Customer Strategist - Winter 2011

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Called the HomeKit, this platform is designed to bring together simple hubs from different vendors and present all of them in a single user interface on a smartphone or tablet. The company also debuted what it calls the HealthKit, designed to integrate all the simple hubs being developed for the quantified self. Several other major companies have begun to develop integrating hubs. Google recently introduced a collection of standards for the Nest that will connect to a wide range of home services from other companies. The Oracle-sponsored foiling catamaran that won the race was equipped with more than sensors and video cameras that monitored position, wind direction, boat speed, pressure on the wingsail, and more.

Integrating hubs of far greater scope are also under way. It would install integrating hubs with data analytics at a neighborhood or citywide scale to monitor and control mass transit, traffic controls, streetlights, and many other services and systems. Barcelona is teaming with Cisco Systems to develop one such system, which will manage lighting, parking, local Wi-Fi networks, and other critical city functions. Network and cloud services provide the infrastructure of the Internet of Things.

These services deliver the seamless and transparent connection to the Internet that hubs require, along with the cloud computing power needed to collect, store, and analyze vast amounts of data from myriad endpoints. They can also provide the infrastructure needed to build or connect to social networks, so that users of the IoT can compare experiences and share data. Some network and cloud services, like RacoWireless, manage machine-to-machine connectivity.

They enable IoT devices to communicate with one another across a variety of transmission channels, including Wi-Fi, cellular, and Bluetooth. They also provide data management services: collecting, moving, tagging, and aggregating information. Other network and cloud services provide software platforms, including high-level programming languages, that can be used for IoT delivery and development.

ThingWorx offers one such platform. It provides endpoint connectivity, networking capabilities, and data storage and analytics, as well as a software development kit used to write apps for customers. Enhanced services is a nascent category, comprising the most technologically sophisticated components of the IoT. Enhanced services will make use of the information collected and analyzed by other platforms and services to deliver broad-based interactive functions. Enhanced services for automobile-based monitoring could go much further. They could collect data on multiple cars, aggregating it all with historical and actuarial data to create new types of analytics related to overall insights about auto accidents.

The insurers themselves might not be involved in the collection of that information, only in making use of it in the services they offer. These five technological options, from endpoints to enhanced services, provide a menu of diverse opportunities for companies building IoT businesses. Some might start making stand-alone endpoints, and move up to producing hubs. Others might parlay their expertise at integrating hubs into providing network and cloud services—or vice versa.

With all these possibilities, companies run the risk of moving in too many directions at once—and thus being overwhelmed by more focused competitors with more distinctive IoT-related capabilities. Few companies can take on more than one of these ways of creating value. The Enablers will focus on the underlying technologies and services, from endpoints to network and cloud services.

The Engagers will make use of hubs and network and cloud services to provide market-facing offerings. The Enhancers will focus on value-added enhanced services that extend and enrich customer engagement see Exhibit 2. They build and maintain the critical IoT infrastructure that allows Engagers to create their own connected services. Their offerings include the endpoint, hub, and network and cloud service technologies: devices, connectivity hardware and infrastructure, computing and data storage systems, software platforms, and more.

The market for all these elements of the IoT is exploding. The shift in connectivity and computing intelligence from centrally located servers to intelligent devices on the edge is creating a similar boom in the semiconductor business. Many Enablers will remain content with relatively narrow businesses, as suppliers of endpoints to—or partners with—other players that have larger ambitions. These beacons can communicate with enabled devices like smartphones and tablets in environments such as retail stores.

The larger Enablers will fight over the enormous opportunities in integration. The systems they produce—intelligent endpoints, hubs, cloud services, and platforms—must not just provide connections, but manage and bill for those connections, and allow users to customize and develop their own services.

Already, IoT opportunities are driving some hardware companies to expand in unprecedented ways. For example, Intel, traditionally a maker of semiconductors, is developing soup-to-nuts IoT systems that include not just chips but development platforms that will enable others to develop their own IoT services.

Bundles of IoT-related hardware, software, and connectivity may be tailored to specific marget segments, such as particular industries. The IoT platform developer Arrayent, for example, focuses on the consumer products industry. It recently teamed with appliance maker Whirlpool to provide the technology needed to connect refrigerators and washing machines to the Internet. Homeowners can be alerted via their smartphones when appliances need maintenance, and they can order new supplies automatically.

The key to such deals is the partnership. Whirlpool has limited expertise in connecting its appliances to the Internet, but Arrayent provides the means to do it. Each Enabler must decide the appropriate scale and scope for its business, based on the capabilities it can muster.

