oh dies. The day has broken, the blaze purples in the east of the dizzying dome The sky, varied, opens and frays out even more ragged, just beyond the pier sotto umana specie. Furia, meria. Coinvolti noi in quella danza. E allora benedetta, primavera acerba che tremi e sali alla tua prima erba e che di nuovo inventi la tua favola e la mia e che in amore riequipari il mondo, il mondo e il suo creatore. Fury, shade. To what end — spring after spring he asks himself — life calls us back to itself not interrupted and not dead it starts again from itself to itself We are taken in that dance.
Then bless you, unripe spring that tremble and rise to your first grass and again invent your fairy tale and mine and that once more make the world equal in love, the world and its creator. Oh pena, oh grazia. And I, art, am a bit the dark, the luminous part of it. Oh pain, oh grace. Di che luce si riempie il cuore, di che pena. Tutto umano, tutto alieno il tempo che quello spazio assedia. Tutto umano, tutto alieno il dopo, il prima, la terra, il cielo che chiude perfetto la sua rima. Beyond there is Siena.
What light fills the heart, what pain. All human, all alien the time that besieges that space. All human, all alien the time after and before, the earth, the sky that closes perfectly its rhyme. Impara presto quella sua antica musica la pioggia, la riesuma dalle ere pluviali una sua fonda memoria, le aeree ed aquatili cisterne dei pianeti ne sono archivio e testimonio. Scende, la sentiamo sotto umana specie. There is — neither air nor grass can contain it — there is an overflowing exultation from trill to trill of jubilation and of song, the happened event floods over, the resurrection bursts forth as breath or wind across the whole horizon.
Feast of healing from frost and death you descend to celebrate yourself in the open field and rise to the sun for the reintegration of life in life, free us, I beg you, from the vise, nunc et semper. The rain learns its own ancient music very quickly, a deep memory exhumes it from the pluvial eras, the aerial and aquatic cisterns of the planets are archive and witness to it. Tempo e pioggia, tempo e profusione di mondo a se medesimo. We are in the rain, between sky and earth the world sinks into itself, it crumbles into its continuity.
The hourglass streams around us under the species of matter, no, of immaterial change. Time and rain, time and profusion of world onto itself. Are we absorbed or dissolved by the flow of life toward life rising again? What happens to us, are we called or excluded from the regeneration of the air, of the elements? Oh grazia. Now the rays blaze through the tiniest orifices, the golden semicircle catches fire furtively in the blackness of the room, clandestine crown to the victory of the morning.
And now open contingency, summer, wraps him with its needlefuls the gold-green skein of his vacation seizes him, drags him up and down the hills. And meanwhile the blue flower of the morning mows down his memory in crystalline seasons. Present July around him is a dream, his reminiscence is filled with the present. So he climbs, plunges into the depths, into the essence, without time, without difference. Everything is. Everything is, fairly. Oh grace. Oh mattina. Mattina che tutte le annulla e tutte le comprende, mattina di conciliazione, santa. Pure tutto cuoce, carbonizza, flagra.
Ombra a picco, avara, nuda terra crettata si sgretola, si polverizza. Vampa, bocca di fornace, sotto umana specie. Oh morning. Brightness ran through all its valleys of air and blue, a few flashes, sparks, a few sprays of its excessive fullness darted high and low, in the ethereal field. It came, it reached its height, the instant exulted, it shattered in a perfect coincidence of past and present, any distinction between time and time collapsed in a blinding eternity.
Morning that annuls them all and contains them all, morning of conciliation, holy. It is, she feels, it is, steep, endlessly. It melts her instant inside, in her depths. Yet everything is scorched, charred, ablaze. Plunging shadow, stingy, bare cracked earth crumbles, turns to dust. Blaze, furnace mouth, sotto umana specie. E noi dentro quel fuoco resine stillanti, oh liberazione dalle scorze.
And we dripping resins within that fire, oh freedom from the barks. The eagle perhaps: man cannot look at its face: only, very exact, its staying in the midday sky, the plunge down over the shrubbery and the crossbars of the stockyard, over the pasture, the planking, the straw-and-brick roof of the facing hut. The summit in the sky and of the day down here Being descending into itself blazes in its abodes. Oh anima, anima imperante. Occhio fermo, perspicuo, cristallino, non visto, onniveggente.
