I am beginning to believe you cannot hand over Democracy to people who are unwilling to fight to earn personal freedom, they must want Freedom as bad as American Colonists wanted Freedom and extricate themselves from Tyranny.
The Vietnamese first didn't want the French in Vietnam in the 19th century, then the Japanese in the s, then the French reinstalled by the US. Nor did the Vietnamese want Chinese occupation. And they certainly didn't want US occupation in the South after the French left. The Afghans didn't want British in the 19th century, then the Russians in the s and didn't particularly want the US there for the last 12 years. You have a particularly odd understanding of the word "liberate" and a very confused idea of basic history--particularly Vietnam, where it was US backed coups in the south that were designed to keep oppressors in power.
So yes, in many instances it's reasonable to call the USA a terrorist state. Death squads in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Guatemala in the 80s. Also look up the firebombing of Tokyo and Dresden by the US during World War Two; those are two well established instances of the US attacking civilians indiscriminately. There are plenty of other examples, those are just the two most obvious. I think from the above record, USA has better track record supporting dictators than democracies. Unfortunately The Munro Doctrine is not adhered to!
And no "Israel" there to invade and occupy half of Jordan, which they still do. Suppose Our Lord's "turn the other cheek" was what we lived by? Along with "Thou shalt not kill? There would have been no first world war. There would have been no second world war, no Vietnam nor the recent european wars. None of what happened would have happened and there'd be no sick violent TV programmes to corrupt our children, some to the point where they go out and commit mass murder. In the same way suppose that in the UK students all refused to pay fees for courses that their elected representatives, many of them millionaires, completed for free?
Well, they would have to scrap course fees, end of story. As to lenses and cameras You are oversimplifying circumstance. Wars are fought, to lesser of greater degrees over ideology, religious or secular. But to overemphasis this factor and not properly acknowledge economic imperatives and the territorial nature of man is a bit of a follies argument.
They would do massacres in a single city in hundreds of thousands. Most of the massacres occurred in China - 23 million civilians. In Nanking city alone, , were massacred. In the majority of the killings, people were slashed with bayonets and left to bleed to death. You add to that of about , very young sex slaves women they round up from other asian countries such as the philippines, indonesia, china, malaysia, singapore for the sex starved weary and tired japanese soldiers and for the emperor hirohito also of course. But like one person here says their camera is good.
This is what they called moving one forward but also one or two backwards. But cheaper than s tho so it's forgivable. But still I go for s for more features that I like besides its pocketability. And lets not forget that Chariman Mao was much more successful at killing Chinese people in the next few following years. He killed 45 million in 4 years. And if you are a runner up you are the evil guy?
The "heroes" are the winners and the "evil ones" are the losers. After all you wouldn't demonize yourself if you're the only one left standing. You've also grossly insulted various Soviet citizens killed by the Nazis, not to mention Poles killed by the Nazis. Do you mean through mass starvation in the s or s?
And where are you getting that number of people and small number of years? An internet posting will not be accepted as a valid source--unless it leads to a well sourced book on the subject. Anyhow that Mao committed crimes isn't in dispute. While rightwing Japanese types deny the Japanese crimes in places like Nanking in the s to this day in War is hell They are kindest, but unfortunately had to drop few bombs. Was India Terrorizing US by attacking pearl harbor? Nobody is talking about at supreme race, but ou.
You seriously need to relax. All countries fought wars. And if US is so horrible - why did you come here? A bit of hypocrisy looks like. Yes and no. It is a piece of history, nothing more, nothing less. History is discovery and destruction, the story of mankind told many different ways. It is good to remember, so that understand who and what we are, and - with luck - why. The value of artifacts helps to preserve them. Otherwise, this might just be old, used film ready to be ignored for decades in a box and thrown away when the photographer died.
The majority of that destruction was caused by non-atomic bombs. The only way we can possibly learn to stop wars is to know about the disasters, cruelty and sorrows of war - and photography is indeed a powerful media for spreading that knowledge around the world. From this standpoint, I don't really get the idea of auctioning Nagasaki photos for an individual's ownership.
