The Value of Water in a Drying Climate

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Reviews "This book and its theme are timely. Features As a real world case study, the authors deliver the true story about doing this type of research in a troubled community Real world integration of ecology, economics and ethical considerations in a sustainable development framework. Authors Tor Hundloe is a pioneer of environmental economics and science. In , he was appointed to the Order of Australia AM for his contribution to environmental economics, coastal zone management, fisheries, ecotourism and management of protected areas.

In the same year he was awarded a Centenary Medal for his contribution to environmental education. Christine Crawford has worked in marine ecology for over 30 years and has progressively moved upstream, linking estuarine and coastal health with activities in the catchment. Related titles. We first identified the flooded points, then used GIS to draw the contributing basin boundary.

After determining the climate grids that fell in the corresponding basins, we calculated weighted-average precipitation multiplied by basin area to obtain the total volume of water in the basin going through the flooded region in a day using the following expressions:. If a historical flood occurred after D rainy days, then a future flooding condition is formulated as:. Climate data used in this study consisted of: i observed station data stations, — IMO 42 , ii 0. Based on preliminary analyses and comparison tests, the CFSR data, after bias correction, provided a reasonable estimate of precipitation across the country.

For bias correction and pattern recognition of a historical flood condition, we used the Climate Change Toolkit CCT program A key aspect of the climate change impact study is the spatial and temporal downscaling of the GCM results. In this study, the GCM data were downscaled using the nearest observation station. For precipitation, we used a linear correction method. Here, the monthly scaling factor was applied to each uncorrected daily observation of that month, generating the corrected future daily time series. For temperature, we tested linear and nonlinear models as used in the literature 29 , 58 , 59 and chose a fourth-degree regression model based on the calibration and validation results of stations in different regions.

In general, the results of a first-degree linear and a fourth-degree nonlinear model were similar except for small and large temperature values 29 , where the nonlinear model performed systematically better, especially for the validation data set.

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Hence we opted for the nonlinear model expressed as:. We then used this transformation to correct the future GCMs. Trenberth, K. Attribution of climate extreme events. Nature Climate Change 5 , — The Changing Character of Precipitation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84 , — Lenderink, G. Increase in hourly precipitation extremes beyond expectations from temperature changes. Nature Geoscience 1 , — Schuur, E. BioScience 58 , — Vuille, M. Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future.

Earth-Science Reviews 89 , 79—96 Sharp, M. Geophysical Research Letters 38 , L Douville, H.

Correlation of Salinity with Water Level

Anthropogenic influence on multidecadal changes in reconstructed global evapotranspiration. Nature Climate Change 3 , 59—62 Abtew, W. Evaporation and Evapotranspiration: Measurements and Estimations , — Springer Netherlands, Haerter, J. Unexpected rise in extreme precipitation caused by a shift in rain type?

The Value of Water in a Drying Climate

Nature Geoscience 2 , — Singleton, A. Super-Clausius—Clapeyron scaling of precipitation in a model squall line. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society , — Berg, P. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures. Nature Geoscience 6 , — Walther, G. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature , — Zhang, X. Indices for monitoring changes in extremes based on daily temperature and precipitation data. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 2 , — Alizadeh-Choobari, O.

Extreme weather events in Iran under a changing climate. Climate Dynamics 50 , — Madani, K. Water management in Iran: what is causing the looming crisis?

Bad News From NASA: Earth's Fresh Water Supply Is Drying Up - The Atlantic

Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 4 , — Abbaspour, M. Investigation of lake drying attributed to climate change. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 9 , — Kaffashi, S. Etemadi, H. Uncertainty analysis of statistical downscaling models using general circulation model over an international wetland. Climate Dynamics 42 , — Molle, F. Macro- and micro-level impacts of droughts: the case of the Zayandeh Rud river basin, Iran. Irrigation and Drainage 57 , — Gohari, A. Water transfer as a solution to water shortage: A fix that can Backfire. Journal of Hydrology , 23—39 Global-scale assessment of groundwater depletion and related groundwater abstractions: Combining hydrological modeling with information from well observations and GRACE satellites.

Water Resources Research 50 , — Richard D. Sharifi, F. Causes and consequences of recent floods in the Golestan catchments and Caspian Sea regions of Iran. Natural Hazards 61 , — Modarres, R.

World’s water supply quickly running dry – NASA Report

Changes of extreme drought and flood events in Iran. Global and Planetary Change , 67—81 Future extreme precipitation change projections in the north of Iran. Meteorological Applications 25 , 40—48 Hirabayashi, Y. Global flood risk under climate change. Nature Climate Change 3 , — Frequency of precipitation and temperature extremes over France in an anthropogenic scenario: Model results and statistical correction according to observed values.

Global and Planetary Change 57 , 16—26 Orlowsky, B. Elusive drought: uncertainty in observed trends and short- and long-term CMIP5 projections. Earth Syst. Abbaspour, K. Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in Iran. Balling, R. Trends in Extreme Precipitation Indices in Iran: Advances in Meteorology , 1—8 Najafi, M.

Trends in total precipitation and magnitude—frequency of extreme precipitation in Iran, — International Journal of Climatology 36 , — Soltani, M. Assessment of climate variations in temperature and precipitation extreme events over Iran. Theoretical and Applied Climatology , — Raziei, T. Spatial patterns and temporal trends of precipitation in Iran. Some of these reforms have already been implemented in other parts of Australia through the National Water Initiative. It should be considered by other parts of Australia and the world facing a drying climate, and more extreme drought, due to climate change.

The reforms we have proposed are particularly relevant to Western Australia, which is currently rewriting its water laws. The science suggests that a drying south west has suffered from the effects of human-induced climate change over the last three decades, and will experience further reductions in rainfall and groundwater recharge and storage in decades to come.

1. Introduction

To what extent will this problem, caused by unsustainable use of fossil fuels, lead to unsustainable use of groundwater resources? The three reforms we have suggested would go some way to ensuring that they are. A contemporary Robinsonade — York, York. The polar oceans and global climate — Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. The once-popular Loch McNess north of Perth has dried up almost completely after a decades-long dry period.

Second, water entitlements should be flexible. Perth should change its allocation system from volume to shares. When dams were low, Perth used more groundwater. Facing the challenge Some of these reforms have already been implemented in other parts of Australia through the National Water Initiative.

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