But my body grew cold when I saw the life drain from you. The world became invisible, the night became unspoken and mobility was stolen from me. My eyes stayed focused on yours, my fingers clamped to the dirt. My mind froze. Even your killer and his hungry pistol blanked from my mind as I fell into emptiness. It was the sound which awoke me from my stupor. The quick catch in the pistol as it sought a bullet which was not there.
It not only woke me but triggered the panic of the shooter who tried once, twice, three times more. I wrenched my eyes from yours and slowly looked behind. He was but meters away from me. An officer; I hadn't realized before. His pistol was cast towards me and dismay was rapidly flooding over his previously detached expression. Energy surged through my body once again as the rage ripped through my cells. He took one step back, then another -- before turning and racing away.
With a frenzy-fuelled eruption, I launched to my feet and took off after him. Do you remember the day you arrived home bloody-nosed and bruised, Percy? You sniffled back the boy inside and dispelled the urge to cry. You refused to reveal the owner of the fists that had pummeled you -- for fear of being called a squealer -- but I coaxed and drew it out of you.
Jake Lawson -- lanky and lawless Jake Lawson. I was on my bike in seconds, peddling to the town with the fury bubbling in my belly and the mid-July heat spiraling past me. My brain relinquished to brawn and as he opened his mouth to protest, my fist found its place on his jaw and the sweet shatter announced the arrival of another fist across his head.
Jake Lawson -- clobbered and crippled -- would never forget the day he touched my little brother. As he lay sprawled on the ground, the earth absorbing his blood, my brain regained control once again. I felt the shooting pain in my knuckles and the sweet release as the fury in my belly simmered to calm.
And for a moment I did not recognize the boy on the ground in front of me nor register why he was clutching himself to soothe the pangs and throes. I quietly got back on my bike and cycled home. You were eating ice cream on the porch -- trying to devour it quicker than the sun could melt it. Contentment had been patched on your face once again and I sat beside you.
Together, we silently watched the soft clouds float by and the summer wind tickle the trees -- you immersed in calm and me at ease by your side. My feet pounded against the earth as my heart raced in my chest. He was quicker than I expected. The clouds had dispersed completely and the moon offered a permanent spotlight on the chase. Two enemy soldiers at war had become simply two men dashing for survival.
It was me or him, him or me. My foot squelched deep in a stream and I felt the strain in my ankle as I yanked it out. The shooting pain was pushed to the back of my mind as my legs refused to decrease speed. My brain ran through battle logistics and arrived at Sergeant Cole Adler -- the close-combat instructor's -- fury-filled face. Do you think this is good advice? A young Texan boy piped up with a meek "Yes" and got a face-full of Adler's temper. We were bursting through a forest and snagging branches. One bough failed to succumb to his weight and instead launched him back towards me.
And suddenly our roles had reversed. He was groveling on the ground before me and I stood above him -- the cool killer in the position of power. The situation was nothing but gratifying. I allowed him to crawl as I paced behind him -- my mind was awash with emotion -- so much so that it bridled the desire to instantly leap on top of him and destroy him there and then with my fists.
I was in the midst of wallowing in satisfaction -- my breath reaching deep, my knuckles tingling with anticipation -- when it struck. My sight erupted into stars and then it was black. My mind went wandering -- to the soft swing in the backyard and your fervent yells to go higher, to go higher. Freedom was painted in the landscape with clouds sailing across the open sky -- and the wind roamed freely through the creaking whitewashed house. Your pleas became more and more frantic and your legs kicked so high they scraped the sky.
You were six and we were free. The vision spiraled and I opened my eyes. The trees loomed above me. All was silent. The rock he had thrown lay bloodied beside me. Why he didn't kill me then, I'll never know. But he had fled. And I was alone. I pushed you so hard that you fell flat on your face -- cried your little blue eyes out and, as Mama held you sobbing in her arms, I swore that day never to push you again.
I stopped pushing and you started following: tottering after me -- to the store, to school, up trees, across rivers. As six became seven and seven became eight, you became my ever-present shadow. And so that's how it was -- you and me, chum -- Lewis and Percy -- brothers-inseparable. I stayed on the cold forest floor for an infinity -- urging death to arrive. Begging him to come and unite the brothers-inseparable once again. And then I saw your eyes. I saw your lifeless body, alone. Food for the birds -- that is what you would become. And the thought drove me to my feet as I asked death to wait for me.
The pain in my ankle began to announce itself in immense throbs as I retraced my steps. And after what seemed like hours, I found you and collapsed into the long soft grass beside you -- once again allowing my body to grow cold as I gazed at your empty eyes. When the sun rose once again to kiss the sky, feeling began returning to my legs and spread throughout my body.
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My nose was raw from the sweet stench of the earth. I hadn't moved from the long soft grass. And my eyes hadn't left your wide-open stare. The glimmer had long gone -- it had fled the lifeless corpse and the intoxicating inferno around you -- and yet I could not avert my eyes for fear that it would return and I would miss it.
I staggered to my feet, stumbled and then retched. The sun was stinging and the birds had stopped singing. All life had ceased -- all color gone and I began to dig -- attacking the clay with bare fists and tears to fog the pain. I clawed through damp soil and cold rocks; land that was not our own, earth with stories that should never have been ours. I dug until it was deep enough to cradle you. And that's where I left you, Percy. In an unsung grave, in an ungodly pit, under a nameless tree with leaves I didn't recognize. As the final handful of earth covered you, I collapsed to the ground and watched the day swim into night.
The world began to spin and blur -- my eyes had been attacked by a haze and my mind awoken to a gentle rain which quickly grew into a heavy downpour. I staggered to my feet and cast my arms to the ashen clouds above. The gesture sparked something inside and screams began gushing out of my mouth -- guttural, violent expletives surged and spurted as the skies and the heavens were berated by my grief.
And then the rain stopped. And I collapsed -- cowering in my sorrow. With my eyes clamped shut, I urged the image of your eyes out of my mind -- the glimmer and then gone, the glimmer and then gone. And thereupon it materialized: another image -- lugging another carriage of emotions -- the officer helpless before me. As the image of the officer became stronger, the grief became softer.
My stomach was filled with a slow-stewing gall. It amplified with an intense burn that quenched the sorrow as it grew. Strength trickled back into my being and I rose to my feet. I knew which direction I had to go in. I knew what I had to do, and in a silent field in an empty land, I pocketed my tears and left. I discovered that his name was von Dreichber. They told me about the things he did, the people he killed, his nefarious plots and plans -- but the numbers, the facts and figures, rang hollow.