All such photos should be shared publicly to remind us possible insanities of our species. Munro the Americans were at war. Terrorism is a much different matter. It was a terrible decision to drop those bombs. I totaly agree. But lets not forget the Japanese were masters of terrorism. Just google the"The Rape of Nankin" that took place in in which the Japanese slaughtered , of the , residents of that city in six weeks. Today in , there are nuclear armed US warships on various missions in the Pacific and Indian oceans—this is not news.
I had the distinct pleasure of meeting Maj. Charles Sweeney who was born on a street nearby to where I type this. He was a fine man.
I also met Col. Paul Tibbets post war Big. Tibbets was the best of the best. For an earlier generation it was not uncommon to hear "there goes Paul Tibbets.. A ground war with Japan would have been costly. An additional loss of , to 1 million lives would have been worse. Japan had already agreed to surrender before the atomic bombs were dropped. In fact Japan was begging for its surrender to be accepted. Japan's condition was that the emperor be allowed to remain on the throne.
USA said no, and dropped the atomic bombs.
Then Japan negotiated and assented to the emperor stepping down. This is indisputable fact. But I suppose this cold blooded experiment is much much more humane than the warm-blooded massacres committed by Japaneses all over Asian countries. I definitely think we Americans did a great favor to the Japaneses by finishing the war which was started by the Japaneses in such a clean and concise way.
Boss, not quite true, see And a ground war with Japan would have been very costly, the small island battles exacted a terrible toll. Japan had committed terrible atrocities before and during the war, the Allies and people of the west were in no mood to accept anything but unconditional surrender. If you Google Nagasaki bombing there are many many pictures, from a wide variety of sources, terrible.
That anyone can think of putting them up for auction in the art market is a disgusting way of profiting from the two most dreadful acts of terrorism known to man. You will not be able to look at them all, it is too upsetting. To make things worse, if that is possible, they chose the Feast of the Transfiguration of Our Lord Jesus Christ, as it was then known, to bomb Hiroshima. If they had flattened Nagasaki with a bomber raid and killed just as many in the process, would that have been terrorism?
In war there are rules, there is the Geneva Convention, anything outside of that is terrorism. Torture of prisoners or civilians use of chemicals cf Syria and use of these weapons is outside of the Geneva Convention and illegal. Mr Oddie? Munro harrap: Not to disrespect your points in a broad sense but the Geneva Convention largely addressed the treatment of prisoners of war, as is suggested in its official title: Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva July 27, This was war, and there are no rules in war except to win and to win at all costs.
What we call "war" today is not war but a set of rules for saber rattling and "proportional response" which recognizes that some human lives in all conditions civilians , and other human lives in limited conditions soldiers as PoW , elevated rights which are adhered to in the gentleman's argument modern politicians engage in.
This was, interestingly, brought about by the advent of nuclear weapons, like those used on Japan, because winning a war among the superpowers essentially guarantees that wide swaths of the planet would be completely devastated and uninhabitable by real war, and that neither side would really win as the attacks and damage would be nearly simultaneous. We still have real war, but it only exists between primitive militaries. True war between superpowers would destroy the first world.
Because if it came down to us or them, the button gets pressed. If Bonhams say these are the only record, that is incorrect. There is a lot of movie footage taken by the USAAF as a means of recording what these weapons do to you. There is also documentation from Hiroshima, the first use of the bomb with equal destruction and casualties. I have no doubt too that more than one photographer in a city of , odd took pictures and that regional newspapers sent people there to photograph as well. I do not know, but I doubt the people of Japan had any idea of radiation. Before then it did not exist.
Radiation is a natural occurring phenomenon. Specific dangers of high level concentration of radiation were known e. What could not be known is the scale of the effects of radiation of the atomic bomb. The japanese plan after they occupied the Philippines is to mine all the natural resources of the entire island of the Philipines such as copper, gold, timber, iron etc. They will use the people of the Philippines to work manually young and old and they just killed those too weak to work.
Japan has a very low on those natural resources on their land. I will called this big time terrorism that will look Boko Haram and alquida combined like a chiken. Do you Dulles? Do you remember airport named after him? He did war on helpless countries for money and killed thousands of people. America did not just help him but made him a hero. Do you know India? Biggest democracy in the universe. Before US gave even voting rights to Blacks, Indian parliament had women, had representatives, ministers of lowest society.