Should it spread its efforts horizontally, becoming a broad-based supplier of IoT technology to all industries? Or should it become the primary Enabler for a specific industry, bringing together the endpoints, hubs, network and cloud services, and enhanced platforms needed in that vertical? If it collaborates with other enterprises, should that be with other Enablers, to broaden their technology platform?

Or should the enabling enterprise seek to codevelop a customer-facing offering with the right Engagers and Enhancers? Every Enabler should base its strategy on the most distinctive capabilities it can offer. Arrayent has found an appropriate scalable business in providing an IoT-oriented cloud platform for consumer goods.

GE develops IoT systems for hospitals and factories because those offerings make use of its well-established capabilities in healthcare and manufacturing. These companies provide the direct link between the IoT and the market. They use the endpoint, hub, platform, and service offerings created by the Enablers to produce services for consumers and businesses.

Though most of them did not begin as IoT companies, and many come from non-IT industries—appliance manufacturers, automakers, insurance companies, and retailers are prominent among them—they expect enormous opportunities as the IoT gains traction. Engagers tend to be most active in hubs and connected services. Systems like the Nest and Apple HomeKit, for instance, provide services to customers, while collecting a rudimentary amount of data on customer usage and maintaining a high degree of customer contact.

Other Engager services, based on increasingly sophisticated IoT cloud services and platforms, are more complex. Wearable devices such as Google Glass can provide a wealth of location-specific information to users while collecting data about their movements in the real world and on the Internet , their purchases, and their conversations. Already, Engagers are competing to control nodes of human activity: the smart home, the quantified self, the connected car, the digital retailer, the intelligent factory, the next-generation hospital, and eventually the city of the future.

They will know how to gain insight into customer needs and expectations, and how to use human-centered design to develop compelling services that change how customers behave. Apple and Google, for example, are both seeking to apply their existing prowess—in design and consumer insight for Apple, in data gathering and analytics for Google—to create compelling user experiences that will attract people to their integrating hubs.

For Engagers, the benefits of gaining a strong foothold in hubs and connected services include continuous and sustainable relationships with customers. Removal Reason: Per protocol. Follow post-catheter removal protocol. Some nurses know the appropriate indications for and timeframe to maintain a Foley catheter, but is this common knowledge among all nurses?

All nurses should realize that their actions and omissions could impact patient mortality. Additionally, they attended conferences to explain the newly approved nursedriven protocols. Execution occurs when evidenced-based interventions are converted into practice.

The CDC recommends using a combination of core prevention strategies. Furthermore, the. If bladder scan volume is ml the RN will first ensure position of the patient allows comfortable voiding if applicable standing, sitting up. Reassess in 2 hours. If the patient is not able to void, perform a straight catheterization. See 2 bullets below. Document patient tolerance as a Progress Note, Service: Nursing. Regular updates on progress facilitated and sustained team engagement. Engaging bedside caregivers, increasing CAUTI awareness, executing evidenced-based interventions, and continuously evaluating progress—along with using rapid-cycle methodology—resulted in a massive culture change at North Oaks Medical Center.

In summary, here are five tips that will be useful in implementing a nurse-driven Foley protocol: Seek team members who are highly engaged to act as role models for delivering excellent care.

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Rapid-cycle methodology and implementation science can be applied to many HAI prevention strategies. When expectations are well defined, courses of action are easy to follow. Provide multiple opportunities for education. Visit staff meetings and individual shifts, and employ passive education strategies e. Have a mechanism for staff to provide feedback and follow up on a routine basis.

Real patient scenarios are discussed to enhance applicable knowledge of the nursedriven Foley removal protocols. Brooke Buras is seated. The basics of preventing CAUTIs were reinforced—inserting catheters using aseptic technique and proper maintenance of the urinary catheter.

Surgical Care Improvement Project statistics and Partnership for Patients comparative data are also evaluated to determine progress and are shared with the team and other administrators on a monthly basis. After the nurse-driven protocols were. Available at: www. Accessed July 1, Hospitals in and Journal of General Internal Medicine ; Preventing hospitalacquired urinary tract infection in the United States: a national study. Clinical Infectious Diseases ; Brown P, Hare D. Rapid cycle improvement: Controlling change.

The Journal. Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. Indwelling Urinary Catheter securement: Best practice for clinicians. Nurse-directed interventions to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections. American Journal of Infection Control ; While every healthcare facility needs an emergency preparedness plan, the plan is not complete if healthcare administrators overlook the personal safety and security of each employee and their families.