They drifted over me as -- in my mind's eye -- all I could see was your blank stare. It loops, Percy. Endlessly loops. The glimmer and then gone. I stopped sleeping because closing eyes sent me looping again. Maybe that's why I began writing this thing; words to save me from sight? Soft scribbles to write you alive again. I miss you, Percy. I miss you every goddamn day. Today I was told we saved the lives of millions of people. And it had no effect on me. Because out of every single person in the world, I need just one to be alive -- and he's not; he's gone.
I am cold, Percy. And I wonder if I am still the brother you knew. The brother you followed to war. Did my heart die with you? Will killing him bring it back? I don't know, brother. I don't know anything anymore, except that I have to finish this. I have to finish what I began. I dreamt it again last night. The same haziness -- the same floating sensation of leaving the town and taking the shortcut by the big old oak; over Everett's unkempt corn fields and Grandma Ruth's cottage, overwhelmed by ivy.
The house was in the distance but, in the manner of dreams, I found myself on the porch in an instant. The door was locked -- the windows smeared with dust from the wicked wind. I wiped it and peered inside. She was sitting there, Percy. Alone on the couch, the letter crumpled in her fist and her tears tearing her eyes from their sockets. You were gone. And she knew. The world had crumbled and she was gripping the epicenter. I woke with a prod. A new feeling, a new emotion had risen.
A pledge I had forgotten -- the promise to be safe; the promise to come home. Von Dreichber, el nombre que atormenta mis pensamientos. Von Dreichber, la sombra que cosquillea mis nudillos. Yo era un soldado y ese era mi deber. No te mencionaba a ti, Percy. Y, a decir verdad, no se mencionaba la palabra venganza. Mis hermanos. Todos ellos, desaparecidos. En la oscuridad, tuve que enfrentarme cara a cara con el furioso deseo de venganza.
La caza continuaba. La venganza. Un trago dulce para un soldado amargo. Cada soldado que mataba era sacrificado en su nombre. Los nazis estaban desarrollando armas de represalia, su vendetta particular. Siempre dispuesto a aprender y a echar una mano a cualquier soldado roto que se cruzara en su camino. Vi el mismo cambio en tus ojos. Te contaba cuentos para que recordaras y nunca olvidaras.
Un campamento en un bosque. Con una fugaz mirada y sin cruzar palabra intentamos huir de la emboscada. Nos abrimos camino, arma en mano, uno al lado del otro, hermano junto a hermano; uno menos, luego otro. Nos arrastramos de manera silenciosa hacia la oscuridad. Las nubes se estaban retirando y la luna, llena de luz, arrojaba sus haces sobre el yermo paisaje. Fijamos nuestra mirada al frente y continuamos avanzando.
No puedo pensar en esas cosas, Percy. Tengo una certeza sobre la guerra: la muerte suena igual en todos los idiomas. Pero entonces, en medio de todo el horror y el miedo, aparece una risa como una estrella nueva en una larga noche. Como un rugido que anunciaba una personalidad similar.
Dean Miller era la chiflada luz del amanecer que alejaba mis nubarrones. Si la risa es la mejor medicina, Dean era la Cruz Roja. La noche se detuvo. Adorabas ese poema. Tosiste y escupiste hasta volver a ti mismo y abriste los ojos. Cada grupo necesita alguien a quien atormentar. Desde el primer momento que vi a Cain, supe que iba a reclamar ese puesto.
Era diferente, extravagante, aunque los muchachos pensaban que era raro. Tras este incidente, los chistes se terminaron. Me conoces, Percy. Su naturaleza inmutable y su temperamento gentil me aportaban serenidad. Finalmente hablamos. Larry Jackson era un predicador, reclutado a dedo como muchos de nosotros. Tan sencillo como eso. De la misma manera, creo que mi consuelo era que Larry estaba a mi lado.
Nunca fuiste solo mi hermano, Percy. Por supuesto que eras mi hermano, a mi lado tanto en la paz como en la guerra. La guerra es solitaria. Un lugar solitario donde los hombres se convierten en soldados, y estos, en hermanos. Yo peleaba por ti, Percy. Peleaba por ti y por la promesa de llevarte de vuelta a casa sano y salvo. Entonces desapareciste. Y entonces, desapareciste. Acababa de llegar de Europa, huyendo de Alemania, andando penosamente por la vida con sus inimaginables historias.
Cuando me reclutaron, te alistaste de manera voluntaria. Dios es testigo de que nos hubiera dado todo, Percy: cada resto de comida, cada cuchillo, cada arma En un instante dejamos de ser madre e hijo. Yo era el padre y ella, mi hija. Mis ojos no se apartaron ni un segundo de los tuyos. Te vi comiendo helado en el porche, intentando devorarlo antes de que el sol lo derritiese. Pinceladas de libertad dibujaban el paisaje con nubes que navegaban por el cielo y el viento soplaba alegremente entre las grietas de la casa blanca. Solo se escuchaba el silencio. Cuando los seis pasaron a ser siete y los siete, ocho, te convertiste en mi sombra perpetua.
Entonces vi tus ojos. El dulce hedor de la tierra inundaba mi nariz. En una tumba sin valor. Serpentea en mi interior, Percy. Orbita sin parar. Puede que por eso empezara a escribir palabras que me rescataran de las visiones. Frases inconexas que te devuelvan a la vida.
Te echo de menos, Percy. Hoy me han dicho que hemos salvado la vida de millones de personas. Me he endurecido, Percy. La puerta estaba cerrada y las ventanas llenas de polvo por culpa del endiablado viento. Los cimientos del mundo se derrumbaban y ella trataba de aferrarse a algo. La promesa de volver sanos y salvos. La promesa de regresar a casa. The Markit iTraxx Europe this week is closing at bp, 6bp tighter, helped by the good performance of the iTraxx Senior Financials that is 11bp tighter at bp.
This amount is expected to cover capital needs of EUR7. Last Friday, the Spanish Government announced that the regional deficit in was 0. This correction raises the public administration deficit for Spain to 8. The main regions responsible for the deficit adjustment are Madrid, Valencia and Castile-Leon. These three regions have revised their accounts mainly as a result of some unpaid bills which had to be accounted as part of the deficit in The recent implementation of the Supplier Payment Financing Fund has forced regions to report total unpaid bills, in order to be able to request the credit line.