Typical anti-American rhetoric. You are disgusting. So calling me moron shows your stupidity. If you have brain, tell me what point I told was historically wrong. I will prove it. Stan LS, Yes, biggest democracy in the world. We don't call our president negro.
You do. Don't you know a police chief did it last month? And, yes I have a PhD from a prestigious American university. Ah, world A second ago it was universe As for "You do" - I did? When was this? Cut and paste please? Do you really want to talk about racism in US given the caste system in India? I wanted to type 'Do you know', but it was a typo. Even if I do not know English, I am not inferior as you think. Knowing English is another language.
Only a racist will think English knowledge is great and those don't have it are inferior race. Indians have castes openly for years. But Indians did not kill lower caste people. Whites claim 'non racists'. But they killed millions of people. Until s Whites had law in Australia to steal children from Aborigines since Aborigines cannot bring up kids like 'white men' and practiced it even after Well, your points are not germane. Answer these: 1 Why America sent warship to nuke India in ? Did India do Pearl Harbor? What do you have for blacks in US? That's why people of all colors including Indians are trying to come here.
And yea, being of a lower caste in India is awesome, I am sure. You can peddle that nonsense elsewhere. But there are several legal actions that have been prominent in our history to address inequities: Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education , undermining the constitionality of "separate but equal" doctrine relating to the application of the 14th Amendment; Civil Rights Acts of and ; numerous subsequent court decisions into the present reinforcing the foundational assertions of civil rights.
And whites didn't do these things for blacks. Whites and blacks fought together, and continue to do so, to make strides toward equality. Such master degree sometimes really means nothing. In fact all your idiotic comments here seem to point to me that you don't know very much about this world and you may not have a clear and logic brain to think.
So please don't make a big deal about your "master", which just makes you look really bad in front of everyone here. D is pointless, since no one can verify it. Even can claim to have won Nobel prize, Turing award, Japan prize all twice. D can do? I told I have a masters degree since someone told I am a moron and have brain.
Jay, "I told I have a masters degree since someone told I am a moron and have brain. If you are able to watch the following, the day is described by Jack Ford, a Canadian POW who witnessed and obviously survived the event. Further insight to these disturbing photos. It's interesting to note how the radiation did little to the photographic plate when that was taken. Radiation from an air burst dissipates quickly. It's when they hit the ground that irradiated components in the soil and buildings stick around for a fairly long time.
The money should go back to the family of the original photographer as the MP 'stole' the images! Act of Genocide! Oh now, since it was the US it must be an humanitarian act of libaration in the name of freedom. I think Germans should shut up -- permanently-- on the subjects of genocide and atrocity, notwithstanding their demonstrated talent for them. Misha, not very bright of you to compare an action of one man with the official policy of the nazi regime. Not very bright. Oh, and I am Jewish, too. So let's not play that card. So far no comments about the gravity of the situation - just cynicism, attempts to redefine terms, etc.
I visited Hiroshima and the museum and monuments over five years ago. It was good to see it, but also a difficult experience. I imagine these photos would have a similar affect. It's hard to describe, but it was sobering. It was the first time I can remember wanting to leave a museum before I had to.
After much thought I think I know how to summarize it.
- Not Like Brothers!
- A Strange Story — Volume 02.
- Kokura, Japan: Bypassed by A-Bomb - The New York Times.
As you learn the details they reinforce an understanding that the bombing was necessary, while simultaneously you're deeply experiencing the horrors of it. Emotionally it's impossible to reconcile the two. And then you learn that there were many genuine humanitarian considerations that were followed e. Furthermore the area and nearby Miyajima is beautiful, while imagining the bombing just seems so awful! It was the first time I can remember wanting to leave a museum before I had to". It stays with you.
All together, those culminated in some pretty harrowing emotions of our past. I have heard that when you visit Auschwitz, you can feel an ominous presence in your body, in the ground.
It sounds like a similar experience at Nagasaki and indeed, incredibly sad. None the less it's always about money and power. It's all about the money, wright? I don't think K will suit them. Well, not for long. These pictures should be showed to the world for free as a consequence of war, which today is colled just a "conflict".
Today's so called "wars" and "conflict" are nothing of the sort, but rather acts of terrorism and invasions. One of the world's most extreme acts of terrorism. We should never forget so that such a repulsive act never happens again!!! Oh shut the you-know-what up, you apologist for aggressors. Change your screen name, it reflects a real "white trash" upbringing. They wanted a war they got it, and than they made it worse when they wouldn't surrender after the first bomb.