Sense and intelligence are one, the idea descends completely into its form, each thing inhabits its own deity and shines from it. The image fills with essence. Slim adolescent, Caterina enters in herself radiantly. Oh soul, reigning soul. Eye still, lucid, crystalline, unseen, all-seeing. Burning naked, scorching with identity the rose rids herself of symbol, annuls song, music, memory, she erodes image and any other hunger of the human and animal mind, any other enslavement on herself, her substance. She is. O rosa ipsa, o queen of herself. But the beetle descends its winding vein of air comes down toward her in a drone and that flight now ties her once more to the chain of universal brotherhood.
Fitto ma con radure. Such correspondences are helpful in attempting to establish textual relations; however, here they are not rigorously investigated. Ecdotic work is only hinted at by relying on disparate secondary authorities. It is never clear how all the surviving witnesses and traditions fit together. Only after completing the painstaking philological groundwork can one begin to discuss the dependence of one strain or author on another.
As it stands, the reader is left with an incoherent and unconvincing hodge-podge. The study is plagued by too many goals, resulting in its conflicting methodologies and lack of focus. It sometimes historicizes a text, elsewhere gestures in the direction of gendering, and also takes some tantalizing yet unfulfilled steps toward reception theory. The book could best be defined as a comparative study, yet its comparisons tend to be tenuous and not exhaustive: between one text and another, or one national tradition and another, or sometimes among three or four texts.
A less confusing approach would have been to simply compare the respective plots, characters, genealogies, motifs, etc.
Grieve has unwittingly fallen into the chauvinism that ensnared so many nineteenth- and early twentieth-century editors and philologists, namely, the insistence upon the primacy of one text over another on nationalistic grounds. Grieve also makes the unsupported claim that the Spanish prose romance may have "perhaps [reflected] what was in the lost part of the Italian Cantare" She confesses her difficulty with Filocolo: "In the beginning of the story.
The second half of Chapter 5 attempts more straightforward Boccaccio criticism Filocolo on its own terms , but this attempt is weakened by a scant knowledge of other Boccaccio works and their critical reception. It does not, however, offer sufficient proof that the newly identified Spanish MS was the original, nor does it furnish convincing evidence regarding its date of composition, nor does it supply a compelling reason why Boccaccio would have relied on a Spanish version.
To her credit, Grieve does assemble a wealth of data and an extensive bibliography on the various European traditions of this medieval legend. The book will be useful for those interested in studying narrative motives such as the "vows of the peacock," the garden, or the shipwreck.
Broadly viewed, the study illustrates the intricate web of political, cultural, and literary relations between and among countries in the Middle Ages. Grieve also rightly points out the fluidity of medieval genres and the way in which different redactors shaped a story according to local needs. The book furnishes some precious evidence about female readership in the late Middle Ages and signals what sounds like a very interesting manuscript anthology to be examined in future cyclification studies.
Stanford: UP, In this engaging and substantial study, Wallace sets out to explore various Italian and English cultural events and their impact upon contemporary literary figures, most significantly Chaucer and the great Italian Trecento authors. Bringing considerable erudition to his analyses of literary works, Wallace situates the literary texts in relation to the interlinked sites of "medieval" London and "Renaissance" Florence, testing the validity of such terminology and suggesting that literary critics should instead "suspend belief in cultural partitions" 7.
The literary argument that Wallace makes about Chaucer is thus twofold: Chaucer can be profitably read in relation to his Italian predecessors, and, in turn, the study of Chaucer can provide significant resources and points of departure for the exploration of his predecessors in light of the political contexts of England and Italy. Visits to Florence, and then to Milan and Pavia, exposed Chaucer to the writings of Boccaccio and Petrarch in conjunction with other forms of cultural production both popular and devotional.
Chaucer, Wallace argues, encountered the Italian texts within the context of this Florentine-Lombard struggle, and hence his own understanding and appreciation of the texts themselves were informed by the political situations that helped shape them. Guild culture and female slavery in Florence had already shown Chaucer how women, "commodified as voiceless figures within a new symbolic order" 19 , posed the threat of coming to recognize their own symbolic significance, which in turn prompted misogynistic complaints from Boccaccio, Wallace finds. Several chapters continue with analyses of the Canterbury Tales and its compagnye.
Since Chaucer includes various subgroups as well as unassimilable individuals, Wallace, making clear that it should not be construed as an idealized associational form, explores the extent to which associational polity is refigured and foregrounded in specific tales. Wallace maintains that gender politics in the Canterbury Tales , a recurring concern for both him and Chaucer, can help us explore aspects of statecraft that are problematic or contradictory, especially if gender theory is employed as a means of approaching medieval people as political subjects.