Whether it is Russian forces seizing Crimea, China making aggressive claims in its coastal waters, Japan responding with an increasingly assertive strategy of its own, or Iran trying to use its alliances with Syria and Hezbollah to dominate the Middle East, old-fashioned power plays are back in international relations. The United States and the EU, at least, find such trends disturbing. Both would rather move past geopolitical questions of territory and military power and focus instead on ones of world order and global governance: trade liberalization, nuclear nonproliferation, human rights, the rule of law, climate change, and so on.
Indeed, since the end of the Cold War, the most important objective of U. As the atmosphere turns dark, the task of promoting and maintaining world order grows more daunting. But Westerners should never have expected old-fashioned geopolitics to go away. They did so only because they fundamentally misread what the collapse of the Soviet Union meant: the ideological triumph of liberal capitalist democracy over communism, not the obsolescence of hard power.
China, Iran, and Russia never bought into the geopolitical settlement that followed the Cold War, and they are making increasingly forceful attempts to overturn it. That process will not be peaceful, and whether or not the revisionists succeed, their efforts have already shaken the balance of power and changed the dynamics of international politics. When the Cold War ended, many Americans and Europeans seemed to think that the most vexing geopolitical questions had largely been settled.
With the exception of a handful of relatively minor problems, such as the woes of the former Yugoslavia and the Israeli-Palestinian dispute, the biggest issues in world politics, they assumed, would no longer concern boundaries, military bases, national self-determination, or spheres of influence. Still, Westerners often forget that this project rests on the particular geopolitical foundations laid in the early s.
In Asia, it meant the uncontested dominance of the United States, embedded in a series of security relationships with Japan, South Korea, Australia, Indonesia, and other allies. This settlement reflected the power realities of the day, and it was only as stable as the relationships that held it up. Unfortunately, many observers conflated the temporary geopolitical conditions of the post—Cold War world with the presumably more final outcome of the ideological struggle between liberal democracy and Soviet communism.
After all, the idea of the end of history has rested on the geopolitical consequences of ideological struggles ever since the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel first expressed it at the beginning of the nineteenth century. For Hegel, it was the Battle of Jena, in , that rang the curtain down on the war of ideas. This spelled an end to history, Hegel argued, because in the future, only states that adopted the principles and techniques of revolutionary France would be able to compete and survive.
Adapted to the post—Cold War world, this argument was taken to mean that in the future, states would have to adopt the principles of liberal capitalism to keep up. Closed, communist societies, such as the Soviet Union, had shown themselves to be too uncreative and unproductive to compete economically and militarily with liberal states. Their political regimes were also shaky, since no social form other than liberal democracy provided enough freedom and dignity for a contemporary society to remain stable. The only remaining dangers to world peace would come from rogue states such as North Korea, and although such countries might have the will to challenge the West, they would be too crippled by their obsolete political and social structures to rise above the nuisance level unless they developed nuclear weapons, of course.
And thus former communist states, such as Russia, faced a choice. They could jump on the modernization bandwagon and become liberal, open, and pacifistic, or they could cling bitterly to their guns and their culture as the world passed them by. At first, it all seemed to work. With history over, the focus shifted from geopolitics to development economics and nonproliferation, and the bulk of foreign policy came to center on questions such as climate change and trade.
The conflation of the end of geopolitics and the end of history offered an especially enticing prospect to the United States: the idea that the country could start putting less into the international system and taking out more. This vision appealed to both liberals and conservatives in the United States.
At the same time, policymakers assumed that the international system would become stronger and wider-reaching while continuing to be conducive to U. Republican neo-isolationists, such as former Representative Ron Paul of Texas, argued that given the absence of serious geopolitical challenges, the United States could dramatically cut both military spending and foreign aid while continuing to benefit from the global economic system. Bush based his foreign policy on the belief that Middle Eastern terrorists constituted a uniquely dangerous opponent, and he launched what he said would be a long war against them.
In some respects, it appeared that the world was back in the realm of history. In very different ways, China, Iran, and Russia are all seeking to revise the status quo. At the same time, however, Obama planned to cut defense spending dramatically and reduced U. All these happy convictions are about to be tested. Twenty-five years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, whether one focuses on the rivalry between the EU and Russia over Ukraine, which led Moscow to seize Crimea; the intensifying competition between China and Japan in East Asia; or the subsuming of sectarian conflict into international rivalries and civil wars in the Middle East, the world is looking less post-historical by the day.
In very different ways, with very different objectives, China, Iran, and Russia are all pushing back against the political settlement of the Cold War. The relationships among those three revisionist powers are complex. In the long run, Russia fears the rise of China. Iran and Russia are oil-exporting countries and like the price of oil to be high; China is a net consumer and wants prices low. One should not speak of a strategic alliance among them, and over time, particularly if they succeed in undermining U. What binds these powers together, however, is their agreement that the status quo must be revised.
Russia wants to reassemble as much of the Soviet Union as it can. China has no intention of contenting itself with a secondary role in global affairs, nor will it accept the current degree of U. Iran wishes to replace the current order in the Middle East -- led by Saudi Arabia and dominated by Sunni Arab states -- with one centered on Tehran. Leaders in all three countries also agree that U. Their hostility toward Washington and its order is both offensive and defensive: not only do they hope that the decline of U.
Rather than challenge the status quo head on, they seek to chip away at the norms and relationships that sustain it. Since Obama has been president, each of these powers has pursued a distinct strategy in light of its own strengths and weaknesses. China, which has the greatest capabilities of the three, has paradoxically been the most frustrated. Its efforts to assert itself in its region have only tightened the links between the United States and its Asian allies and intensified nationalism in Japan.
Iran, by many measures the weakest of the three states, has had the most successful record. In Syria, Iran, with the help of its longtime ally Hezbollah, has been able to reverse the military tide and prop up the government of Bashar al-Assad in the face of strong opposition from the U. So has the growing split among Sunni governments over what to do about the Muslim Brotherhood and its offshoots and adherents.
Russia, meanwhile, has emerged as the middling revisionist: more powerful than Iran but weaker than China, more successful than China at geopolitics but less successful than Iran. To build a real Eurasian bloc, as Putin dreams of doing, Russia would have to underwrite the bills of the former Soviet republics -- something it cannot afford to do. Nevertheless, Putin, despite his weak hand, has been remarkably successful at frustrating Western projects on former Soviet territory. He has stopped NATO expansion dead in its tracks.
