Ann Kelley, had originally been pegged to sing lead, but this idea was discarded out of fear that groups with female lead singers were less commercially viable. The bass player on the session was Wilton Felder, not James Jamerson as previously reported.
Producer John Florez did not like the lyrics for "Rock the Boat", calling them "trite", and it was originally made a B side. After a riveting response from New York City's dance clubs, Florez remixed the song and it was quickly re-released, becoming a smash. The Hues Corporation member St. Clair Lee claims "It was a song that you could do anything on. You could cuddle or you could get crazy if you wanted to. It was a love song without being a love song. But, it was a Disco hit and it happened because of the discos. The song features a change in meter during the pre-chorus "We've been sailing with a cargo full of love and devotion" where it is 7 4 for one measure while the rest of the song is in common time.
The 'Rock the Boat' dance also a favourite at weddings and birthday parties and involves many people sitting down in a row and 'rowing' a boat to the tune of the song. Jacob Miller and the Inner Circle cut a reggae version of the song in British girl group Delage covered the song in It peaked at 63 on the UK charts. There is a reference to the song's distinctive bridge in Jurassic 5 track " Concrete Schoolyard ". One of the furthest reaches "Rock The Boat" has made has been on the Australian series Playschool in a program theme about water.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Radius the inside of the joint with epoxy and microballoons and then lay several layers of fiberglass tape over the inside of the joint, totally sealing it and strengthening the area at the same time. A more trouble-free hull to deck joint utilizes substantial fiberglass bonding on the interior of the joint, eliminating mechanical fasteners and leaks. Bulkheads must be securely attached to the hull. On a fiberglass boat they need to be substantially glassed to the hull on both sides and to the deck with multiple layers of tape.
High production builders skimp on this, gluing bulkheads in instead, but once their boats have made several ocean passages, bulkheads and interior wooden cabinetry frequently come unbonded from the hull, allowing the hull to flex more than it should. The repair is complicated, messy and expensive, involving grinding and fiberglassing in some difficult to reach areas. If the interior woodwork is just glued or lightly attached to a hull liner pan or to the hull, it's not uncommon to discover it breaking loose after a few thousand miles of ocean sailing.
Access to hull and deck areas is generally restricted when fiberglass liners and pans are used in construction, making equipment installation and leak stopping difficult. This is one of the reasons for the large price difference between high-volume mass-produced French and German yards and higher quality, lower production builders. The loading from chain plates must be evenly transmitted to bulkheads and structural members below deck to avoid lifting or distorting the deck. Separate chainplates for forward, upper and aft shrouds provides more stability for the mast and reduces the chance of deck loading distortion.
Swept-back spreaders mean a less expensive installation for the builder and a tighter sheeting angle for the headsail, but this presents a huge disadvantage when easing the main out for downwind sailing. External chainplates fastened to the outside of the hull look salty but have a much higher leak potential and restrict jib sheeting angles.
Chainplates must be easily removable as crevice corrosion, particularly in warm climates can be a serious problem. Deck stepped masts work well, but only if proper structural members transmit the load to the keel. Otherwise deflection and possibly delaminating under the mast occur. With keel stepped masts, inspect for corrosion at the base of the mast.
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Check the mast for trueness. Some sailors prefer tillers on boats under 35' as there is less to go wrong and installing most windvane steering systems is less complicated than with wheel steering. Many Taiwanese-built steering systems suffer from poor initial design, inferior bronze castings and rudders that aren't able to hold up to the stresses of ocean sailing. The location of the steering position is also important.
If the wheel is mounted at the far aft end of the cockpit, it may be very hard to design a dodger that will provide protection to the helmsperson without resorting to a long, potentially unseaworthy design. Nigel Calder makes a clear argument as to why he prefers aft cockpit design. I can make a reasonable argument for either design, but personally prefer a center cockpit in boats over 40'' as long as the cockpit isn't unduly high off the water.
Some designers try to maximize engine room and interior volume, resulting in this problem. Some of the advantages I see to a center cockpit include more privacy, better engine access and less danger of the cockpit being filled from following breaking seas. The ideal stern for a cruising boat includes a built-in swim step on a slightly reversed transom stern.