Wallace then travels informally along a trajectory that moves from associational to absolutist forms. From there Wallace offers a consideration of the interconnected activities of merchants and lawyers in relation to the Man of Law and his Tale. This short treatise dedicated to the empress Anne of Bohemia, Wallace argues, precipitates the rewriting of the F Prologue into the G version, which follows the precedent of Petrarchan humanism and rejects the vernacular poetics of Dante and Boccaccio.
Catherine S. Giuliana Berti. Bartolomeo Cerretani. Il dialogo della mutatione di Firenze. In her critical editions, Giuliana Berti brings to print two historical works by the Florentine Bartolomeo Cerretani of interest to historians and literary scholars alike. Cerretani also penned a third history in treatise form, the Storia fiorentina , which has also been edited by Berti but is not under review here. In the case of the Ricordi , Berti and her colleague Ezio Tongiorgi, following a trail of bibliographical clues and dead-ends, managed to locate a manuscript that had been lost since early this century.
Cerretani did not live to see the Sack, but he was certainly a witness to the ample difficulties facing his hometown after Not much is known of the author, and the extent of his education remains particularly unclear. What little one can learn from his writings is best found in his Ricordi. Following the common Renaissance practice of keeping a private book libro segreto , Cerretani recorded events of his own life as well as other items of interest in a book of memoirs. He began his memoirs in , at the age of 26, and the content is quite revealing.
The author chose to focus very little on himself, sticking instead to a detailed chronicle of contemporary events. His memoirs are deeply historical, and surprisingly impersonal, quite unlike other books of ricordi and ricordanze produced at the same time. The tone of the daily account varies. Cerretani sometimes takes the position of the man in the street, speaking broadly for public opinion.
At the same time, the Ricordi assumes the tone of an insider, a figure closely tied to current events and with access to the closed circles in politics and society. Given that Cerretani had served in both the republic and Medicean regimes in the first decades of the sixteenth century, we should not be surprised by this access. While he has praise for the broadly based government of the first republic , he is also sharply critical of its leading figures, Soderini in particular. He considers himself a supporter of the frate , but his support is qualified at times, particularly with regard to the Savonarolan movement at large.
Placing himself and his uncle in a list of supporters, the author includes his father as an opponent of the frate. Consequently the Ricordi certainly provides rich material for literary and psychoanalytic study. For historians, the very depth of detail makes the Ricordi an extremely important source on events of this period. It sheds further light on the components of a newly fashioned Medici power, the players, disputes, and negotiations involved, as well as contemporary attitudes toward the regime.
In this respect, they complement a host of already published chronicles, including those of Biagio Buonnacorsi, Piero Parenti, Bartolomeo Masi, Luca Landucci, and the well-known aphoristic ricordi of Francesco Guicciardini in providing a portrait of that age. Cerretani may have composed his memoirs in the manner that Marin Sanudo drafted his Diarii simply to serve as a notebook for a later work of history. Consequently, his infrequent personal references may have been an aid to later recollection. However, the appearance of a first-person narrator also suggests that Cerretani wanted to insert himself in a history of Florentine affairs.
The Dialogo is often cited as a source on political events in Florence and on perspectives regarding Savonarola from to Yet its content moves further afield, touching also on trendy intellectual issues of the day: Luther, Erasmus and Reuchlin, cabalism and astrology. Moreover, its presentation in the form of dialogue is both unique and significant. The author turned to dialogue, as he writes in his preface, to find "nuovo modo allo scriverle" 4 , namely, the events that had occurred since the return of the Medici to Florence in Through dialogue, he was able to present a variety of perspectives on the recent past, perspectives that include both the Savonarolan and Medicean sides of the story.
The text itself is a conversation set within a series of narrative frames. At the outset, a character called Bartolomeo, presumably portraying the author, appeals to two fictional interlocutors to recount a past conversation. These characters, named Girolamo and Lorenzo, immediately bring to mind the famous figures of Savonarola and Il Magnifico. Girolamo and Lorenzo agree to replay their discussion for Bartolomeo, and thus a second narrative frame begins. These three enjoy a prolonged discussion before the third narrative frame commences with Girolamo and Lorenzo participating in a spirited dinner conversation with Rucellai and Francesco Guicciardini, then papal governor at Modena.