He has dismembered Georgia, brought Armenia into his orbit, tightened his hold on Crimea, and, with his Ukrainian adventure, dealt the West an unpleasant and humiliating surprise. From the Western point of view, Putin appears to be condemning his country to an ever-darker future of poverty and marginalization.
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Obama now finds himself bogged down in exactly the kinds of geopolitical rivalries he had hoped to transcend. As a result, Americans have been slow to realize that these states have undermined the Eurasian geopolitical order in ways that complicate U. Still, one can see the effects of this revisionist activity in many places. Asian politics today revolve around national rivalries, conflicting territorial claims, naval buildups, and similar historical issues.
China and Japan are escalating their rhetoric, increasing their military budgets, starting bilateral crises with greater frequency, and fixating more and more on zero-sum competition. Although the EU remains in a post-historical moment, the non-EU republics of the former Soviet Union are living in a very different age. In the last few years, hopes of transforming the former Soviet Union into a post-historical region have faded.
The Russian occupation of Ukraine is only the latest in a series of steps that have turned eastern Europe into a zone of sharp geopolitical conflict and made stable and effective democratic governance impossible outside the Baltic states and Poland. In the Middle East, the situation is even more acute. Dreams that the Arab world was approaching a democratic tipping point -- dreams that informed U. Rather than building a liberal order in the region, U. Russia sees its influence in the Middle East as an important asset in its competition with the United States.
This does not mean that Moscow will reflexively oppose U. Russia cannot make itself a richer country or a much larger one, but it has made itself a more important factor in U. If these revisionist powers have gained ground, the status quo powers have been undermined. The EU may have avoided the worst possible consequences of the euro crisis, but both its will and its capacity for effective action beyond its frontiers have been significantly impaired. The United States has not suffered anything like the economic pain much of Europe has gone through, but with the country facing the foreign policy hangover induced by the Bush-era wars, an increasingly intrusive surveillance state, a slow economic recovery, and an unpopular health-care law, the public mood has soured.
On both the left and the right, Americans are questioning the benefits of the current world order and the competence of its architects. Additionally, the public shares the elite consensus that in a post—Cold War world, the United States ought to be able to pay less into the system and get more out. In any case, there is little public appetite for large new initiatives at home or abroad, and a cynical public is turning away from a polarized Washington with a mix of boredom and disdain.
Obama came into office planning to cut military spending and reduce the importance of foreign policy in American politics while strengthening the liberal world order. A little more than halfway through his presidency, he finds himself increasingly bogged down in exactly the kinds of geopolitical rivalries he had hoped to transcend. The reality is more complicated. He predicted that there would be disturbances in the provinces, even as the heartlands of European civilization moved into a post-historical time.
We are living in the twilight of history rather than at its actual end. A Hegelian view of the historical process today would hold that substantively little has changed since the beginning of the nineteenth century. To be powerful, states must develop the ideas and institutions that allow them to harness the titanic forces of industrial and informational capitalism. There is no alternative; societies unable or unwilling to embrace this route will end up the subjects of history rather than the makers of it. But the road to postmodernity remains rocky. In order to increase its power, China, for example, will clearly have to go through a process of economic and political development that will require the country to master the problems that modern Western societies have confronted.
The twilight of history is not a quiet time. As Fukuyama investigated what a post-historical society would look like, he made a disturbing discovery. They are competent enough at managing their affairs among post-historical people, but understanding the motives and countering the strategies of old-fashioned power politicians is hard for them.
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Unlike their less productive and less stable rivals, post-historical people are unwilling to make sacrifices, focused on the short term, easily distracted, and lacking in courage. The realities of personal and political life in post-historical societies are very different from those in such countries as China, Iran, and Russia, where the sun of history still shines. It is not just that those different societies bring different personalities and values to the fore; it is also that their institutions work differently and their publics are shaped by different ideas.
The tide of history may be flowing inexorably in the direction of liberal capitalist democracy, and the sun of history may indeed be sinking behind the hills. But even as the shadows lengthen and the first of the stars appears, such figures as Putin still stride the world stage.
They will not go gentle into that good night, and they will rage, rage against the dying of the light. Los esperanzados no tienen culpa. Tras los incidentes del S, el presidente George W. Las relaciones entre estas potencias revisionistas son complejas. A largo plazo, Rusia teme el ascenso de China. El poder de EE. The EU has strongly condemned the brutal attacks and widespread human rights violations inflicted by the Syrian regime on its population, including children. It has called for a full investigation of the findings of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry, which has pointed to crimes against humanity, and affirmed that the perpetrators of such alleged crimes must be brought to justice.
The EU has repeatedly urged the regime to immediately end the violence and grant unimpeded access to humanitarian organisations to enable them to assist those in need. The EU is the first humanitarian donor to the Syrian crisis. The protection and promotion of the rights of the child is an overarching objective in the EU's external and internal policies. Respuesta conjunta de la Sra. Oggetto: Rischio concreto di prosciugamento delle risorse finanziarie per il programma Erasmus. Secondo stime recenti riferite all'anno accademico , Risposta congiunta di Androulla Vassiliou a nome della Commissione.
In particolare, la Commissione ha chiesto ulteriori milioni di euro per il Programma di apprendimento permanente che dovrebbero consentire di soddisfare le esigenze di pagamento fino alla fine dell'anno. Under the Erasmus programme, three million young people have been able to take part in educational exchanges and live in different Member States, which has helped to improve the professional and linguistic skills of young people in Europe and has strengthened the values represented by the European Union and its acquis communautaire by breaking down barriers and building inter-European bridges.
The Commission has publicly stated that the funding for this programme is at risk, which means that the payment of the grant to some students for the remainder of this year is also at risk. According to various reports published, quoting Commission sources, this is due to the initially approved budget not being sufficient to meet the demand and, also, to Member States failing to fulfil their financial commitments to this particular programme for the current year.
Bearing in mind the importance of the Erasmus programme, especially during a period of serious economic crisis, which makes firm commitment to education and training more important than ever:.
Does the Commission think that the continuation of the Erasmus programme isguaranteed this year and in years to come? What annual budget does the Commission consider to be sufficient to meet the demandfor the programme? The Erasmus programme helps to increase mobility in higher education, its aim being to encourage a pan-European approach in the higher-education field.