This not only makes getting in and out of the water and dinghy easy, but allows easy access when moored stern-to a dock or wall, a common situation in less developed cruising areas. Double enders may look salty, but the loss of valuable, hard-to-replace lazarette storage area and buoyancy aft must be taken into consideration. Most double enders have a tendency to "squat" in the stern and hobbyhorse sailing to windward when loaded with cruising gear.
Being able to maintain at least six knots under power will get you in most passes and channels at the time of least current. A rule of thumb is two horsepower per thousand pounds of displacement for a sufficiently powered cruising sailboat. Purists may say that this is excessive, but in my experience it has been an advantage to have sufficient power to deal with currents and the ability to motorsail to windward for short distances into steep chop when necessary. How good is everyday access? Can the water pump be removed without dismantling the engine? Can the engine be removed if necessary for rebuilding without having to destroy the cockpit or companionway?
What is the fuel consumption and range under power? Ideally the boat you are considering will have a common make of engine that will be easy to find parts and service for in less-developed cruising areas. Best manufactures for worldwide parts availability are Volvo, Perkins, Caterpillar, and Cummins. When I bought my Hallberg-Rassy 31, I thought the 25 hp diesel engine was excessive for a displacement of only 9, lbs, but the top speed of 7.
My 42' ketch displaced 25, pounds and was powered with a 62 hp engine which proved very adequate in areas like Patagonia, Antarctica and Alaska where conditions dictated powering for weeks at a time, encountering strong currents and tidal rips and fierce catabatic winds daily. My present 48', 38, lb boat has a 95 hp. I have supplemented standard fuel tankage with jerry jugs stowed in cockpit lockers with each of these boats. Make sure you really enjoy and know how to sail. Complete an offshore passage. Realistically assess your needs in terms of size of boat and amount of equipment.
If you're outfitting and cruising on a budget, remember the KISS formula. More complicated systems mean more money and maintenance, repairs and spare parts to track down. Think moderate in terms of displacement and sail area.
Boat Design and Construction
You'll want to hire a surveyor who has no vested interest in the transaction, other than making sure that the boat you're considering is safe and a good investment for you. Marine Insurance companies and banks are often able to recommend surveyors whose opinions they trust. Sail on as many different designs as possible and take notes on the features you like and dislike, noting pluses and minuses of each. Joining a sailing club or chartering different can be helpful. If you are quite convinced that you want a specific boat, a one-week charter on a sistership will be a sound investment.
Also available from Armchair Sailor. Surveying Fiberglass Sailboats - Henry C. Mustin, International Marine, Since I have professionally consulted for hundreds of people seeking cruising boats. My experience in the marine industry is unique; , miles and 38 years worldwide ocean sailing experience plus boatbuilding, surveying and previously owning a yacht brokerage.
As my time available for consultation is limited, it is only appropriate that I charge for this service. Christoph Rassy started building production sailboats on Sweden's West Coast in with the Rasmus 35, a center-cockpit, aft cabin cruising boat designed by Olle Enderlein. Dozens of these boats are still out cruising the world, and the designs that followed have consistently been comfortable, attractive and reasonably fast; very reliable cruising boats without any concession to racing design or passing tends.
Large tankage and engines and fixed windshields with optional hardtops are common features and consistently high construction quality has resulted in steadily increasing value of these boats over the years. The Frers designs brought improved performance with longer waterlines and other features such as external lead ballast, semi-balanced rudders and a sloop rigs. Having sailed , miles on Rassy-Enderlein designed HR 31 and 42, I was eager to test the sailing performance the new Frers-designed 39, 42, 46 and 53, and the difference in both light and heavy air performance was surprising.
The larger water plane area aft means these boats can sail to windward in strong winds and seas with very little pitching motion. Before selecting a Hallberg-Rassy 46 to replace the older-style Rassy-Enderlein designed HR 42 which we sailed 70, miles over seven years of sail-training, Amanda and I traveled around the world inspecting boat yards and speaking with designers.
