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Music 1, Art 1, Collectables 4, Sports Memorabilia Musical Instruments Stamps Sporting Goods Coins Antiques Baby Crafts Everything Else 2. Format see all Format. All listings filter applied. Buy it now. Fiction Subject see all Fiction Subject. The Terrace Garden Summer Theatre 2. The Stadttheater 3. The Terrace Garden Winter Theatre General Review of the Seas 2. Marie Seebach H. The Season of 1. The Summer of 2. The Stadttheater. The Minor German Stage I. The Summer and Autumn of Stadttheater Introductory Remarks Evidences of External Relationship between the Two Stages Actors and Actresses Appearing on Both Stages.
Prefactory Note Summary of the Chapter The first performance in the German language of which any record has been found occurred in a little hall located at 83 Anthony Street 2 on January 6, During the succeeding period of four1 For an excellent cursory survey of these theatres, cf. Abrecht supplements the above-mentioned list by two additional institutions of minor importance: Philipps Germania Theater and Das Star Theater and illustrates his account with photographic pictures of all seven theatres.
Similar illustrated articles on the German theatre in New York have appeared in the following Sunday editions of the N. Staatszeitung: Apr. Stiirenburg; Apr. Since the year , too, many German performances have been staged both singly and in cycles at various New York theatres. The more recent period of the German theatre in this city has been treated in an article by Edwin H.
This theatre, a direct offspring of the Altes Stadttheater, may be regarded in conjunction with the parent institution as constituting New York's first permanent German playhouse. In order to provide our theatrical picture with a suitable frame, a brief study of the cultural background of the period with reference to the German element in New York City may not prove amiss. Then it will be necessary to investigate, as fully as the records at our disposal permit, the infancy of the German-language stage in our city. At the same time a consideration of the "Liebhabertheater," or so-called amateur stage, that flourished extensively during the early fifties is essential, for this " Liebhabertheater " was in reality the source from which the professional stage sprang.
The main body of this investigation, however, will be devoted to a history of the two Stadttheater. Finally 3 Edwin H. XV, , pp. The author merely summarizes in a brief introduction the period preceding The scope of the present work involves a detailed investigation of the various theatres in which plays were performed in German. In this study an examination has been attempted of the following points in particular: 1 the history of the more important theatrical enterprises and institutions; 2 the titles of the plays presented and the frequency of performance of individual plays; 3 the classification of plays a as to character tragedies, comedies, farces, etc.
However, German operatic performances, numerous especially during the latter part of our period-they were frequently included in the repertoire of the Stadttheater-must on the whole be disregarded. The annual files of the New Yorker Staatszeitung 5 form the chief source of the data upon which this investigation is based. In August, , a Tageblatt was inaugurated, which at first, however, appeared but three times a week.
Only eight numbers of the year and twelve of have been preserved, and from the entire period between the years and only the following volumes could be located: ; 8 January 1-June 30 ; April December 31 ; all of March, also July 1-December 31 ; July 1-December 31 ; complete. Beginning with the year the file runs without interruption to the present date. Of the Sonntagsblatt, begun in , all volumes from on are available; earlier, only the volumes for , and S At this time the Tageblatt actually appeared every day. For the subsequent years the New York Public Library has a very complete file, with the exception of the entire volume for ,.
Second in importance to the Staatszeitung as a source is the Belletristisches Journal,10 a weekly founded in , which continued to exist until This publication contains critical articles of rare excellence discussing in great detail and with much intelligence the worthiest performances on the local German stage. Owing to the continuity of its file it is especially valuable to bridge over the gaps that arise from the missing numbers of the Staaszeitung.
As another supplementary source for the early period of the German stage the Deutsche Schnellpost is of value, inasmuch as it contains the announcements of various scattered attempts that were made to give plays in the German language in New York between the years and A file of this publication was located at the Harvard College Library and very kindly placed at the disposal of the 10 Belletristisohes Journal, New York, hereafter to be referred to as B.
Public Library, Vols. L-LIX incomplete. For the period of our study, therefore, this journal offers a complete and uninterrupted source, beginning with the year The volumes are bound and, for the most part, in excellent condition. The title varies as follows: Vol. It was printed on fine heavy paper and each number consisted of sixteen large-sized pages. In addition to a story often a serial based on some episode of city life the Journal contained a number of historical sketches and notes, the police blotter, correspondence and articles on political topics, literature, art, music and the theatre, also the latest news from Europe and many advertisements.