All four men are Florentine. Although some aspects of their conversation touch on ultramontane affairs, the bulk of the history under discussion relates to their native city. During the roadside meeting, the emphasis is on current events of European scope. Girolamo and Lorenzo describe their travels north over the past eight years, following their departure from Florence in Girolamo explains the cabala which he has studied in Frankfurt with Reuchlin, and discusses the appearance, demeanor, and to a lesser extent the ideas of Erasmus and Luther.
Giovanni Rucellai, who had participated in the plot to restore the Medici to Florence in , agrees to narrate events for his audience, but he requests the input of all speakers, notably Girolamo, whose Savonarolan tendencies are bound to run counter to his own. Girolamo and all the conversants agree to pool their differing views of the past. Guicciardini even reassures his guests that their views will remain off the record In this manner, the speakers develop a collective account of events up to Their dialogue is a unique approach to representing history. The emphasis is social and collaborative: the speakers seem to expect disagreement, even to welcome it.
Since they differ fundamentally in their political and social outlooks, some disagreement does occur. Nonetheless, the tacit assumption of their talk is that truth can only follow the open airing of different perspectives. They find also room for agreement. In general, the genial disagreement contributes to a picture of the Savonarolan movement and their relations with other optimates in the city. Perhaps one thing they shared in common was their disappointment at the fall of the Republic in We witness this sentiment in Girolamo and Lorenzo, who on that year chose to leave Florence rather than submit to the Medici regime.
Writing the Dialogo in , Cerretani captures the pessimism of a Savonarolan movement with little hope of a return to their Grand Council and broad-based government. Particularly in the Dialogo but also in the Ricordi , Cerretani remains an elusive figure. Berti does little to illuminate his past, or to shed light on the common threads of arguments between the two texts. Neither edition includes a biographical summary. Footnotes are sparse, limited generally to diacritical comments. No doubt, this was a deliberate strategy by Berti, who aimed to produce texts corresponding as much as possible to the original manuscript versions.
For those wanting to know more about Cerretani, there remains the copiously annotated version of the Dialogo , edited by Raul Mordenti Using the same scribal copy of the late s that Berti also uses, Mordenti offers an edition peppered with explanatory footnotes and accompanied by a thorough introduction and bibliography. In her versions of the Dialogo , for instance, she maintains the same paragraph breaks used in the manuscript, whereas Mordenti has inserted chapter breaks and even chapter titles of his own invention.
In a quick comparison between the manuscript and the published edition, this reviewer has found at least two lines that the editor had skipped; no such comparison was made for the Ricordi. Nevertheless, Berti has produced useful editions of valuable historical sources, preserving both the form and spirit of the manuscripts in the process.
Collected Letters of a Renaissance Feminist. Diana Robin. Chicago: U of Chicago P, This book is part of a valuable series, edited by Margaret L. King and Albert Rabil, Jr. The editor and translator of the present volume has distilled a biography of Cereta from evidence found in these letters. The lively prose translation will appeal to specialists and non-specialists alike. Diana Robin has nicely identified classical and contemporary humanist sources, motifs, and even lexicon that Cereta used.
Many of the parallels to The Family could be considered conventional humanist topoi, but their frequency, language, and co-presence with letters addressed to Alberti family members should not pass by unremarked. Apart from sketchy comments in the footnotes, the "edition" lacks a critical apparatus. There are no descriptions of the two extant manuscripts, whose readings differ, and no discussion of how the manuscripts and the Tomasini edition Padua, are related. Robin should have identified a base text and included a summary discussion of the textual relationships among the witnesses.
Some sentences found only in Vat. Could Marc. Cereta herself refers to "the final draft. The diligent reader is also perplexed by the inconsistent choices of titles for the letters. Footnotes explain that Robin has retitled certain letters and that the Vatican manuscript had an index with titles. Were these written by a contemporary book owner, by a modern librarian cataloguing the codex, or were they assigned by Cereta herself? Why do two dedicatory epistles and an epilogue appear in this edition as items 4, 6, and 5, respectively?
Dates at the ends of letters reveal their chronology, and footnotes somewhat inconsistently give the order of the individual letters in each exemplar. However, the original arrangement of the contents is not easily discernible. Yet the "Dialogue on the Death of an Ass" is now found at the end of the volume, almost as an afterthought. Robin should at least offer a statement justifying her rationale for her reordering and should clearly show in parentheses the original order. I do not wish these criticisms to detract from the inherent worth of this translation. Cereta employed many predictable humanist tropes and relied on well-known classical sources as her male counterparts did, but in numerous passages a startlingly original female voice emerges.
