Modern Irish Theatre (Polity Cultural History of Literature Series)

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Om boka. Ta kontakt med Kundesenteret. Avbryt Send e-post. First Report. London: Stationery Office. Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 11 April Article October Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 17 April Appendix, White Ballot Paper.

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The constitution and constitutional change in Ireland. Institute of Public Administration. The Irish Times. Retrieved 2 May Modern Irish Theatre. Cultural history of literature. Retrieved 9 May Parliamentary Debates.

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Retrieved 23 October New Section. Publication or utterance of blasphemous matter". Defamation Act Seizure of copies of blasphemous statements". Retrieved 31 July Atheist Ireland. Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 1 May Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 28 September Justice Minister" MP3.

Today with Sean O'Rourke. The Independent. The Journal. Retrieved 4 September Parliamentary Debates Official Report — Unrevised. Retrieved 10 March Fine Gael. March Archived from the original PDF on 9 April Meeting videos. Dublin: Constitutional Convention. Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 14 August Retrieved 2 November Cox and O'Dell's presentations are at pp.

Retrieved 14 January Irish Examiner. Retrieved 1 June Government of Ireland. We propose that a number of referenda be held.

Celtic literature

These include Retrieved 26 September MerrionStreet Press release. Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 5 September C37 of — Houses of the Oireachtas". Retrieved 24 January Most native prose of this period was concerned with the hero Finn and his war band fian. The Fenian stories never received such careful literary treatment as did those of the Ulster cycle , and the old form was soon abandoned for prose tales and ballads, which may be regarded as the beginnings of popular, as opposed to professional, literature in Irish.

The metres represented a drastic simplification of the bardic technique, and a distinct change in theme occurred as this literature passed into the hands of the people. Stories popular with the fili steadily dropped out of favour. Most important of all, a flood of translations from Latin and English began. The new religious orders translated many spiritual and devotional works, and the churchmen made the experiment, remarkable for the time, of handling philosophical material in the vernacular.

There was also much technical writing, especially on grammar and metrics.

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Continental teaching seems to have superseded the native tradition during this period. By the end of the 15th century the printing press began to make literature available to larger numbers in most European countries. In Ireland, however, literature remained for some time the preserve of those who could afford to maintain the writers and supply their costly vellum.

With their elimination the old order was doomed, and the Irish language itself began its long process of decay. Hardly any correct bardic verse was written in Ireland after , but new poets took over from the bards.

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And just as the bardic measures had been in preparation for centuries before they established themselves as canonical , so the song metres that replaced them had existed for centuries among the people. The new poets abandoned the syllable-measured lines for lines with a fixed number of stresses; the stressed vowels rhymed in patterns that might be very simple or, later, bewilderingly intricate, but simple vocalic assonance took the place of earlier rhyme.

The language of poetry moved toward that of the people.


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While poets had little patronage, there was at least an increasing supply of paper, so that their works, still barred from the printing press, were able to circulate. The tone of verse throughout the 17th century was passionately defiant of the new regime. In it is found the first coherent expression of patriotism conceived as devotion to an abstract ideal rather than as loyalty to an individual, but much of the verse represents a mere nostalgia for the past.

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After them the poetic tradition was maintained into the 19th century by peasant poets who, although not lacking in subtlety of craftsmanship, and occasionally vigorous in satire , had none of the advantages and only a few of the virtues of their predecessors. During the 17th century valuable antiquarian prose was produced. It found several imitators, but the old tradition was by this time too attenuated for so aristocratic an attitude to be maintained.

Imaginative prose was more popular; it consisted of developments of Fenian or romance themes from Irish and foreign medieval literature mingled with elements of folklore and of the fabliau a short metrical tale. As in the case of the song metres, these romances had a considerable tradition before they appeared in writing.


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But as the public for Irish became smaller, there was little hope for much prose production. The 18th century is a low point in Irish Gaelic literature. After it, Irish poetry became a matter of folk songs. During the 18th and early 19th centuries the only books in Irish prose were catechisms and devotional tracts.

The manuscript tradition was carried on by a few scribes into the first half of the 19th century, when it all but died out. By the midth century there was little literary activity in Irish, and almost all Irish speakers were illiterate. The rich vocabulary and idiomatic expressions and the wealth of folklore and folktales of the Irish-speaking districts gaeltacht s gradually were acknowledged.

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Folklore collectors such as Douglas Hyde were able to restore some sense of pride in the language. But the revivalists were faced with a language of diverse dialects, and standardization was only effected in the midth century with the help of new grammars, adequate dictionaries, and government support and direction. Writers whose Irish was rich and vigorous were persuaded that the reading public needed not more folklore but a literature that could compete internationally. However, the drama in Irish cannot be said to have created for itself the following attracted by the Anglo-Irish theatre in its heyday under the influence of Yeats and Synge.

The most valuable contribution made by the gaeltacht s has been a series of personal reminiscences describing local life.



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