A "Probeblatt" appeared on December 28, , the first number following on January 4, Thereafter it appeared twice a week and the file is fairly regular, particularly during the first two and a half years. A wide gap interrupts its continuity, however, between the months of July and November in the year , after which the sequence is not again seriously impaired until March 25, At this point a second breach is found in the Harvard file, extending to October 30, The folio terminates shortly after this date.
While the paper contains no descriptions of plays, its advertisements of performances help to fill in the voids left by the absence of Volumes X, XI and XII of the Staatszeitung. Of specific value for the season of , for want of other records, is the publication entitled Figaro,12 a weekly journal in the English language, devoted to art, music and the drama. It seems to have run but a single season and 11 Little is known about the Schunellpost after this date.
It appears that on September 1, , Bernhard had retired from the partnership and Eichthal continued to publish the paper until his death, which occurred about January 1, , whereupon Wilhelm Wagenitz assumed the editorship. On August 23, , the Staatszeitung still listed the Deutsche Schnellpost as a contemporary newspaper. It is extremely interesting to note on the very first page of the Harvard collection the words, written in pencil, " Gift of Professor H.
Longfellow," together with the date A file of Figaro, in excellent condition, was found in the N. Public Library. The spelling of German names and titles of dramas in Corbyn's magazine is extremely faulty. In addition, the contemporary Deutsche 1onatshefte 13 contain regular items dealing with the German stage and are of value for the earliest years of the older Stadttheater.
The five publications just mentioned contain most of the material required for a satisfactory examination of New York's early "Deutsches Theater. It may furthermore be confidently asserted that the minor interruptions in the sources, mentioned as occurring during the decade to , are not detrimental even to a detailed study, for the material on hand fully justifies the belief that there was no stage of importance in those years.
The information gleaned from the extant sources, then, is sufficient for an adequate survey of those first abortive and irregular theatrical undertakings. Of somewhat greater significance is the absence of the entire daily file of the Staa. Fortunately the perfect condition of the file of the Belletristisches Journal makes possible a fairly accurate survey of the development 13 Deutsche Monatshefte, New York, , A.
Kolatschek also in the N. Known also, by a variation of the title, as Meyers Monatshefte, Aug. Naturally in the treatment of the later Stadttheater a change of method from the topical to the chronological seemed advisable, for with the single exception of the year an unbroken daily file could be drawn upon for the entire period of its existence. Leaving aside for the present the five major sources above mentioned, it is only reasonable to assume that articles dealing with the German stage in New York must have appeared from time to time in one or another of the numerous German periodicals15 published in this city during the years under discussion, copies of which can no longer be found.
The English-language press, however, as may be expected, only occasionally took cognizance of the German stage. During the first two decades we find absolutely no references of any account, and it was only in the sixties, when Bogumil Dawison, the L'Arronges, Marie Seebach and other stars arrived, that the New York Herald and a few other newspapers gave space to German theatricals and at times printed regular, consecutive notices and criticisms. These reports will be referred to in due time, in their chronological sequence.
Attempts have been made in various articles in addition to those mentioned to treat the subject of the German theatre in New York City as a whole. For the most part these are rather brief resumes of a popular, non-scholarly character. The most important of the essays dealing with the era with which this study is concerned are by Ford,16 15 The author has compiled, from the catalogue of the N.
Public Library and from other sources, a list of names of the most important pioneer German journalistic publications of New York City. Unfortunately it has been possible to locate copies of but a few of them. For this list cf. XX, pp. Only the first few pages, however, deal with the early period. It is a five-page monograph, excellent, as far as it goes, for the earliest years. Huch mentions as his source Heinrich Schmidt's Almanach der deutschen Biihnen in Amerika, which the author has not located. I" The article is included in the book entitled Amerika, published by A.
Tenner pp. Miiller mentions as his authority an essay on the subject by Adolf Neuendorff, which cannot be found. The article refers to the accounts of Abrecht cf. Note 1 and Huch Note For the German theatre in New York, cf. II, pp. See pp. In reality this constitutes a sharp polemic directed against the Germania Theater. It contains many records of German performances scattered over its three volumes, but there are also very many omissions, incomplete records and inaccuracies.