Space does not permit a complete discussion of the metaphors and passages particular to Cereta, but these include: a homology of embroidery and writing; vividly detailed descriptions of nature, birds, and animals; friendship as a plant which must be cultivated; passages of sincere piety; and eye-witness "war memoirs" which are more poignant than the drier pacificism of male humanists. There are remarkable glimpses into Renaissance domesticity, such as a birthing scene within the circle of women attending the mother. In several letters, the young widow laments the death of her husband and even hints at the resulting economic and erotic deprivations this loss represented to a woman of her era.
Classical antiquity and mythology are present, but Cereta suppresses elements of rape or incest to put a positive spin on her ancient female characters. In an innovative description of a Hades-like underworld, Cereta adopts the role of a female Orpheus seeking her dead spouse. Recurrent, classically inspired images of Furies, madwomen, and female monstrosities suggest the suppressed rage Cereta felt as a woman whose considerable intellectual powers were too tightly contained by her society.
Elsewhere, she fends off polemical attacks on her work, comparing herself to a lion, a tigress, and a she-wolf. This book traces the development of the episode in which a traveling knight, sometimes accompanied by his lady, arrives at a castle and is asked to abide by a strange, often unjust custom.
In particular, Ross sets out to demonstrate how these "nuanced narratives explore the social limits of order, violence, justice, civility, and political conformity" xiii. In moving from medieval to Renaissance, and from French to Italian to English, Ross aims to show how the episodes reflect changes in the function of custom and the authority of the past, related in part to two factors: "first, the transmutation of oral law into written law, and second, the transition from a French culture of customs to one which followed Roman or civil law and then on to England, a common law country" Combining a perceptive reading of romance with an extensive background in natural and customary law, Ross asks new questions about old texts, and he thereby enriches our own reading of romance.
While the early chapters leave some questions unanswered, the analysis is original, thought-provoking, and stimulating throughout. Ross sees the Weeping Castle episode as "an allegory of social pressure" in which the victorious Tristan, rather than eliminating an evil custom of judicial murder, conforms to the custom by beheading the defeated lord and lady of the castle. A way out is found only when Galahaut returns from self-imposed exile in protest of the custom to challenge Tristan and avenge the murder of his parents. While Ross remarks that "Malory seems to have missed the point" 30 of the earlier text, he leaves the reader curious to hear more about the point Malory may have been trying to make.
At the same time, by focusing attention on the serious issues at stake in this fictional form, Ross entices the reader to go back and reread these medieval narratives in a more probing way. The underlying premise of the next section is that "the Italians developed a notion of civility to counteract a rigid social system increasingly dominated by foreigners during the sixteenth century" He examines a "custom of the castle" episode in Boiardo and Ariosto, the two masters of romance epic in the Italian Renaissance.
Here, too, his analysis engenders additional questions. If Boiardo portrays Ranaldo negatively as getting caught up in the cycle of violence, does he also indicate how the knight should have reacted when attacked by the mob? More generally, what is Boiardo saying about appropriate responses to foul customs? Although Bradamante is powerless to overturn a foul custom, she can be granted an exception through witty reasoning backed by martial prowess. Whereas in the first two chapters Ross tended to isolate single episodes, here he sustains his argument by comparing variations on the "custom of the castle" theme that stretch across The Faerie Queene.
Further, he identifies an evolution within the poem itself. Whereas in the first half Spenser "generally looks to the distant past for those values that would fashion a gentleman to the ideals of chivalry," in the second installment he "seems to have struggled more openly with the relationship between social practice and values" Ross provides fresh and provocative readings of Hamlet and Macbeth , with additional insights into As You Like It , Twelfth Night , and the history plays, as well as an appendix on King Lear and Othello.
Ross cuts across temporal, spatial, and linguistic boundaries and brings philosophy, anthropology, socio-political history, and ethics to bear in his interpretation of chivalric fiction. Readers may find that the book leaves out their favorite "custom of the castle" episode which may or may not conform to the evolution that Ross traces. But this is really not the point. Did Boiardo, Ariosto, and Tasso consciously attempt to camouflage the classical sources of their epic poems?