It sounds obvious, but facility staff must be prepared at home because emergency preparedness plans require employees to come into the facility during disasters. Without that sense of comfort, staff may not come into the healthcare facility to assist in community response during an emergency or disaster. Without warning, your community can be left without power, water, sanitation, and communications. Being prepared for disasters takes time and resources. The most basic element of preparedness starts with a home emergency preparedness kit. When internal or external disasters occur, healthcare facilities in rural communities must be self-sustaining for at least 96 hours.

After YVMC conducted an informal study on home emergency preparedness among employees, it concluded. To prepare its staff, YVMC started with a basic one-day employee safety fair in The goal of the fair is to help educate and equip staff to be trained members of the community—not victims. YVMC recruits vendors from the community to assist with training and education needs. During its safety fairs, YVMC rewards employees with. Y VMC chose this size because of its portability for. Clinical and environmental expertise in Legionella, detection, control and remediation.

After receiving their tote, they proceeded into the conference rooms where the vendors were set up. Each vendor give a brief five- to minute presentation. After each presentation, they give out one small component for the home preparedness kit. Y VMC encouraged all the staff to complete their kits and included a list of other items needed for the kit.

To continue engagement after the event, YVMC held a contest for the best completed home emergency preparedness kit. Employees could send in a photo of their finished kits and whoever had the best kit was awarded a prize. The staff truly enjoyed the hands-on interaction with the vendors and building their own kits. YVMC strives to prepare its staff for disasters and emergencies.

Compatible with most available hypodermic needles, including those with manually activated safety features, vial access devices, and luer-activated catheter hubs. Collaboration in infection prevention Infusion nurses and infection preventionists. This article will focus on the role of the infusion nurse and the IP, and how they can work together in a collegial, collaborative manner to achieve their mutual goal of preventing patient infections. The CRNI is the only nationally recognized. Note that one of the core areas on the CRNI exam is infection prevention, which overlaps with the body of knowledge and focus of that of an IP.

IPs and infusion nurses know that patient care practices are to be based on evidence-based guidelines to reduce the risk of vascular access device-associated infections. In the latest edition of the Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice, the practice criteria are supported by the latest available research and ranked by the strength of the body of evidence. The ranking. The rankings range from Level I, which includes metaanalyses, systematic literature reviews, and guidelines based on randomized controlled trials, to Level V, which includes clinical articles, consensus reports, and generally accepted practices.

As both IPs and infusion nurses strive to prevent infections and meet the infusion needs of their patients, the Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice can be an invaluable guide for decision making and developing a patient-centered plan of care. Infusion nursing has become a highly specialized practice, with procedures ranging from inserting a peripherally inserted central catheter in a healthcare facility to teaching a patient and his or her caregiver how to set up and self-administer parenteral nutrition in the home setting.

The infusion nurse can assist the IP in preventing vascular access device-associated infections by: 1. Infusion nurses and IPs have successfully collaborated in specific clinical scenarios e. This effort should be multidisciplinary, involving healthcare professionals who order the insertion and removal of CVCs, those personnel who insert and maintain intravascular catheters, infection control. It is together, in collaboration with infusion nurses and IPs, that we can truly meet our mutual goal of zero patient infections! Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed September 24, Infusion Nurses Society.

Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice. Journal of Infusion Nursing, 34 suppl. Dolan, S. APIC position paper: Safe injection, infusion, and medication vial practices in health care. American Journal of Infection Control. Peace of Mind in Just 1-Minute and You stand between infection and the people you care about. Only one brand provides a 1-minute kill time on all product labeled organisms, including TB, and excellent materials compatibility. Go to Metrex. Centralized sterile processing in ambulatory facilities Recommendations and resources to implement a safe, economic, and efficient centralized sterile processing program.

The key is using resources with evidence-based, recommended practices from AAMI and others to ensure safe and effective processing of reusable medical devices in both ambulatory care and ambulatory surgery centers ASCs. Sterile processing area design. The answers to these questions will guide you on how to customize sterile processing for your particular site.

A success story from the field. In the past, reusable. A number of weaknesses. Organizations may resist change and put up barriers to implementing a new system. To facilitate the transition to the new program, NEVHC created an action plan and timeline and engaged key stakeholders in the sterile processing program to help nurture buy-in from resistant staff. It is possible to implement a safe, economic, and efficient centralized sterile processing program. Just keep in mind some important points.