They would have made slaves of us had they been victorious. Instead we made them a strong economic country. As much as I would like to agree with the others, I think that the Western powers policy of deliberately bombing civilians was wrong even if it won them the war. Deliberately killing civilians? Politicians and warmongers don't exactly have a record on valuing human life.
Japan drew America into the war by attacking Pearl Harbor. It was a war that Winston Churchill was literally begging us to enter but we used restraint until attacked. Japan was intent on world domination and their people were willing to die for the emperor. It took an event like Hiroshima to make such a significant impact that Japan couldn't ignore the devastation. The attack on Nagasaki is controversial but it sealed the deal as Japan didn't know how many more atomic bombs we had. We saved the world from tyrannical leaders looking to spread hate and suppression to all mankind.
It doesn't make the atomic bombs good but a necessary evil to end Japan's quest to conquer the world. Let's look upon these photographs as a sad moment in history that hopefully will never have to be repeated. Japanese are worst than today's terrorist they throw a small 3 month old baby into the air and poke it by their bayonets. They raped and killed young women burn their houses. They burned the city of Manila. The US that time are focusing at Europe trying to defeat Germans. Hitler and the Japanese Imprial army collaborated to attack Europe by Hitler and asia by the japanese so as the US power will be divided but Gen Douglas Mcarthur decided to concentrate its forces in Europe first as a result the Philippines suffer too painfull and to long.
And finally Gen. McArthur returned and save the Philippines from total destruction. I don't think anyone here needs a lecture on history. The books, the facts, are there. Let the ignorant be ignorant - you will not divert their convictions. Americans and Israel are murdering thousands every year for the past few years. So don't try your moral high ground. After reviewing Neddermeyer's studies, and discussing the matter with Edward Teller , von Neumann suggested the use of high explosives in shaped charges to implode a sphere, which he showed could not only result in a faster assembly of fissile material than was possible with the gun method, but which could greatly reduce the amount of material required, because of the resulting higher density.
Kistiakowsky's name was immediately suggested, and Kistiakowsky was brought into the project as a consultant in October The implosion project remained a backup until April , when experiments by Emilio G. This has a far higher spontaneous fission rate and radioactivity than plutonium The cyclotron -produced isotopes, on which the original measurements had been made, held much lower traces of plutonium Its inclusion in reactor-bred plutonium appeared unavoidable.
The Original Atomic Target
This meant that the spontaneous fission rate of the reactor plutonium was so high that it would be highly likely that it would predetonate and blow itself apart during the initial formation of a critical mass. The only way to use plutonium in a workable bomb was therefore implosion. The impracticability of a gun-type bomb using plutonium was agreed at a meeting in Los Alamos on 17 July All gun-type work in the Manhattan Project was directed at the Little Boy, enriched-uranium gun design, and the Los Alamos Laboratory was reorganized, with almost all of the research focused on the problems of implosion for the Fat Man bomb.
Tuck , and was developed by von Neumann. The task of the metallurgists was to determine how to cast plutonium into a sphere. The difficulties became apparent when attempts to measure the density of plutonium gave inconsistent results. At first contamination was believed to be the cause, but it was soon determined that there were multiple allotropes of plutonium.
It was found that this was stable at room temperature when alloyed with aluminum, but aluminum emits neutrons when bombarded with alpha particles , which would exacerbate the pre-ignition problem. As plutonium was found to corrode readily, the sphere was coated with nickel. The size of the bomb was constrained by the available aircraft. For logistic and nationalistic reasons, the B was preferred, but this constrained the bomb to a maximum length of 11 feet 3. Removing the bomb rails allowed a maximum width of 5.
The early Y model Fat Man was assembled with some 1, bolts. This redesign work was substantial, and only the Y tail design was retained. There were also the Y and Y, which were practice bombs with no detonators at all. On 16 July , a Y model Fat Man, known as the Gadget, was detonated in a test explosion at a remote site in New Mexico , known as the " Trinity " test. The fundamental thing was, of course, very much the same. The plutonium pit  was 3. The depleted uranium tamper was a 8. The missing tamper cylinder containing the pit could be slipped in through a hole in the surrounding The explosion symmetrically compressed the plutonium to twice its normal density before the "Urchin" added free neutrons to initiate a fission chain reaction.