Is the Orlando furioso really a harmonious montage of classical and medieval sources as critics have traditionally contended or is its success a result of a disharmony of these elements? These are only a few of the challenging questions Dennis Looney addresses in his provocative study , Compromising the Classics: Romance Epic Narrative in the Italian Renaissance.
In discussing these poets, Looney considers how "narrative artists in the Renaissance renovated the popular genre of romance through their imitation of classic epic" In response to these static categorizations, the study suggests how these three Ferrarese poets "compromised" classical models "by incorporating them into the narrative structures of their vernacular poems" In doing so, the poets overcame, to some extent, the distinction between classical and medieval models in the construction of their narrative. While some readers may find these diverse connotations confusing at times, Looney provides numerous examples to illustrate his meaning.
The result is what Looney terms "the ambiguous generic status of the Furioso " Thus the critic prefers the term "romance-epic" over the more traditional "epic poem" to highlight the dual nature of these poetic works. In doing so, the poet utilized many of the same narrative devices that appear in the Innamorato.
Many of the sources which worked best for the Furioso are those that "straddle the realms of the classical epic and romance" The use of Ovid in particular allowed Ariosto simultaneously to allude to other narrative paradigms in his romance-epic and intentionally defy the neat generic categories of epic and romance. Compromising the Classics expands and problematizes the traditional interpretation of literary references in romance-epic poetry, particularly with respect to the Orlando Furioso. Michael J. La fine degli incanti. Vicende del poema epico-cavalleresco nel Rinascimento. Milano: Francoangeli, Dialogue on the Infinity of Love.
Rinaldina Russell and Bruce Merry. Chicago: Chicago UP, In Giuseppe Zonta published a critical edition of the text, which was reprinted and edited by Mario Pozzi in and Russell begins her introduction by remarking on the uniqueness and originality of this dialogue. The "right" to philosophize, or "the power of defining and naming," belonged unquestionably to men, Gerda Lerner affirms in The Creation of Feminist Consciousness Oxford: Oxford UP, , 5. The "dialogic" genre, although lacking a theory of its own, was not associated with women writers, who were encouraged to prove their literary talent in devotional and love poetry.
This is Moderata Fonte who discusses, among other subjects, the different kinds of human "love" in Il merito delle donne , written between and published in In fact she grounds the male-female bond on natural drives and mutual pleasure of body and soul, and perceives no separation between sensual and spiritual love.
Nancy K. The Catholic Church, in fact, reacted with forceful moral and religious conservatism to the Protestant Reformation. It is noteworthy that, although women did not write dialogues, within male-authored dialogues, "female interlocutors guaranteed by their sex the right to be decorously ignorant. By the end of the discussion, in fact, readers have no choice but to accept the one conception of love shaped by the character Tullia throughout the dialogue.
As Russell points out, the tension present in the dialogue does not reside in the dichotomy of opinions but in the difference of "temperament, mental idiosyncrasies and style of speech" 40 of the two main characters. La piazza universale di tutte le professioni del mondo. Torino: Einaudi. La piazza universale di tutte le professioni del mondo di Tomaso Garzoni fu pubblicata per la prima volta nel e fu ristampata una trentina di volte prima del ; fu tradotta in tedesco, in latino e adattata in spagnolo.
La ricerca delle fonti offre un campione impareggiabile di quel fenomeno della riscrittura del secondo Cinquecento fenomeno recentemente sistemato da Cherchi nel suo Polimatia di riuso Roma, Bulzoni ; spiega in modo definitivo la supposta "erudizione" di Garzoni, e in moltissimi casi consente di sanare il testo o di spiegarlo in modo che sarebbe altrimenti impossibile.
La parte introduttiva contiene due saggi. Collina p. XCI sgg. Ogni tanto sorge qualche dubbio. Ad esempio lo "spartanamente" che si legge a p. Avrei corretto a p. In ogni modo, stando a quel che si dichiara a p. Ne voglio ricordare uno di Cherchi, il quale a p. Sono della "macule veniali", e con Orazio mi piace ripetere: "Ubi plura nitent non ego paucis offendar maculis, quas aut incuria fudit aut humana parum cavit natura" Ars poetica , sgg.
Selected Letters of Alessandra Strozzi. Bilingual edition. Berkeley, CA: U. This latest publication of the Biblioteca Italiana is a translation of 35 among the surviving letters by a Florentine widow of the fifteenth century. The book consists of an introduction, facing Italian and English translation, notes to the English translation by letter number, a bibliography, and an index. The introduction is primarily historical.