To avoid taking risks in processing reusable medical devices, ambulatory facilities must follow recommended practices and standards. The ECRI Institute listed inadequate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes and instruments for patient use as hazard No. AAMI ST79 states that all staff who perform sterilization processing activities should be certified within two years Section 4.

Workflow practices. Instrument flow in the processing area should be unidirectional with clear transitions between each process. Ambulatory facilities need stations for:. Summary of recommended practices Options for workflow practices. Section 3. FIGURE 3: Bagged instruments that have been placed into a puncture-resistant, leak-proof, closable container, labeled as biohazard.

Because of limited space, this may be a challenge for an ambulatory care center. TJC is concerned about droplet contamination and ventilation. Plan ahead so there will be enough sterilizer volume to meet instrument turnaround demands. Personnel protective equipment PPE.

Section 4. Follow the latest recommended practices when writing policies and procedures in order to establish stateof-the-art sterile processing. Resources are the key to improving patient outcomes. Patients are depending on you. Access peer-reviewed articles on sterile processing in the American Journal of Infection Control A multi-site field study evaluating the effectiveness of manual cleaning of flexible endoscopes with an ATP detection system, Marco Bommarito, Grace A.

Thornhill, Dan J. Morse [June Vol. Validation of adenosine triphosphate to audit manual cleaning of flexible endoscope channels, Michelle J. Rutala, David J. Establish a plan for preparing contaminated instruments at the outlying clinical sites to transport to the centralized sterile processing area.

One choice is to train staff at the point of use to don PPE and remove gross soil using a disposable sponge moistened with water. Instruments can then be air dried and double red bagged.

customer strategist winter Manual

See the following recommended practices for further details. Figure 3 shows bagged instruments that have been placed into a puncture-resistant, leak-proof, closable container, labeled as biohazard. If your facility has an existing courier service, this can be. Depending on travel distance and courier routes, this method may require increased instrument inventory to ensure acceptable turnaround time. Sterilized instruments should be transported back to the outlying sites by the same courier method.

Recommended practices. Presentation available on flash drive pro-. Martha Young attended the presentation. Pure Processing. Accessed July 9, at: www. Perioperative Standards and Recommended Practices. A centralized sterile processing program can ensure a safe, economic, and efficient system to sterilize reusable medical devices.

Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Arlington, VA. The Joint Commission. Recommended practices for sterilization. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities. Clearly at the cutting edge. Contamination occurred in 9. The use of an iodophor-impregnated plastic incise drape in abdominal surgery--a controlled clinical trial.

Aust N Z J Surg.

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This comprehensive resource examines infection prevention practice in the larger scope of long-term care LTC trends, initiatives, and regulations. The new book, which is available at www.

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There is also a strong focus on interdisciplinary collaboration, a lengthy chapter on emergency and disaster preparedness, and an accompanying CD-ROM with tools and resources. Burdsall: The increased complexcare needs of the people living and staying in the LTC continuum. Older adults used to come into LTC when they still were ambulatory and could care for themselves, but now they are staying in their own homes for a longer period of time. Now, people enter LTC with significant physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Increased physical needs mean more dependence on caregivers, more exposure to antibiotics, and a history of invasive procedures—all of which have been shown to increase the chance that LTC residents are colonized with multidrug-resistant organisms MDROs.

Kenneley: The vast majority of LTCF infection preventionists IPs have multiple responsibilities and work part-time on infection prevention regardless of the bed size or acuity of the residents in their facility. Other issues include limited staff resources, high staff turnover, funding difficulties, and limited information technology access and infrastructure to support infection prevention and control activities. Schweon: First, the facility can make a voluntary decision to upgrade its infection prevention program and promote resident safety by expanding its surveillance program.

The other alternative is to have a regulatory or legislative mandate requiring selected, targeted surveillance 54 WINTER Prevention. Secondly, public reporting of surveillance needs to be regulatory driven. For example, a legislative mandate is required for LTCFs to report surveillance findings. In my home state of Pennsylvania, LTCFs must perform total house surveillance, and infections meeting the Pennsylvania LTC surveillance definitions must be electronically reported.

Kenneley: There are two major areas that must be addressed:. It is imperative that all LTCFs use the same infection definitions so reported data is meaningful, baseline statistics can be compiled, and comparisons can be made. CDC developed a standardized assessment tool that, among other things, measures the extent of best-practice implementation in LTCFs within six categories.

How does a rapidly aging population— and one that increasingly needs LTC services—impact infection prevention practice? Are IPs ready to face these new challenges? Schweon: Residents of all ages with complex medical needs were once kept in the hospital for management; today, they may be discharged to LTC, possibly with MDROs such as ESBLs extended spectrum beta-lactamase or CRE carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae , where the goal is to maintain or improve their ability to function as independently as possible, for as long as possible.