By offering students access to other countries and cultures the programme enriches their learning experience. What measures does the Commission intend to take to pursue the policy of youth mobility, specifically in the field of higher education and research? What funding is earmarked for the Erasmus programme in the budget period? Does the Commission intend to open a new section of the Erasmus programme for teaching staff? Can the Commission issue an official statement in response to public concerns aroused by recent reports regarding the financial situation of the European Social Fund and the Erasmus student Programme?
It is the best-known and most accessible EU-funded programme. Erasmus was established in as a student exchange programme. In the period Erasmus was part of the Community programme known as Socrates. According to some people, the Erasmus programme is about to run out of money as a result of the new budgetary perspective. Public statements by, among others, Commissioner Janusz Lewandowski, indicate that there is no such threat to Erasmus this year and that students at foreign universities are secure. However, the programme may fall victim to the financial crisis in the coming years.
What would be the consequences for students actually on exchange placements should the budgetary funds for the Erasmus programme be exhausted? Would the security of the programme participants be guaranteed? Reactions in the press across Europe and even worldwide speak for themselves: at this period of unacceptably high youth unemployment, providing Europe's young people with learning and mobility opportunities in universities or enterprises abroad can significantly widen their experience, increase their employability and change their life for the better.
This is why it is absolutely crucial to not interrupt national or EU funding to students. Cross-border cooperation programmes and projects are a valuable policy instrument for tackling development disparities in border areas. High-quality cross-border cooperation has an unambiguously positive impact on communities living in border regions. The potential beneficiaries of ETC programmes include public finance sector entities, civil society organisations, non-profit associations and SMEs.
However, the proportion of socioeconomic entities which obtain funding is very small. The reason for this is the principle that expenses incurred in the implementation of projects are refunded subsequently, as well as the lengthy verification and certification process. Beneficiaries have problems maintaining liquidity, taking on tasks which often lead them to the brink of bankruptcy.
Also, local authorities — currently the most active group of beneficiaries — may in future be unable to continue implementing ETC projects. The introduction of pre-financing payments, which are successfully used in other support mechanisms implemented under the cohesion policy, will help to resolve these problems. The Commission is aware that insufficient cash flow can, at times, present difficulties for beneficiaries implementing projects under European Territorial Cooperation programmes.
For the period, the Commission has proposed pre-financing by the Commission to the national and regional authorities which will allow them to make advance payments to beneficiaries. In addition, it has proposed an obligation for authorities to pay beneficiaries before declaring the expenditure incurred to the Commission, ensuring that beneficiaries receive reimbursements due without delay.
The Commission considers that these measures will ensure that the cash flow and liquidity concerns of beneficiaries can be addressed in an effective manner. Mener Kommissionen, at afgiften diskriminerer mod husstandsomdelte tryksager i forhold til f. Et indenlandsk afgiftssystems eventuelle forskelsbehandling af forskellige typer reklamer uden hensyntagen til deres oprindelse er i den forbindelse ikke et anliggende, som Kommissionen tager op med en medlemsstat.
The Danish Government recently proposed a new tax on advertising material distributed to households. The tax was adopted as part of the budget for , but will only take effect from The new advertising tax is, to all appearances, a tax by weight: i. The tax which, under the proposal, will be imposed on advertising material distributed to households such as flyers from supermarkets and chain stores, is intended to raise around half a billion Danish crowns to be used for environmental support measures.
Does the Commission consider that the tax discriminates against material distributed to households compared with other advertising material such as adverts placed in weekly newspapers or flyers picked up in shops by consumers themselves, since it discriminates between products that are in competition with each other. Will the Commission look into whether the difference in treatment can be explained on the grounds of the objective pursued by the lawmakers, in this case environmental concerns?
Can the Commission approve the proposal as it stands, or is the tax deemed to be contrary to EU rules on state aid? There are no harmonised EU provisions for taxes levied on advertisements delivered door-to-door. Member States may therefore apply domestic taxes on such products as long as those taxes do not give rise to formalities connected with the crossing of frontiers between Member States. In this respect, the possible difference in the treatment of various types of advertisements under a domestic system of taxes, which is applied without regard to the origin of the products, is not an issue which the Commission may raise with a Member State.
In so far as the measure would constitute state aid, the environmental objective of the measure would be taken into account in the state aid assessment. La chiusura della discarica, prevista per il , ha ottenuto una proroga di 10 anni e nel la Regione Lazio ha autorizzato un ampliamento per un milione e mezzo di m 3 di rifiuti.
Ritiene la Commissione che:. La Commissione ha ricevuto diverse denunce in materia di smaltimento illegale di rifiuti pericolosi misti a rifiuti urbani in Italia e si sta adoperando per risolvere il problema. In a temporary storage facility for solid urban waste was opened at Colle Fagiolara, in the municipality of Colleferro Province of Rome , in the Valle del Sacco. The landfill site was due to be closed down in Does the Commission consider that the continued operation of the landfill site is consistent with European law?
Can waste be concentrated at Sites of National Interest by constructing new facilities to produce fuel from waste other than that produced inside the polluted area, and without consulting the High Commissioner for Land Rehabilitation? Can decisions of this kind be taken in an area which is already the subject of epidemiological studies and without taking account of the findings of the report of the bicameral committee of the Italian Parliament on the illegal disposal of waste by criminal organisations, which described the area as criss-crossed by intersecting illegal interests?
The landfill Colle Fagiolara has been in operation for several years. The decision to postpone its closure has been taken by the Italian competent authorities. The Commission has no evidence that the continued operation of the landfill may be in breach of EU waste legislation. The new MBT plant should in fact ensure a better management of the landfill through the separation of recyclable materials and, at least, the stabilisation of the organic waste fraction.
Decisions about the location and construction of waste treatment installations such as bio-mechanical waste treatment plants as well as assessment of relevant risks are to be taken by competent authorities in the Member States concerned. The Commission has received several allegations concerning illegal disposal of hazardous waste mixed with municipal waste in Italy, and is addressing the issue. This issue was one of the topics discussed at a recent seminar on management of municipal waste in Central and Southern Italy. Should the Commission receive evidence of breach of EU legislation, appropriate action will be taken.