It contains a useful discussion of historiography and changes in approach to history in recent years, leading to an interest in its personal side. There are two little problems which stumped me between the introduction and letters. First, it is not always clear who is writing the letters. Are there differences in letters when she personally is writing as opposed to having letters written?
It would be interesting to know. Furthermore, the actual number of letters was unclear until consulting the original edition. The back cover notes 72 total letters; Gregory mentions 73 1 ; again, she also mentions 73 7 , yet on the same page speaks of the "thirty-seven letters which are not included" when she translates 35, which would make I presume the confusion is due to the extra letter printed as an appendix to the reprint. The introduction therefore is historical and addresses a primarily non-Italian-speaking audience.
I was unable to consult either the originals in the Archivio Fiorentino di Stato or reprint of the Guasti edition which contains an extra letter to compare the text. Neither Bianchini nor Gregory comments at any length upon the language; Gregory comments briefly upon the style and punctuation 8. This edition is clearly not intended for use by those specifically studying the language, which makes sense since it is a translation.
The facing English translation includes a summary of the content before each letter; where paragraphs are omitted, the translator specifies how many and summarizes the sections omitted. The explanatory notes are exclusively in the English portion, not the Italian. Political concerns appear as well, with encoded names in 2 letters to avoid being understood by those reading letters 21, , The letters are of interest because of the political situation: fifteenth-century Florence, living conditions, and also how close ties are in family business - they are almost a clan, with a strong sense of honor and dishonor.
Throughout the spellings are British - e. Gregory differs from the original in dating the letters according to modern convention, that is, beginning the new year at January 1 where Alessandra began with April 1. This might cause some confusion when consulting the Italian editions. The notes contain explanations of political situations, social conventions, and complete names of those mentioned. Locations are also given for smaller villages and family villas.
All distances are in kilometers, which mean little to many American readers. The references are to the English translation alone, but this is closely spaced to follow the Italian so that a reader wishing to follow the Italian can easily place the notes. A few appendices would have been helpful: a map for small towns near Florence e. Though Prato and Pistoia will be familiar to most readers, the smaller sites are not.
Family trees would also have been handy; it is easy to lose track of all the Strozzis. The bibliography is selected, containing both textual and historical items. Otherwise the bibliography is a good starting point for research specifically on Alessandra Strozzi. The index is quite good and useful with items of cultural interest, such as breast-feeding, as well as taxes, and naming of children.
It clearly reflects the interests of the translator in including such personal data and not excluding them to the benefit of names alone, an all-too-frequent practice in such works cf. This translation is a departure of the Biblioteca Italiana series from the earlier ones. This work is a welcome addition to Medieval and Renaissance literature and culture courses. Atti della II giornata di studi muratoriani Vignola, 23 ottobre Muratori, IX.
Olschki, Lodovico Antonio Muratori , one of the European founders of medieval history, enjoyed a well-deserved, international celebrity in the eighteenth century. Gli dico: - Scusa, ma guarda che in Italia funziona alla stessa maniera. Mentre osservo la sua espressione cogitabonda penso che a volte siamo talmente abituati a parlare male di Cuba che ci dimentichiamo di parlare male dell'Italia. Wu Ming 1 Son quelli come voi che hanno ucciso Calabresi! Un racconto vero, su carmillaonline. Incontro Antimo e Luigi, due colonne portanti del marxismo meridionale trapiantato a Bologna.
Luigi mi fa testuale : - Mentre cagavo, ho letto un attacco violentissimo contro voi Wu Ming. E dove? Mi fa il nome di un settimanale musicale, testata gloriosa fondata nel ' Approcciandomi al lavoro di traduzione, ho cercato di "sentire" il broken Italian di tutti i giorni salire dalla strada. Wu Ming 1 a cura di Speciale "7 Aprile": il venticinquennale su carmillaonline.
Con l'arma dell'emozione incontrollata e del ricatto morale, si richiama all'ordine la sinistra "riformista", la si spinge a condannare la sinistra "radicale", a dividere il campo dell'opposizione. Non che i "riformisti" abbiano bisogno di troppe spinte Per chi vive a Bologna e la guarda senza sapere cosa vede. De' Rolandis, insieme all'amico Luigi Zamboni, nel 'organizza' una rivolta per fare di Bologna una repubblica. Roba da ridere: un manifesto, una decina di congiurati e le coccarde cucite dalle mamme.