Some residents may also have advance directives or expressed wishes to limit a diagnostic workup and treatment in the event of an infection such as pneumonia. Kenneley: The geriatric population has many unique aspects that contribute to the severity and frequency of infections, including limited physiologic reserves, defects in host defenses, higher rates of chronic diseases, poorer responses to antimicrobial therapy, increased frequencies of therapeutic toxicity secondary to increased rates of liver and renal failure , and complications from invasive diagnostic procedures.

Symptoms of infection may be vague or atypical compared to younger populations. There is also the additional risk of infection from exposure to MDROs, delays in diagnosis and therapy, and complications from treatments. The U. Bu rdsa ll: We need to make it clear that diagnostic definitions of infection focus on the individual, which is important, but surveillance definitions focus on identifying patterns within.

The MDS 3. Everyone also needs to get on the same page for surveillance so we can all compare apples to apples. What do you think are the most urgent education and training needs for LTC staff? Is this information readily available? Does our process of educating LTC staff need to change and if so, how? Evaluation of educational programs must be done to assess whether a training event was successful, and evaluation of staff practices such as observation of hand hygiene compliance also needs to be documented and a part of the educational process.

For IPs who are not trained or are part-time, this information may not be readily available. Some states have stricter regulatory guidelines for IP training and education than others. This will change when surveillance data are reported and the results made public. How can nurses and IPs better collaborate to improve infection prevention in U. What makes up an effective team approach in long-term care? As an example, take a person who needs to be placed on isolation precautions for an infection with an MDRO. Everyone on the team needs to know how they should approach the person and the environment to prevent the spread of microorganisms to others and to the surrounding environment.

The program will fail if infection prevention is viewed as a mundane chore or task. Do you think current clinical management strategies for MDROs in nursing homes are adequate? Is there anything else we should be doing? Kenneley: A major opportunity for improvement lies in the full implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs.

Antibiotic stewardship is recognized as a national challenge in LTCFs. Several LTCFs have. There have been disease outbreaks in LTCFs due to unsafe injection practices, especially related to blood glucose testing and insulin administration. Are we doing enough to protect residents? Why is this issue so problematic? In my view, the IP must target zero infections and adverse events.

Realistically, we will never achieve this when working w w w. The LTC IP needs to understand LTC, the resident and patient populations, what types of interventions are helpful, and what types of interventions have been shown to be harmful. Only a few states currently require public reporting of infections by nursing homes. What needs to happen to include more facilities in this process?

Schweon: Currently, there is no national mandate or legislative requirement for public reporting of all LTCFs. However, in ,. This secure, Internet-based surveillance system uses a standardized and precise approach for tracking healthcare-associated infections. The LTC component www. Additionally, MDRO activity and preventative process measures can be monitored. LTCFs now have the capability of benchmarking their data against other organizations.

In my view, for facilities that have a strong commitment to resident safety and preventing infection, joining and actively participating in the LTC component may lead to improved resident outcomes and decreased expenditures related to infectious diseases. We need to advocate a nimble approach to infection prevention that focuses on the individual first. The IP needs to understand LTC, the resident and patient populations, what types of interventions are helpful, and what types of interventions have been shown to be harmful.

This takes consistent review of the current evidence. Our understanding of what we thought were effective strategies 10 years ago has changed significantly. Vicky Uhland is a medical writer for Prevention Strategist. Avoid Building Code violations. Disinfecting hard surfaces is only half the battle. In healthcare environments, soft surfaces — like privacy curtains, chairs and couches — can be carriers of HAI-causing pathogens. Dangerous bacteria can survive up to 90 days2 on fabric, putting patients, families and staff at risk.

Now, a solution for soft surfaces. Finally, a single solution for all surfaces — to help you kill infection-causing pathogens wherever they may be. For your free sample, visit cloroxhealthcare. Ohl, M. Hospital privacy curtains are frequently and rapidly contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria.

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Soft surface claim has been registered by the Federal EPA and may not be available in all 50 states. Please check with your sales representative for updates in your state. Recent studies have estimated that over 40, bacterial species, primarily anaerobes, are part of the natural biodiversity of the gut ecosystem.