In the population of New York amounted to ,; by it had grown to , No previous stretch of thirty years had shown so great a numerical increase nor has any subsequent span of like length yielded an equally high percentage of growth, excluding, of course, the arbitrary additions to the city's population that resulted from the incorporation of Greater New York in Within the single decade of to the population mounted from , to , This tremendous physical expansion was accompanied by an unheard-of development in which probably no single foreign element participated more extensively than did the German constituency of the city.
No detailed account of the German-Americans of New York can be given here. It does seem desirable, however, to call attention to some of the more important cultural features of "Kleindeutsch1 For detailed accounts of the life and the activities of the German element in New York the reader should consult the book of Rudolf Cronau and some of the other works mentioned at the conclusion of the Introduction, and also the following: Albert B. Faust, Das 1.
The extremely reactionary policy exercised by the governments of Prussia and other German states in the thirties and forties of the last century drove thousands of discontented, liberty-loving Germans from their native land to the shores of the New World and resulted in a marked increase of immigration into the United States. Of the 60, aliens who landed in the port of New York in , 20, came from Germany.
In there were 45, Germans out of a total of , In the course of that year, of the huge number of , foreign arrivals in New York, no less than ,, or well over fifty percent, had set out from Germany. For excellent, comprehensive bibliographies, cf. Cronau; A. It is furthermore stated there that out of a total immigration of , into all parts of the United States in the Germans numbered , In the early forties they were concentrated largely in the district south of Houston Street, west of Attorney, north of East Broadway and east of Lafayette.
The central part of this territory, cut by the longitudinal arteries Elizabeth Street, the Bowery, Chrystie, Forsythe and Eldridge Streets, and included between the cross streets Rivington on the north and Canal on the south , formed the nucleus of New York's Little Germany during these years. At this time not a few Germans, of course, still resided in the lower city-that is, south of City Hall. Year by year "Kleindeutschland" expanded, and in , when the Stadttheater was opened, an examination of newspaper advertisements shows Germans living in considerable numbers as far east as Pitt Street and on Monroe to the southeast.
Addresses of German homes and business establishments are frequently found in the vicinity of Lafayette Street, Broadway, and in the lateral streets that cross these thoroughfares south of Canal Street. During the fifties and even later, many German business locations continued to exist south of City Hall. Now, for the first time, isolated private residences occupied by Germans are noted north of Houston Street, and, indeed, as far uptown as Twenty-sixth Street in the neighborhood of Second Avenue. A single physician advertises his office as located at One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Street and Fourth Avenue, one of the earliest German pioneers of Harlem.
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In , the closing year of this study, the geographical limits of Little Germany had become decidedly more complicated. By this time New York had, of course, expanded. By the thousands Germans had poured into the rectangular district that is included between these two lateral streets and extends from Avenue C to Second Avenue. A little island of German folk is found along Third Avenue near Thirtieth Street, and a surprisingly large group inhabited the section east of Third Avenue between Fiftieth and Sixtieth Streets. Judging by the newspaper advertisements, most of these residents occupied private homes and could afford domestic help.
German addresses are also recorded along the West Side near Sixth Avenue, between Fifteenth and Fifty-fifth Streets, and especially in the streets north of Fiftieth. The late sixties and the early seventies also marked the opening of numerous popular picnic parks in Harlem and in the villages of Melrose and Morrisania now a part of Bronx Borough. It is worth noting that the German colony of Yorkville, which subsequently attained such prominence, was rather unimportant prior to It would be a great mistake to suppose that the new racial element that was thus flocking into our land and swelling the population of New York was merely numerically strong.
There were many evidences of a very positive cultural interest on the part of the newcomers. At an early date it became clear that they were determined to assert themselves and that they would play an important part socially, economically, politically and culturally-in fine, that they would turn their steps to all the many fields of activity which their new surroundings offered to them. It is indeed a significant fact that, not many years after the high tide of immigration had set in, a strikingly large. The establishment of New York's principal German newspaper in has already been spoken of.
A list of such newspapers that were printed in the city in the year , together with their circulations, shows the following: Daily Weekly Staatszeitung Vast quantities of German books, pamphlets, periodicals and newspapers thus circulated in lower Manhattan, largely through the distributing agencies of B. Schmidt at William Street. The catalogues of Westermann were reputed to have been a veritable storehouse of plays presented in New York.