The result was the fission of about 1 kilogram 2. The first plutonium core was transported with its polonium-beryllium modulated neutron initiator in the custody of Project Alberta courier Raemer Schreiber in a magnesium field carrying case designed for the purpose by Philip Morrison. Magnesium was chosen because it does not act as a tamper.
The cores were transported to North Field, arriving on 2 August, when F31 was partly disassembled in order to check all its components. F33 was expended near Tinian during a final rehearsal on 8 August, and F31 was the bomb dropped on Nagasaki. F32 presumably would have been used for a third attack or its rehearsal. In August , the Fat Man was assembled on Tinian by Project Alberta personnel, and the physics package was fully assembled and wired. It was placed inside its ellipsoidal aerodynamic bombshell and wheeled out, where it was signed by nearly 60 people, including Rear Admiral William R.
Purnell , Brigadier General Thomas F. Farrell , and Captain William S. Bock ,  who flew The Great Artiste with his crew on the mission. Bockscar was flown by Major Charles W.
America's Surprising Original Atomic Target - Visit Pearl Harbor
Sweeney and his crew, with Commander Frederick L. Ashworth from Project Alberta as the weaponeer in charge of the bomb. Bockscar lifted off at on the morning of 9 August , with Kokura as the primary target and Nagasaki the secondary target. The weapon was already armed, but with the green electrical safety plugs still engaged. This fuel would still have to be carried all the way to Japan and back, consuming still more fuel. Replacing the pump would take hours; moving the Fat Man to another aircraft might take just as long and was dangerous as well, as the bomb was live.
Colonel Paul Tibbets and Sweeney therefore elected to have Bockscar continue the mission. The original target for the bomb was the city of Kokura , but it was found to be obscured by clouds and drifting smoke from fires started by a major firebombing raid by Bs on nearby Yahata the previous day. Three bomb runs were made over the next 50 minutes, burning fuel and repeatedly exposing the aircraft to the heavy defenses of Yahata, but the bombardier was unable to drop visually. By the time of the third bomb run, Japanese anti-aircraft fire was getting close; Second Lieutenant Jacob Beser was monitoring Japanese communications, and he reported activity on the Japanese fighter direction radio bands.
Sweeney then proceeded to the alternative target of Nagasaki. It was obscured by cloud, as well, and Ashworth ordered Sweeney to make a radar approach. At the last minute, however, bombardier  Captain Kermit K. Beahan  found a hole in the clouds. An estimated 35,—40, people were killed outright by the bombing at Nagasaki. The Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works was the factory that manufactured the type 91 torpedoes released in the attack on Pearl Harbor ; it was destroyed in the blast. In November , the Army Air Forces asked Los Alamos for Fat Man bombs, but there were only two sets of plutonium cores and high-explosive assemblies at the time.
The Army Air Forces wanted improvements to the design to make it easier to manufacture, assemble, handle, transport, and stockpile. The wartime Project W was continued, and drop tests resumed in January Mechanical components were made or procured by the Rock Island Arsenal ; electrical and mechanical components for about 50 bombs were stockpiled at Kirtland Army Air Field by August , but only nine plutonium cores were available.
Production of the Mod 0 ended in December , by which time there were still only 53 cores available. It was replaced by improved versions known as Mods 1 and 2 which contained a number of minor changes, the most important of which was that they did not charge the X-Unit firing system's capacitors until released from the aircraft. The Mod 0s were withdrawn from service between March and July , and by October they had all been rebuilt as Mods 1 and 2. A nuclear strike would have been a formidable undertaking in the post-war s due to the limitations of the Mark III Fat Man.
The lead-acid batteries which powered the fuzing system remained charged for only 36 hours, after which they needed to be recharged. To do this meant disassembling the bomb, and recharging took 72 hours. The batteries had to be removed in any case after nine days or they corroded. The plutonium core could not be left in for much longer, because its heat damaged the high explosives. Replacing the core also required the bomb to be completely disassembled and reassembled.
This required about 40 to 50 men and took between 56 and 72 hours, depending on the skill of the bomb assembly team, and the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project had only three teams in June