No matter what the trigger, impaired bacterial function,. In many cases it remains unclear if w w w. Environmental, immunological, hormonal, and genetic variables have been investigated. While much remains unknown, it is clear that maintenance of the microbiota is a far more complex process that previously believed. The intestinal microbiota has been almost impossible to analyze using traditional laboratory approaches such as culture and strain typing, as less than 1 percent of intestinal bacteria have been successfully cultured.

The field of metagenomics uses this vast pool of information to produce a more complete description of all types of human microbiota, as well as reduce the previous risk of underreporting the size and nature of microbial communities. The first step in understanding antibiotic resistance is recognition of the environment as a natural reservoir.

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New technologies have revealed the presence of antibiotic resistance in the environment, suggesting a co-evolution between antibiotic and antibiotic resistance that occurs as a natural event. The environmental microbiota, even in antibioticfree conditions, possesses a large and diverse number of antibiotic resistant genes—some of which resemble the genes of pathogenic microbes. The contemporary resistome is under increasing selective pressure from human activities—especially agriculture—that may accelerate resistance and gene transfer.

Changes in the environment then impact the clinical resistome. For example, evidence now suggests links between aminoglycoside and vancomycin resistance enzymes and the environment. For this reason, scientists have used the beta lactamases for modeling as they represent the most widespread mechanism of resistance among pathogenic bacteria worldwide.

For example, in one of the first metagenomic studies on antibiotic resistance in the human intestinal microbiome, researchers identified 10 novel. Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing threat to the prevention and containment of communicable diseases worldwide. A bacterium can undergo spontaneous genetic mutation. It can also receive genetically coded resistance via plasmids or transposons from other bacteria that already contain this genetic information. However, bacteria can also receive resistance genes from viruses, as well as via direct exposure to DNA in the environment.

These processes can occur at varying times, increasing the number and types of antibiotics that they can resist. Once resistance is acquired, it may be transferred vertically, through bacterial replication, or horizontally, via contact between bacteria without any type of reproduction. The density of intestinal bacteria, especially during disease progression, increases the risk of. Due to the probability of genetic exchange during disease, the intestinal microbiota may represent the largest reservoir for resistance. However the use of metagenomic sequencing has, as in the study of beta lactamases, now identified resistant genes previously unknown and not recognized using E.

Phages are viruses that attack bacteria. The community of phages is referred to as a phageome. The rapid increase in antibiotic resistance since the s has focused renewed attention on phage-based research. Recent research in animal models has attempted to analyze the role of phages in the spread of antibiotic resistance.

In one study, phages were studied as a potential reservoir for bacterial adaptation. In this study, antibiotic treatment led to enrichment of phageencoded genes. Another area of investigation focuses on biochemical alteration of the intestinal epithelium. Disruption of normal epithelial permeability and mucous integrity can impact the microbiota. For example, one project has examined carbohydrate.

Laboratory analysis has shown that antibiotic impact on intestinal microbiota changed mucosal carbohydrate availability in ways that supported the growth of S. Research in these areas is ongoing. Microbiota and obesity. Obesity is rarely a consequence of only nutritional imbalance. It is a complex problem linked to both metabolic and immunologic functions.

Specifically, emerging research shows a link not only between gut microbiota and obesity, but also with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As more is learned about the intestinal microbiome and its impact on overall health, various strategies have been proposed to restore or maintain gut homeostasis.

Foremost among these future strategies is the. In addition, the future may yield new pharmacological treatments, immunomodulatory vaccines, and nutritionally based therapies. A better understanding of the development of gut microbiota early in life may yield new opportunities to prevent or manage adult disease. More information about nutritional components is needed to understand and manage endotoxinemic and inflammatory responses in the gut, especially related to lipid and fructose intake. However, all proposed methods of manipulation are based on varying approaches to human host-microbiota co-regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

Gastrointestinal microbiology in the metagenomics era. Curr Opin Gastroenterol, Jan; 24 1 : The gut microbiome: the role of a virtual organ in the endocrinology of the host. J Endocrinol Aug; 3 : R The interpersonal and interpersonal diversity of human-associated microbiota in key body sites. J Allergy Clin Immuno. Blumbert R, Powrie F. Microbiota, disease and back to health: a metastable journey.

Sci Transl Med. The human gut microbiome: current knowledge, challenges and future directions. Transl Res. Konkel, L. The environment within: exploring the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease. Environ Health Perspect. Novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of resistance reservoirs. Front Microbiol ; Aminov RI. The role of antibiotic and antibiotic resistance in nature. Led data analysis to inform and drive strategy development; reported key metrics to leadership team. Collaborated with creative team, led creative briefings, drove timelines, and cross-functional approvals.

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