He is an avid sailor commissioning a personal boat every few years to cross the Atlantic, trading off with his employees for time aboard. Many of the employees have been with the yard for over 30 years, and boatbuilding is a family tradition carried out on the island of Orust for over 10, years, according to archaeologists. The entire yard closes for four weeks each summer allowing employees to go cruising on their own boats. We gave very little consideration to a custom design, having watched dozens of our ex-students go through the time and cost overruns and seemingly unending teething problems of custom boats.
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Purchasing a used boat and going through a major refit was something I had done three times previously. After careful evaluation, we took the major step for us of ordering a new HR 46, exactly the way we wanted it. I was particularly pleased to be purchasing hull 92 of the design, and to know that the yard had completed 8, boats to date. Between the time we ordered the boat and it was built, the yard incorporated several standard upgrades which they did not charge extra for.
Construction There are many construction details that I've found to be excellent, and in some cases unique to Hallberg-Rassy. This list highlights some of the most noteworthy features: Optional rigid dodgers with opening center windows on the 42 to Once you've made a rough ocean passage with a rigid dodger, you'll never want to go back to a canvas dodger that can be easily carried away.
Permanent sun protection is also a consideration in these days of ozone depletion and high rates of skin cancer. Two bow rollers are standard, and the boat handles the weight of a 75 lb. CQR and 44 lb. Delta permanently stored on the bow. The powerful watt, 24 volt Lofrans vertical windlass has worked flawlessly, even in 90' depths. Oversize thru-bolted mooring cleats including midship spring-line cleats mounted on top of the solid teak toerail in such away that chafe is minimalized. Hull-to-deck joint that does not rely on bolts, screws, rivets or adhesive for strength or watertightness.
The joint is heavily glassed on the inside the entire way around the boat and solid stainless steel rods for mounting stanchions are recessed into the bulwark thus eliminating potential leaks so common when stanchion bases are thru-bolted. A strong hull utilizing isophtalic resin and Divinycell closed-cell PVC insulation above the waterline. I believe this an excellent construction technique for a cruising boat, providing a hull with excellent torisional stability and no chance of water absorption. I really like the fact that the yard takes the time to grind the inside of the hull and bilge smooth, and paint it with a gray topcoat.
This means no sliced or scraped fingers from errant fiberglass strands when installing equipment or cleaning. All interior lockers are lined with satin-varnished mahogany battens. This eliminates moisture and condensation problems, even when we are sailing in Antarctic or Arctic waters. Very careful osmotic blister protection. I have spent much of the past 22 years in tropical waters aboard my HR boats without blister problems. This may be due in part to the fact that the hulls are built under strictly controlled temperature and humidity conditions. A deck that will not leak!
The deck also utilizes Divinycell coring which does not have the water absorption problems I've seen on many boats with balsa-cored decks. A substantial structural grid fiberglassed to the hull made of hand-laid fibreglass that ties the bulkheads, mast support and engine beds together and divides up the large storage areas below the cabin sole. I have come to prefer this deck-stepped mast design as it eliminates leaks where the mast comes through the deck, corrosion at the mast base and deck collar, and the inevitable water in the bilge from rain entering around masthead sheaves.
A simple and efficient sloop rig minimizing foredeck clutter. Over 40 knots upwind we easily rig the removable inner stay on which we set a bullet-proof hank-on storm staysail. Running backstays provide additional mast stability. In winds over knots, we drop the triple-reefed main and hoist a storm trysail. We have only had to hoist the trysail twice while in the Roaring Forties, during our 42, miles to date on our Substantial stainless tanks with gallons fuel including an optional gallon tank and gallons water are mounted above the keel, and below the cabin sole, creating roomy storage space below the main cabin settees.
The tanks are installed after the deck is constructed and are easily removed without having to destroy interior joinery work. A powerful yet economical 95 hp engine with excellent access from all sides and plenty of room for additional systems. Massive amounts of storage area are available below the cabin sole and on the 46 it runs to nearly 3' deep at the main bulkhead. We have five large Rubbermaid bins screwed to the grid system and filled with spares and food.