It is feared that there is accordingly a serious risk of nuclear incidents similar in proportion to that which occurred in Fukushima in Japan, should earth tremors or flooding occur. In accordance with the principle of transparency, can the Commission provide full information regarding the findings of its investigation into European reactors? The Commission has recently transmitted to the Council and the European Parliament its final report on stress tests.
The Turkish report states that Turkey currently has no nuclear power plants, but the construction of one is being considered at Akkuyu. The report includes information on the nuclear safety characteristics and earthquake resistance of the future plant. An appeal against the life sentences meted out to Tommaso Bruno and Elisabetta Boncompagni, two young Italians who have been in prison in Varanasi, India, for two and a half years, was recently rejected.
The two young people have been charged with the murder of their friend and travelling companion, Francesco Montis, in a hotel room in the city. This was despite the fact that their defence team had strenuously argued that the two Italians had absolutely nothing to do with the matter, that the autopsy had been full of contradictions and errors and had been performed by an ophthalmologist instead of a pathologist, that the charges were made on a very flimsy basis and that several witnesses were clearly unreliable.
Is she aware of these facts, and does she have any further information on the case in question? Does she not agree that it might be appropriate to make representations to the relevant Indian authorities, given that this constitutes a clear violation of international law to the detriment of a Member State of the European Union and is also a dangerous precedent for all EU citizens who could one day find themselves trapped in the net of judicial proceedings in that country? What measures does she intend to take to support Italian diplomacy, which for months now has already been working hard to secure the release of two marines, with a view to facilitating the release and prompt return of the two young Italians?
The EU has no competence to intervene in this case, but is available to give appropriate support should the Italian Government request it. The negotiation agenda also includes rules on intellectual property rights, labour protection and environmental conservation. However, if the aims of the TPP are reached — and if the number of participating countries continues to grow — how would the Commission assess the possibly negative consequences for the ongoing efforts towards further progress in terms of the WTO path and the Doha Development Round?
Does the TPP not pose a risk to the future of the WTO system and the Doha Round, and is it not likely to undermine the willingness of parties to pursue that path? The originally nine negotiating members have now been joined by Canada and Mexico. Given that the TPP negotiations are ongoing with many issues of substance still open, the Commission cannot give a definitive assessment of the potential impact of such an agreement.
Denn Syrien ist bekanntlich nicht der einzige Konfliktherd in der Region. Em que termos? Ankara has launched retaliatory attacks following the deadly shelling of a Turkish border town by Syria. These attacks by Turkey on Syria after artillery fire from Syria had killed several people in a Turkish border town show once again how deeply embroiled Ankara is in Middle Eastern conflicts. Turkey has, through its support for the Syrian rebels, long been involved in the civil war raging there.
Following this latest escalation of the situation, Turkish military intervention in Syria can no longer be ruled out. If this were to happen, it could trigger an extremely dangerous chain reaction, as Syria is obviously not the only source of conflict in the region.
If so, how? The EU continues to call for a political solution to the Syrian crisis. Any further militarisation of the conflict would only bring further suffering to the Syrian people and to the neighbouring countries. Dabei bedauerte sie den Verlust von Menschenleben und sprach den Opfern und ihren Familien ihr Beileid aus. The EU expressed its solidarity to the Turkish people and government, deploring the loss of life and expressing sympathy for the victims and their families.
The incident illustrates the urgent need to end the crisis in Syria, which has serious spill-over effects on neighbouring countries in terms of security and stability. The EU urges the Syrian authorities to put an end to the violence now and fully respect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of all neighbouring countries; such incidents cannot be tolerated.
It called on restraint by all parties to avoid escalation of the situation. The EU and Turkey are cooperating closely on Syria. The Commission proposal for a regulation on a new multiannual programme for education, training, youth and sport launches a new Erasmus Masters loan guarantee facility. How does the Commission intend to select the financial institutions that will make the loans? Will these banks be obliged to offer loans to eligible students once they agree to participate in the scheme, or will they be free to decide on who will receive the loans?
Finally, does the Commission intend to introduce a monitoring system to ensure that the students make satisfactory progress in their studies and sit the exams foreseen for their study period abroad? Selection of the financial institutions to implement the Loan Guarantee scheme will be based on a transparent process conducted by an entrusted entity e. Public or private financial institutions, including national guarantee schemes and student loan agencies, would be eligible to participate in the scheme.
Following a call for expressions of interest, selection would be based on conformity with the minimum requirements of the scheme, the return on public investment, in particular the leverage effect amount available for loans in return for the guarantee and the extent to which the intermediaries go beyond the minimum requirements in terms of protections for students e.
Adherence to these criteria will be monitored by the Commission, on the basis of data concerning loans awarded and refused by intermediaries. Corrective measures will be taken where necessary. Students must have been accepted on a Masters study programme at a university holding the Erasmus University Charter. Where progress in the programme is dependent on success in examinations e.
There is no intention to allocate or revoke loans depending upon the success of individual examinations or grades attained. These comments belong to the past and are completely out of place in today's European Union. Each Member State shall take the measures necessary to ensure that the following intentional conduct is punishable:.
Is the Council aware of these extremely serious remarks which violate the fundamental rights and values of the EU? In accordance with the Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, what measures will the Council take to guarantee that these rights are respected? Is the Commission aware of these extremely serious remarks which violate thefundamental rights and values of the EU? In accordance with the Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EuropeanUnion, what measures will the Commission take to guarantee that these rights arerespected?
The Commission has no comment to make on the situation referred to by the Honourable Member. Does it think that it is proper for these actions by the subordinate Turkish administration to be supported and encouraged by Turkey, which is a candidate country for EU accession? The Council has not discussed the specific events to which the Honourable Member refers.
On a more general level, the Union has repeatedly expressed its support for the ongoing negotiations in Cyprus aimed at a fair, comprehensive and viable settlement of the Cyprus problem within the UN framework, in accordance with the relevant UN Security Council resolutions and in line with the principles on which the Union is founded.
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The Commission is aware of the regrettable incident the Honourable Members refers to, and it welcomes that the authorities of the Republic of Cyprus reacted with prudence so as to avoid further tensions. It is also called upon Turkey to engage positively with all parties in order to facilitate a successful completion of the process.
Does the Commission think that this danger of a monopoly position is the result of a merging of companies operating in the same sector? To what extent might this merger influence the European market? However, reciprocity is not possible in the USA, since European pilots cannot work there without an American licence, for which they must obtain a Green Card. Does the Commission not think that this merger might put harm European air crews at a disadvantage? The proposed concentration would thus lead to a significant increase in market concentration with a strong combined market position of UPS and TNT in a large number of EEA countries and is likely to lead to higher prices for customers.