The two largest German steamship companies led the list. German names also invaded the domain of finance, for in the Deutsche Schnellpost of the mid-forties one meets the advertisements of Philip Speyer, Wechselgeschaft, Wall Street, and as early as the announcements of Knauth, Nachod and Kiihne are regularly found in the Staatszeitung. On July 1, , the Deutsche Sparbank7 was opened. From such rather limited and select spheres of business the activity of the Germans extended downward through every conceivable branch of retail trade and handicraft, principally to those of the grocer, butcher, baker and liquor dealer.
The lists of men in the professions, especially in that of medicine, were filled out of all proportion with Germanic names. The specifically cultural interests of the Germans in New York are reflected, in part, in the large number of school items and advertisements appearing in the journals during this period.
At an early date it became clear that the newcomers were anxious to have their offspring taught the language of the Fatherland and, in some cases, even to have their children educated largely through the medium of that language and along pedagogical lines insisted on in the Old Country. One of the first German schools to be founded in the city was August Glaser's Deutsche Bildungsschule fiir Knaben und Madchen at Chrystie Street, of which we get reports as early as Sohnellpost, July 18, , for the announcement.
Feldner at William Street. The Deutschamerikanische Akademie, another private institution, is noted in as located at Third Avenue, and a year later we hear of the Freie deutsche Volksschule in Fourth Street14 under Director Straubenmiiller-a name familiar to present-day schoolmen of our city. This expansion of German school interests was accompanied by a rising professional spirit among German teachers.
The Staatszeitung of December 3, , contains an article on the "Deutschamerikanischer Lehrerverein von New York und Umgegend," stating that this organization 9 S. The newspaper reports the closing of this school after an existence of five years. Within a year's time this school increased its enrolment from to pupils. The school had a monthly registration of at this time. Its meetings were held in Pythagoras Hall, at Canal Street, every second Saturday, the program usually consisting of a lecture based on a pedagogical topic.
German, as a subject of study, had also found 'its way into higher education in this city. Columbia College had long had the language on its program of instruction. As early as the Rev. John Daniel Gross was elected professor of geography and German, and he taught till Along with German schools many German churches sprang up, some of which antedated the earliest educational undertakings of which we have just read. Others, too numerous to mention here, both of the Catholic faith and of the various Protestant denominations, followed in later years.
That Little Germany's interests also embraced the ethics and the morality of the community as a whole may be deduced from frequent items in the Staatszeitung. This newspaper was of course particularly insistent on stressing any statistics and happenings that might be interpreted to cast a favorable light upon standards of conduct current am ong the Germans. Thus with 15 His seems to have been the first collegiate appointment in German in this country. The establishment of the German Hospital,17 the German orphan asylum Wartburg s in Mount Vernon and of other similar institutions of lesser dimensions was plainly indicative of an interest on the part of our German-Americans in social welfare.
Beneficiary societies such as the Deutsche gegenseitige Unterstiitzungsgesellschaft fiir Witwen und Waisen, whose announcements are to be found in the Deutsche Schnellpost of and subsequent years, were not lacking. In this connection must be mentioned the time-honored Deutsche Gesellschaft, which had been founded in the remote year of , aiming to serve in various ways the German immigrant.
Although this organization still exists, its position was far more prominent seventy years ago. Conducted on a strict business basis, it met regularly and was accorded wide publicity in the columns of the German press. The German-Americans of New York also manifested a keen interest in various other phases of culture and civilization. Lectures were delivered in the German language and received due attention in the newspapers. So frequent were such lectures that it is utterly impossible to note them here.
Remarkably widespread and intense was the participation of the German population in the world of music. A list of members of the first orchestra of the New York Philharmonic Society, founded in April, , contains names more than half of which are purely Germanic.
As early as attempts were made to found a German opera,23 which later met with singular success in the numerous performances at Niblo's Garden, the Academy of Music and in other halls. Season tickets, good for 60 days, were sold at 60 cents. Ritter, Music in America, pp. Of course there are many others. Late in June and early in July of each year great annual ''Siingerfeste ' were held, which generally lasted a few days and received the widest publicity in the German newspapers. Especially noteworthy was the festival of , in which the large number of instrumental musicians and singers took part.
The festival opened with a performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony at the Academy of Music on Sunday evening, June 27, and continued on the following morning with a procession through the streets of the city, followed by an excursion to Jones' Wood, the most popular picnic resort of the time, located along the East River, north of Sixtieth Street.