A boat with a flatter underbody would surf better downwind but have reduced storage space and prove less comfortable going to windward in heavy weather. A semi-balanced rudder suspended on three sets of roller bearings and utilizing Whitlock torque-tube and bevel gear Mamba steering system gives fingertip control, even in heavy seas. I was initially concerned that the design didn't have a full-length skeg, but after 42, miles, the "power-steering" effect of being semi-balanced is addictive, requiring far less rudder input and effort.
The rudder post is solid stainless steel, tapered at the bottom and the substantial welded flanges are also tapered stainless steel. A substantially deep bilge and sump with external lead ballast with stainless keel bolts. A convenient swim step built into the reverse transom. We find this type of transom unbeatable for active cruising. Not only does this make getting out of the water after snorkeling and swimming easier, it is also makes practicing the Lifesling Overboard Retrieval system easier.
Mooring stern-to floating docks or boarding from a dinghy with this type of transom is a breeze! She wondered whether a similar dynamic might take hold among younger kids as playgrounds started to become safer and less interesting. Sandseter began observing and interviewing children on playgrounds in Norway. That scares them, but then they overcome the fear.
To gauge the effects of losing these experiences, Sandseter turns to evolutionary psychology. Children are born with the instinct to take risks in play, because historically, learning to negotiate risk has been crucial to survival; in another era, they would have had to learn to run from some danger, defend themselves from others, be independent. Even today, growing up is a process of managing fears and learning to arrive at sound decisions. But if they never go through that process, the fear can turn into a phobia.
We might accept a few more phobias in our children in exchange for fewer injuries. But the final irony is that our close attention to safety has not in fact made a tremendous difference in the number of accidents children have. According to the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, which monitors hospital visits, the frequency of emergency-room visits related to playground equipment, including home equipment, in was ,, or one visit per 1, Americans.
In , it was ,, or one per 1, Americans. From through , the Consumer Product Safety Commission reported deaths associated with playground equipment—an average of 13 a year, or 10 fewer than were reported in Head injuries, runaway motorcycles, a fatal fall onto a rock—most of the horrors Sweeney and Frost described all those years ago turn out to be freakishly rare, unexpected tragedies that no amount of safety-proofing can prevent. David Ball, a professor of risk management at Middlesex University, analyzed U. Ball has found some evidence that long-bone injuries, which are far more common than head injuries, are actually increasing.
Etan had been begging his mother to let him walk by himself; many of his friends did, and that morning was the first time she let him. But, as just about anyone who grew up in New York in that era knows, he never came home. I also remember that, sometime during those weeks of endless coverage of the search for Etan, the parents in my neighborhood for the first time organized a walk pool to take us to the bus stop. Over time, the fear drove a new parenting absolute: children were never to talk to strangers. David Finkelhor is the director of the Crimes Against Children Research Center and the most reliable authority on sexual-abuse and abduction statistics for children.
A child from a happy, intact family who walks to the bus stop and never comes home is still a singular tragedy, not a national epidemic. One kind of crime that has increased, says Finkelhor, is family abduction which is lumped together with stereotypical abduction in FBI crime reports, accounting for the seemingly alarming numbers sometimes reported in the media. What has changed since the s is the nature of the American family, and the broader sense of community.
For a variety of reasons—divorce, more single-parent families, more mothers working—both families and neighborhoods have lost some of their cohesion. It is perhaps natural that trust in general has eroded, and that parents have sought to control more closely what they can—most of all, their children. As we parents began to see public spaces—playgrounds, streets, public ball fields, the distance between school and home—as dangerous, other, smaller daily decisions fell into place.
Failure to supervise has become, in fact, synonymous with failure to parent. No more pickup games, idle walks home from school, or cops and robbers in the garage all afternoon. The child culture from my Queens days, with its own traditions and codas, its particular pleasures and distresses, is virtually extinct. I n , the British-born geography student Roger Hart settled on an unusual project for his dissertation. Usually research on children is conducted by interviewing parents, but Hart decided he would go straight to the source. Hart asked them questions about where they went each day and how they felt about those places, but mostly he just wandered around with them.
Even now, as a father and a settled academic, Hart has a dreamy, puckish air. Children were comfortable with him and loved to share their moments of pride, their secrets. Often they took him to places adults had never seen before—playhouses or forts the kids had made just for themselves. Many of his observations must have seemed mundane at the time. The children spent immense amounts of time on their own, creating imaginary landscapes their parents sometimes knew nothing about.
