Supervision - Theoretische Hintergründe und der Blick in die Praxis (German Edition)

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With the Summit between North Korea and South Korea taking place, both countries have decided to take their destiny in their own hands. Could this be North Korea is discontinuing its nuclear program. Could we trust in Kim Jong-un? EcoS interdisciplinary approach welcomes students from various academic backgrounds with strong interest in the East Asian Region. On 17 April, Dr. On April 10th, Prof. On Tuesday, 10th of April, we are pleased to have Dr. The Austrian newspaper Der Standard recently interviewed Prof. Frank concerning the annoucement of a summit between United States and North Korea.

Frank discusses possible implications of the recent rapprochement between the two Koreas and the seismic changes this could herald for the Admission period is on its course, so we would like to invite all applicants to contact the EcoS staff at ecos[at]univie. Important information for all EcoS students who wish to register for the classes of Prof. Sung-Hoon Park. On the 14th of February, Professor Frank discussed travelling in North Korea and his new book "Unterwegs in Nordkorea" in a program on Is the current rapprochment on the Korean peninsula a short-lived flare or a lasting development?

In Austrian newspaper Der Standard, Prof. Frank comments on the current rapprochment between North and South Korea, international mediation, and the The is a change for the guest lecture by Dr. On 9 January, pm, Prof. On 38 North, Prof. Frank commented on the New Year speech by Kim Jong-un. In the Frank offers a rare view inside the hermit kingdom.

On January 9, we are pleased to have Dr. For the upcoming episode of 3sat's business programme Makro, Prof. On 7 November , Prof. Carlyle A. Two renowned scholars will visit our department during the month of November for a series of insightful guest lectures on topics concerning East Asia EcoS students enrolled in the beginners' courses of Korean language please note that due to the high demand, courses had to be rescheduled. Frank comments on the latest North Korean trade data in the context of the ongoing sanctions debate. In "Im Dialog", Prof. Frank explains how and why the DPRK pursues its nuclear programme and discusses with other prominent In this one hour feature, Prof.

Frank discusses the recent crisis on the Korean peninsula. In his latest interview with 3sat's business programme Makro , Prof. Frank is arguing for a new international strategy towards North Korea. In a number of German speaking news formats, Prof. Weigelin-Schwiedrzik, celebrated the th EcoS graduate. Due to holidays and conference attendances, Dr. In German newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine , Prof.

Frank talks about the conflict between the U. On 13 May, pm at Tagesschau24, Prof. Professor Jammes, an anthropologist of religion, is the leading authority in Cao Dai Studies. He will share his general fieldwork experience in a All Austrian universities and university colleges of teacher education are legally required to change all student ID numbers Matrikelnummer from Further applications for the Frank gave his annual analysis of the North Korean Parliamentary Session in an article on 38th North.

Frank analyses the current tensions with North Korea and how a U. In an interview with BlogPenn, Prof. Frank assesses the current security situation on the Korean peninsula. Frank discusses the latest changes in North Korea based on his visit to the country in Feb. Due to the University's Easter Break from 10 to 23 April no classes will be held, university offices and libraries may have special opening hours In an interview with German news broadcaster n-tv Prof.

Frank explains the intentions behind North Korea's latest missile test, China's interests in From today until 30 April, the Admission Office is accepting your application for a seat in the EcoS Master Programme starting from next winter DGE , Bonn, Germany. The Healthy Start — Young Family Network has updated the recommendations on nutrition in pregnancy that first appeared in and supplemented them with recommendations on a preconception lifestyle. Preparation for breast-feeding is recommended already during pregnancy. Vaccination recommendations for women planning a pregnancy are also included.

These practical recommendations of the Germany-wide Healthy Start — Young Family Network are intended to assist all professional groups that counsel women and couples wishing to have children and during pregnancy with uniform, scientifically-based and practical information. Die Vorbereitung auf das Stillen wird bereits in der Schwangerschaft empfohlen.

In Germany, about a third of women of childbearing age are overweight or obese 5. It is estimated that about 0. Far more children are affected by a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder A healthy lifestyle prevents risks of pregnancy complications and helps maintain the health of mother and child. In this phase of life in particular expectant parents 1 are often highly motivated to optimise their lifestyle and are receptive to appropriate recommendations. The recommendations of the Healthy Start — Young Family Network Netzwerk Gesund ins Leben are intended to help contribute to a health-promoting lifestyle and thus to promote the health of mothers and children and prevent long-term overweight and its associated diseases.

The updated version presented here has been extended to include recommendations covering the period before pregnancy and around the time of conception. They are intended to provide gynaecologists, midwives, paediatricians and members of other health professions with a basis for counselling a healthy lifestyle. Healthy Start — Young Family is a network of institutions, learned societies and associations that are concerned with young families. The aim is to provide parents with uniform messages about nutrition and exercise so that they and their children live healthy lives and grow up healthy.