The Staatszeitung states that 28, admission ribbons were sold on this occasion and estimates the attendance at 50, 23 Cf. The social life of New York's German population centered largely in the numerous "Vereine," some of which fostered music, as we have just noted, others literature, dramatics or gymnastics.
Above all they cultivated "'deutsche Gemiitlichkeit " and " Geselligkeit. The dramatic societies may here be passed over, inasmuch as we shall meet some of them in the course of our history of the German stage. In the Nord-Amerikanischer Turnerbund and the New York Turnverein were formed, and during the ensuing decade two Turnzeitungen 24 made their appearance.
Most of these German clubs, especially the Turner, enjoyed frequent outings during the milder season of the year, and very often the Staatszeitung reports more or less serious disorders resulting from clashes between the German celebrators and the Irish element of the city, for between these two factions a perpetual feeling of hostility seems to have prevailed.
On evenings when the average German-American was not occupied with one or another of these numerous clubs, he might be found, with or without his family, at a German beer garden or tavern. The Staatszeitung is replete with advertisements of such "Lokale," most of which, in addition to beer, wine and food, offered their guests the most diverse dramatic, acro24 Cf. VIII, Nos. For similar accounts cf. Thus the Schiller centenary on November 10, , is marked by announcements and advertisements in the Staatszeitung of no less than twenty SSchillerfeste.
There were, of course, attempts to organize politically, but, for the most part, the results were highly unsatisfactory and fell wofully short of what might have been expected of a body of citizens numerically so strong. In this respect the Germans were completely outdone by the Irish. Internal strife, born of petty jealousy and rivalry, together with that spirit of particularism and that idealistic vein which shrinks from the worldly contact and intimacy of practical politics-traits that are inseparably bound up with the character of the average German-all these combined to defeat the German-American in his desire to obtain political influence and ascendency.
Only rarely did he gain a momentary triumph, as when a "Landsmann," John T. Hoffmann, was elected to serve as mayor of the city In domestic politics the leading questions for "Kleindeutschland" were the so-called temperance and "bluelaw" movements and the nativistic or "Know-Nothing" agitations. The latter were felt to be especially obnoxious in the fifties,27 and the Staatszeitung bitterly attacks the New York Express as the leading journalistic organ of the Know-Nothing Party.
Frequent, too, are the accounts of many a promising German picnic hopelessly spoilt by the 26 Cf. Politically the Staatszeitung, the mouthpiece of the majority of German-Americans in the city, was strongly anti-Whig and Democratic in its sympathies. It bitterly opposed Harrison, Polk and Taylor and supported Buchanan with equal energy. Lincoln was denounced with a feeling of animosity seldom paralleled in a newspaper north of Washington, although the Staatszeitung and the Germans in New York supported the cause of the Union in the Civil War in a most patriotic manner.
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In its foreign policy the Staatszeitung espoused enthusiastically the doctrines of the champions of German democracy. Hecker, Kossuth, Kinkel and other leaders who came to New York and to other parts of the United States were publicly welcomed, demonstrations of the most elaborate sort were prepared and funds collected to support the movement.
Further to illumine the sphere in which Little Germany moved about would too greatly distort the scale upon which this study has been planned. From what has been noted in this chapter it is evident that the German population of New York, with a vigorous and rapidly expanding cultural life, was well fitted to form a rich soil from which theatrical undertakings might grow. During the generation after its numbers were swelled to hundreds of thousands and the bonds which bound the sons and daughters of the Fatherland to the art interests of their old home were constantly renewed by fresh streams of immigration.
Year by year the economic situation of the earlier comers grew more favorable; the social life, especially as fostered by club and Verein, flourished in the new environment in highly varied and colorful forms. With such a background the theatre was born and grew, reflecting, as we. In general its history is that of a sincere attempt to transplant an ancient national culture on a new and not altogether hospitable soil.
The following dramas dealing with German subjects are mentioned by Baker, the historian of the German drama in 1 For an excellent history of German plays in English on the New York stage, cf. Louis C.