The forts they built were not praised and cooed over by their parents, because their parents almost never saw them. The girls were more restricted because they often helped their mothers with chores or errands, or stayed behind to look after younger siblings. To the children, each little addition to their free range—being allowed to cross a paved road, or go to the center of town—was a sign of growing up.
The furniture has been built with love and wit—the TV, for example, is a crate on a rock with a magazine glamour shot taped onto the front.
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The phone is a stone with a curled piece of wire coming out from under it. The girls should be self-conscious because they are being filmed, but they are utterly at home, flipping their hair, sitting close to each other on crates, and drawing up plans for how to renovate. Nearby, their 4-year-old brother is cutting down a small tree with a hatchet for a new addition.
In another scene, Andrew and Jenny, a brother and sister who are 6 and 4, respectively, explore a patch of woods to find the best ferns to make a bed with. Jenny walks around in her knee-high white socks, her braids swinging, looking for the biggest fronds.
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Her big brother tries to arrange them just so. The sun is shining through the dense trees and the camera stays on the children for a long time. When they are satisfied with their bed, they lie down next to each other. I teared up while watching the film, and it was only a few days later that I understood why.
In , Hart returned to the same town to do a follow-up study. His aim was to reconnect with any kids he had written about who still lived within miles of the town and see how they were raising their own children, and also to track some of the kids who now lived in the town. But from the first day he arrived, he knew he would never be able to do the research in the same way. The mother said they could go in the backyard, but she followed them, always staying about yards behind them. When Hart went to visit Sylvia, he filmed the exchange.
They are both parents and are still living in that New England town. Jenny gets some of her girlish self back when she talks about how she and the boys pile up rocks in the backyard to build a ski jump or use sticks to make a fort. Among this new set of kids, the free range is fairly limited. For example, he said he has to be honest about the things that have improved in the new version of childhood.
In the old days, when children were left on their own, child power hierarchies formed fairly quickly, and some children always remained on the bottom, or were excluded entirely. Also, fathers were largely absent; now children are much closer to their dads—closer to both their parents than kids were back then. O ne common concern of parents these days is that children grow up too fast. They crossed the road, went to the store; eventually some of them got small neighborhood jobs. But these days, middle-class children, at least, skip these milestones. They spend a lot of time in the company of adults, so they can talk and think like them, but they never build up the confidence to be truly independent and self-reliant.
Lately parents have come to think along the class lines defined by the University of Pennsylvania sociologist Annette Lareau. Many people interpret her findings as proof that middle-class parenting styles, in their totality, are superior. But this may be an overly simplistic and self-serving conclusion; perhaps each form of child-rearing has something to recommend it to the other. She also talks about the same issue Lady Allen talked about all those years ago—encouraging children to take risks so they build their confidence.
But the more nebulous benefits of a freer child culture are harder to explain in a grant application, even though experiments bear them out. The teachers feared chaos, but in fact what they got was less naughtiness and bullying—because the kids were too busy and engaged to want to cause trouble, the principal said. In the past decade, the percentage of college-age kids taking psychiatric medication has spiked, according to a study by the American College Counseling Association.
The data show that children have become:. In the U. Meanwhile, the Welsh government has explicitly adopted a strategy to encourage active independent play, rather than book learning, among young children, paving the way for a handful of adventure playgrounds like the Land and other play initiatives.
Whether Americans will pick up on the British vibe is hard to say, although some hopeful signs are appearing. And in Washington, D. Located at a private school called Beauvoir, it has a zip line and climbing structures that kids of all ages perceive as treacherous. He said the board was concerned about safety but also wanted an exciting playground; the safety guidelines are, after all these years, still just guidelines. But the real cultural shift has to come from parents. There is a big difference between avoiding major hazards and making every decision with the primary goal of optimizing child safety or enrichment, or happiness.
We can no more create the perfect environment for our children than we can create perfect children. To believe otherwise is a delusion, and a harmful one; remind yourself of that every time the panic rises.