Bianche, rosse e verdi: i colori di Bologna e quello della speranza. Un tricolore non ancora sputtanato. I due ribelli si fanno beccare e finiscono in carcere. Li condannano a morte. Unico delitto: aver distribuito un volantino. Zamboni si impicca in carcere il 18 agosto Buonaparte invade il Piemonte. De' Rolandis finisce al capestro proprio sopra le rovine del fu Castello di Galliera, il 23 aprile Ma siccome "a noi piace pensarlo ancora dietro al motore", come dice Guccini, andate in via Strazzacappe 2, angolo via Galliera, dove una lapide ricorda la casa che accolse le riunioni dei congiurati.
Fischiettate la Marsigliese e procedete. Wu Ming 4 Sui fiumi di Babilonia: appunti sulla teoria della guerriglia di T. Lawrence novembre - Prefazione all'edizione spagnola di Guerrilla di T. Lawrence, di prossima pubblicazione presso Acuarela, Madrid. Lawrence Acuarela Libros, Madrid. Wu Ming 2 Storie senza fine: a proposito di storia, memoria e narrativa settembre - da Zapruder n. Deve rispettare certe regole. Eppure, le regole esistono per essere forzate, tese fino al punto di rottura. Anche uno storico, allora, potrebbe mettersi a raccontare, nel punto in cui gli archivi lo lasciano all'asciutto.
Gli archivi continuano a raccontare, sempre, anche quando la maggior parte dei cassetti sembra proprio non volersi aprire. Wu Ming Zapatismo o barbarie luglio - scritto per Carta n. E' sempre aperta la via del riflusso e del ritorno ai propri orti e cortili. Zapatismo o barbarie Julio - escrito para la revista Carta n.
Questa gang rappresenta un interesse ben preciso: quello bellico-petrolifero. Tre interviste a Wu Ming, dicembre - giugno da girodivite, Origine e Carmilla on line. Wu Ming 3 y Wu Ming 4 Reflexiones antes, durante y Nella storia d'Europa le crociate contro gli "infedeli" - fossero essi eretici, islamici o ebrei - hanno sempre rappresentato il tentativo di negare quanto ad essi la nostra cultura fosse debitrice, quanto di essi ci portassimo dentro, in nome di una presunta purezza o ortodossia. Qualcosa che ha molto a che fare con la storia che stiamo vivendo e che vivremo. Non pretenderete mica che legga tutte queste puttanate qua sotto.
Storie, lettere, artigianato. Evangelisti: Per introdurre il discorso, trovo che 54 sia il romanzo migliore uscito quest'anno, e anche da un po' di tempo a questa parte. Un viaggio in moto alla ricerca del giovane Guevara , trad. E' necessario ripartire da La Higuera, dove - come ha scritto il poeta Enrique Lihn - il Che "ha stabilito post mortem il proprio quartier generale", per scavare nel mito guevariano fino a toccare "il fondo di nuda roccia" che tuttora esiste sotto gli strati di retorica, langue du bois terzomondista e sovracodificazione simbolico-mercantile.
Noi crediamo che i miti al plurale siano narrazioni dinamiche e spurie, racconti che ci permettono di superare la quarantesima notte nell'ignoto il deserto, le fasi di incertezza del conflitto sociale. L'approccio giusto possiamo trovarlo solo raccontando. Le storie sono di tutti. Il narratore che vive del suo lavoro, non lo fa vendendo storie che sono sue, ma raccontando storie che sono anche sue, attraverso performance o grazie ad oggetti particolari, i libri, che vengono venduti come qualsiasi altro prodotto.
Contro il Copyright. La mia caustica battuta "non si recuperano dieci anni in una settimana", a proposito delle differenze culturali, ha trovato una brutta conferma durante le manifestazioni di sabato 6 aprile Bologna, 28 novembre Un linguaggio che produceva continuamente anatemi e bislacchi epiteti infamanti "opportunisti", "avventuristi", "estremisti", "deviazionisti" etc. Negli ultimi dieci anni noi abbiamo dato alle fiamme quel linguaggio che allontanava l'esperienza. Sarebbe assurdo sostituirlo con un altro non meno alienante.
Bologna, 28 de noviembre Da Il Domani , quotidiano bolognese, 21 novembre Tutta roba che brucia in fretta e non lascia braci.