The Commission continues to investigate the proposed transaction thoroughly and will ensure that the interests of the companies using these services are protected. The Commission understands that the proposed merger may have implications for the employees of TNT Airways. Only EU air carriers have full traffic rights to operate all EU routes. The illegal trade in ivory has been on the rise in , partly owing to rapidly increasing demand for imports from China and Thailand. Last year, poaching reached its highest level since the introduction of international monitoring measures in , and was also a record year for seizures of illegal ivory throughout the world: 3.
The growth in the trafficking of elephant tusks is mostly due to the actions of an obscure and diverse criminal organisation bringing together armed guerilla groups, poor farmers and experienced traffickers. At the global level, elephant poaching and illegal ivory trade reached record levels in This is a source of serious concern to the Commission. China is likely to be the main end destination for a large part of the ivory smuggled out of Africa.
The efforts by the Chinese authorities against ivory trafficking need to be pursued. Enforcement and sanctions also need to be reinforced in countries of origin and transit. The EU supports the action taken to this end by the recently created International Consortium for Combating Wildlife Crime ICCWC , which comprises five international organisations with expertise in law enforcement, wildlife trafficking and project management.
The Commission will be endeavouring that any decision within the CITES Convention takes fully into account the worrying situation of elephant populations in a number of range States and the need for strong measures to improve that situation. New software programmes of this kind can open the way for a genuine democratic revolution on the Internet if they are monitored and certified by independent authorities. The question posed by the Honourable Member of Parliament concerns tools to involve citizens and their organisations in debates on EU matters and notably legislative initiatives.
Within this programme, the Commission is funding projects using innovative methods for the debate on European issues. Organisations wishing to test new innovative methodologies to consult citizens may introduce projects under the Measure 2. In view of the poor economic state, particularly low investment levels and huge, and continually rising, unemployment, will the Commission answer the following:.
What is the objective established in the Memorandum for EU resource absorption by the end of ? To what extent and at what rate have they been absorbed to date? How are they determined for each fund? How does the Commission view this? Compliance with the targets shall be measured by certified data. The Commission has consistently and publicly opposed retroactive changes to renewable energy support schemes which are opposed by industry and undermine investor confidence.
The Commission is aware of Greek plans for a temporary tax on photovoltaic installations. It confirms its negative stance on such retroactive changes to support schemes. The regulation of support scheme regimes remains, however, a Member State competence.
Indeed, state aid is needed in order to prevent the immediate shutdown of numerous energy-intensive installations in Europe, but it cannot be a permanent solution: not all Member States have the financial resources that would enable them to allocate state aid to their energy-intensive industries.
It is obvious that this level of state aid cannot be adopted by all EU Member States. What shortcomings were identified in the assessment of the proposed new market design? According to the report referred to, commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers, the energy-intensive industries in Nordic countries face fundamental, long-term changes in the global competitive environment as the demand increases in the developing countries, in addition to labour market developments, pressure on natural resources typical to Nordic countries, and CO.
There is no other report specifically on the approach proposed by the Honourable Member. Indeed, it is economically efficient that marginal electricity prices reflect carbon costs. The subsidy to an electricity producer would just act as free allocation with no certain decrease in the electricity price and a continued risk of windfall profits. Also, the administrative costs and procedures needed for such a system should not be underestimated. Nach Artikel 9 kann eine Weiterbildung auch im Land des Arbeitsgebers erfolgen. Dies ist insofern von zentraler Bedeutung, als im Zuge des zusammenwachsenden Europas immer mehr Berufskraftfahrer jenseits der Grenze arbeiten bzw.
They must keep the certificate proving they have done so with them while driving. This point is of major importance since, with the increasing degree of integration in Europe, more and more professional drivers work abroad or must produce such a certificate for inspection in another Member State. German driving licence authorities, on the other hand, do generally recognise certificates obtained in France. Instead, Member States have the choice between inserting a code on the driving licence or issuing a driver qualification card when a driver passed the training.
In order to resolve the problems described by the Honourable Member, several Member States are issuing driver qualification cards to holders of driving licences of another EU Member State after they have passed the training. In contrast to vocational training certificates these drivers' qualification cards have to be recognised in all Member States.
I svar til mig den I mellemtiden er der dog kommet nye beviser frem, som kan bruges i sagen. The Commission argues, among other things, that there is no evidence in this specific case that could be used before the European Court of Justice in an action brought against Denmark. Meanwhile, however, new evidence has emerged which may be used to this end. The Office of the Auditor-General of Denmark has issued a report enclosed in which it raises doubts about the practice followed by the Danish State with regard to the employment of external lecturers and teaching assistants working part-time.
The Office of the Auditor-General opened the inquiry in on its own initiative, after it had become aware of several cases in which the rules had not been complied with. Among its key conclusions the report points out shortcomings in the way external lecturers' and teaching assistants' employment contracts are managed in Denmark.
Further, the Office of the Auditor-General finds that, in several cases, Danish universities have not complied with the rules concerning the hiring of external lecturers and teaching assistants and the scope of their duties. Based on the above, would the Commission consider the conclusions drawn by the Office of the Auditor-General and assess whether there is sufficient evidence to open infringement proceedings against Denmark?
The Commission is conducting a detailed analysis of the issues raised, including translating the document which was annexed to the Honourable Member's question and will inform the Honourable Member of the outcome as soon as possible. The Commission has examined the extensive documentation and the report provided by the Honourable Member and has concluded that they provide no evidence of any infringement. The report states explicitly that the rules are clear, but that the employers concerned the universities have failed to observe or apply them correctly. Consequently, no infringement procedure can be launched by the Commission on that ground.
The report makes it clear that responsibility for verifying and, where necessary, for penalising the employers concerned for such behaviour lies with the Danish Agency for Universities and Internationalisation. Furthermore, as the Commission has pointed out, those adversely affected by the situation should use the means available, such as litigation, to enforce their rights under national law. In view of the purpose of the infringement procedure, evidence is needed that the national rules do not comply with the requirements of the directive in question.
Incorrect application by individual employers does not constitute such evidence, unless it is based on constant administrative practice. Currently, it seems that only Finland, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands have comprehensive systems in place for the validation of non-formal and informal learning. The Commission paper has begun to change this.