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The data used in the opening paragraphs of the present chapter are borrowed largely from Baker 's work. Charles F. But Rudolf Cronau, op. Reynold's Werther and Charlotte a dramatization of Goethe's novel. William Dunlap, at this time manager of the John Street Theatre, now became interested in the German drama, specifically in Kotzebue, and on December 10, , offered to the patrons of his hall his own version of Kotzebue's Stranger Menschenhass und Reue. With the well-known actor Cooper in the title r81e, the play proved immediately successful. Indeed it was intensely popular during the next few years and remained, with interruptions, a drawing card until as late as the year Dunlap now turned to the translation and presentation of other Kotzebue plays, and set himself to the task with such vigor that in the season of , in addition to The Stranger, which was given twelve times, there were eight performances of Lovers' Vows, four of Count Benyow'sky and one of The Indians in England.
Thus a total of twenty-five Kotzebue performances was the result-more than one-fourth of the ninety-three given in the John Street playhouse in the course of the entire season. Two other German plays were likewise presented, namely The Minister Kabale und Liebe , of which there were two performances, and Don Carlos, given once only. During the following theatrical year, that of , no less than fourteen Kotzebue creations together with four additional German dramas were seen by New York audiences.
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These eighteen German works enjoyed fifty representations, well over half of the ninety-four performances that the season yielded in all! Thereafter, however, we note a steady decline in the popu. Between the date of the first recorded performance of a play in German, in , and the founding of what may first be called a "permanent" stage almost fifteen years elapsed. In that interval attempts, numerous to the point of monotony, were again and again made to give to the German muse a lasting abode.
A close study of the era of experimentation reveals the fact that hundreds of scattered and sporadic performances were essayed at dozens of small halls, for the most part with highly indifferent if not, in many cases, negligible results. In the first eight years for which we have reports-that is, between the years and eighty-two "Theater4 The following statistics, recorded by Baker, substantiate this assertion: eason No. Inasmuch as two or even three plays often were crowded into a single evening we find, by addition, a total number of one hundred forty-nine performances of eighty-eight different works during this period.
In those remote days the plays were acted in general by loosely formed, often leaderless companies or "Vereine" of men and women, usually amateurs, who possessed at best a certain amount of talent and good will, but who had, as a rule, little experience, little money, and little tact. Lack of the necessary financial backing and of adequate theatrical quarters; the absence of proper organization and, above all, of a strong guiding hand; all too frequent outbursts of jealousy among highly nervous, sensitive rival actors; an apathetic public and an unreliable press, which vacillated between warm recognition on one day and hypercritical censure, if not complete scorn and neglect, on the next; finally, the trying economic conditions of those hard pre-Civil War times-all of these factors contributed both singly and collectively to doom to a more or less speedy but equally certain failure each' of the many early dramatic enterprises.
A perfect, microscopic picture of the period is out of the question. When it is remembered that there was, at first, no daily German newspaper; that, in many instances, copies of journals that did appear have not been preserved; furthermore that, as has been sug5 Cf.
I and II.
That, however, is no great loss. Even though we are not in possession of a hundred percent of the facts, we do have at our disposal a great bulk of them-a sufficiently large proportion to leave no doubt as to what was happening. And when we consider how very little was actually accomplished in that first decade covered by our study, our material, fragmentary as it may appear, seems at times to impress us as being painfully plenteous in comparison with its meagreness of quality.
With all good will the records we have can be welded into but a dull and dry narrative, which would grow only the more tedious by the addition of further facts. An examination of the eighty-two theatrical programs noted between and discloses few plays of literary merit.
The repertoire was dominated by comedies, chiefly those of Kotzebue, and farces and vaudeville sketches of the day. The fate tragedy was represented by Grillparzer's Ahnfrau and by Miillner's extreme example, Die Schuld, and the romantic drama by Kleist's K1ithchen von Heilbronn. The only other noteworthy works were Zschokke's Abellino, cited because of its earlier popularity on the English stage in this country, and Nestroy's Lumpaci Vagabundus, here mentioned in view of the unceasing attention which that Vienna farce subsequently attracted.
With the single exception of Friedrich Schwan, the actors who appeared were not heard of in the later history of the stage and belong, therefore, to the passing generation of pre-forty-eighters.
The performances were, as a rule, of a decidedly mediocre quality, the scenery and the stage. Willeford, Charles. Friedrich der Gro. Reinhold Koser. Frits Van Dongen: 25 Years, 25 Works. Fruit Juices and Fruit Juice Beverages. William V. Marcel Prevost.
Cole, Gilbert L. William Norwood Brigance. Frances Isabella Duberly.
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