This initiative targets mainly young unemployed persons and those with few formal qualifications, as well as older and low-skilled workers. Will it create high-quality and sustainable learning opportunities which will serve as alternatives to those offered by formal education? We will require simple, effective and timely information if we are to change the negative perception that some citizens and some in employment and educational milieux have of informal education. The Commission is encouraging Member States to establish national systems for the validation of non-formal and informal learning.
At what stage can we expect Member States to introduce these structures, especially when one considers that some of them have not yet adopted the qualifications directive? The Commission proposal for a Council Recommendation on the validation of non-formal and informal learning aims to complement the formal side of the learning spectrum, as it recommends that Member States provide the opportunity for citizens to obtain a full qualification, or parts thereof, on the basis of validated non-formal and informal learning experiences.
The Commission proposal focuses on the learning outcomes resulting from non-formal and informal learning. Its objective is not to create alternative learning opportunities to formal education. The proposal is complementary to the recommendation of the Parliament and the Council on the establishment of the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning EQF. Both the proposal and the EQF Recommendation follow the learning outcomes approach in which the knowledge, skills and competences acquired are central.
While the EQF Recommendation mainly focuses on qualifications, it also states that the validation of non-formal and informal learning should be promoted. The Commission proposed as the date for the establishment of national systems for validation. The Commission proposal on the validation of non-formal and informal learning is currently being discussed by the Member States in the Council. The Commission proposes that a digital seabed map of European waters be created by by means of collecting all existing data into a single database accessible to all.
I believe that in order to achieve this, the current structure whereby data is fragmented and held by various institutions within Europe must be overhauled and transformed into a single and streamlined one-stop information point for all the industry, for all those who work or operate at sea, for all who heavily invest — or wish to invest — in this resource, and for public authorities in general. Can the Commission explain how the expansion of the blue economy can be developed, furthered and secured, particularly for island Member States such as Malta?
Firstly, this can be done by making maximum use of available EU instruments, including by looking at the potential of EU structural funding grants or European Investment Bank lending to promote investments and the Horizon research programme to stimulate innovation.
The focus will be on aquaculture, coastal tourism, renewable energy, seabed mining and blue biotechnology. Secondly, the Commission is developing specific maritime policy instruments, such as maritime spatial planning and a digital seabed map. For this, a network of data-holding organisations will be put in place to provide a single and streamlined one-stop information point for for all those who work or operate at sea. The Commission is consulting widely on these initiatives in order to ensure that EU instruments complement local initatives and meet local priorities.
L-UE sa liema punt qed jikkooperaw bejniethom biex iwettqu dan il-Pjan ta' Azzjoni? This includes better cooperation and information sharing between EU countries. To what extent are the EU cooperating amongst themselves to see the realisation of this Action Plan? What are the most urgent and pressing issues that the recipient Member State in question must start to tackle immediately on the arrival of these minors? Is the Commission satisfied that full account is being taken of the best interests and welfare of the children concerned if they are eventually relocated, whether to a third country or within Europe itself?
In the case of relocation, is there more that Member States can do to ensure that the transition is smooth and that the upheaval for the child is as minimal as possible? In , Frontex conducted a joint operation at air borders, which resulted in guidelines for the benefit of border guards on how to deal with children. EASO will also shortly issue a handbook on age assessment, based on several expert meetings which took place earlier this year.
The experts compared the merits of different techniques and how to apply them in a child-friendly manner. The reports are publicly available on the Commission's registry. So far, no unaccompanied minors have been relocated under the European Relocation from Malta projects, but there are three cases of relocation through bilateral arrangements. In each case it has been for the purpose of relocating them to live with family members in line with the best interests of the child.
Widersprechen Altersobergrenzen im Ehrenamt diesen Zielen nicht? Was gedenkt die Kommission zu tun, um Altersdiskriminierungen im Ehrenamt zu verhindern? Deshalb sind Altersbegrenzungen, die von ehrenamtlichen Organisationen festgelegt werden, nicht durch das EU-Recht verboten. The aim of the European Year for Active Ageing is to help create a culture of active ageing.
Are upper age limits on voluntary work not contrary to this aim? What does the Commission intend to do to prevent age discrimination in volunteering? This prohibition does however not extend to voluntary work because this represents neither employment nor occupation. This makes it more difficult for it to fulfil its research, innovation and development role. Las operaciones de socorro siguen en marcha.
Uno de los principales edificios escolares ha quedado en ruinas, con los muros ennegrecidos por el fuego. Just 13 years old, she has already decided on a career. The event featured a panel of speakers outlining the strategies and goals of the United Nations Interagency Task Force on Adolescent Girls. Pese a que los ceses del fuego humanitarios son solamente provisionales, ofrecen cierto respiro a quienes deben obtener alimentos y agua o recuperar sus posesiones de los hogares que perdieron o debieron abandonar. Sin embargo, la asistencia en el territorio fue suspendida durante un periodo indefinido debido al peligro que supone para los trabajadores de socorro.
Se trata de uno de los tantos grupos de personas provenientes de Zimbabwe que cruzan la frontera en busca de asilo. Sus historias son diferentes, pero ambas familias comparten la misma incertidumbre con respecto a su futuro. Muchos otros han sido heridos o han muerto. Para esas familias desplazadas por la violencia en la vecina zona meridional del Chad, el tiempo parece haberse detenido.
Las lluvias han afectado a 13 provincias, que constituyen casi la mitad del territorio nacional. Unas Desde noviembre de , entre En la India septentrional, Bangladesh y el Nepal muchas aldeas han quedado completamente cubiertas o rodeadas por las aguas, y decenas de millones de pobladores han quedado aislados o han sido desplazados. Numerosas cabezas de ganado han perecido ahogadas. En Indonesia, las inundaciones repentinas y los deslizamientos de tierra dejan un saldo de poblaciones anegadas y Sus Among them is Pratima Biswal, 32, whose husband Saroj went missing while trying to escape from the raging floodwaters.
La comunidad internacional condena el asesinato de trabajadores de socorro en Sri Lanka NUEVA YORK, 9 de agosto de - El reciente asesinato de 17 trabajadores de socorro de Sri Lanka ha tenido hondas repercusiones en la comunidad humanitaria mundial. Generalmente escuchamos explosiones y ecos lejanos.