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For the update of the recommendations on nutrition in pregnancy 13 and the extension to include recommendations for women wishing to have children, in the recommendations of national and international learned organisations and institutions were searched for statements on the diet, exercise, lifestyle and health of pregnant women and those wishing to have children and examined for their topicality. In addition, literature searches were undertaken in PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar 2 and meta-analyses, systematic reviews, guidelines and relevant publications published between and mid were assessed by the members of the scientific council cf.

In addition, aspects of lifestyle before conception, physical activity before and during pregnancy and weight recommendations for pregnancy were discussed in working groups with other acknowledged experts and practitioners see page from the appropriate specialist disciplines. On this basis, the present recommendations were formulated by consensus by the scientific council. A more wide-ranging systematic literature search and evidence assessment was not undertaken because of the lack of financial resources for this.

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The key statements formulated correspond to the evidence level of an expert recommendation with particular regard to aggregated sources of evidence. Their wording is based on that used in guidelines. Professional groups who care for women of childbearing age, particularly women with a concrete wish to have children, as well as pregnant women must encourage and counsel them to follow a balanced diet, physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. The lifestyle of a future family is influenced by both partners.

Even before pregnancy, the optimal adjustment of body weight to a normal weight is desirable. In the case of overweight and obese women, a lower weight gain in pregnancy is desirable. In underweight women, it should be ensured that there is sufficient weight gain during pregnancy. The risk increases with a higher weight gain 28 , particularly if the woman is overweight or obese when embarking on pregnancy A general recommendation for a minimum weight gain in underweight women cannot be given.

Overall, the evidence is too inconsistent to define exact upper and lower limits for a desirable weight gain in pregnancy according to preconceptual body mass index BMI. Only up to about 4. Maternal overweight and obesity at the beginning of pregnancy are associated with a shorter life expectancy of the child It is therefore desirable for both overweight and underweight women to approximate to normal weight before pregnancy.

Pronounced weight gain normally does not occur until the second trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women should be informed of the causes of weight gain and the risks of obesity or excessive weight gain. Weight loss diets in pregnancy are not recommended because of safety concerns. These recommendations are based on epidemiological association studies in American and Danish women.

The recommendations have been adopted by some countries such as Italy, Denmark and Switzerland, in some cases with slight adjustments. Table S1. Pregnant women should pay particular attention to the quality of their diet. Energy requirements increase only slightly over the course of pregnancy. Pregnant women often overestimate their actual increase in energy requirement. Energy consumption increases in particular due to the energy requirement for tissue formation and fetal growth. The requirement for a series of vitamins and minerals increases in pregnancy much more than the energy requirement, mainly from the 4th month onwards For the nutrients folate and iodine a markedly increased intake is recommended from the beginning or even before pregnancy Recommended additional intake of various nutrients are indicated in Fig.

With the exception of folate and iodine 52 see section Supplements , the increased requirement for vitamins and minerals can usually be covered by a suitable choice of food. The consumption of supplements cannot replace a balanced diet. Reference nutrient values — Recommended additional intake in pregnancy according to German Nutrition Society DGE , expressed as a percentage of the reference value The diet must be balanced and varied before and during pregnancy.

It should be based on the general recommendations for healthy adults. Both calorie-free beverages and plant-based foods vegetables, fruit, pulses, wholegrain products should be consumed abundantly. Animal-based foods milk and dairy products, low-fat meat and low-fat meat products, oily sea fish and eggs should be eaten moderately. Sweets, sugar-containing beverages and snacks as well as fats with a high proportion of saturated fatty acids in particular animal fats and oils should be only consumed sparingly. Plant oils e. The data are insufficient to allow special nutritional recommendations to be formulated, e.

A systematic review showed that weight gain and the risk of pre-eclampsia can be reduced by diet and lifestyle interventions in pregnancy in normal-weight, overweight and obese women , in addition to which a non-significant trend to reduction of gestational diabetes, hypertension, premature births and intrauterine death was observed In an interventional study in overweight pregnant women with an increased risk of gestational diabetes, appropriate weight gain and a lesser decline in physical activity in early pregnancy was achieved through repeated healthy eating and physical activity messages No reduction in gestational diabetes was obtained with other lifestyle interventions in obese pregnant women Although the data are inconsistent, nutrition and exercise should be addressed repeatedly when counselling pregnant women.

In a meta-analysis of 11 randomised interventional studies pregnant women, mean BMI A systematic review of observational studies showed a lower risk of gestational diabetes with a diet with a high intake of vegetables, fruit, wholegrain products, nuts, pulses and fish; by contrast, a diet rich in fat, a large amount of red meat and eggs was associated with a higher risk 9. Because of the physiological changes and the growth of the uterus the stomach and intestine are compressed , smaller meals divided over the day can promote the well-being of the expectant mother.

Foods with a high nutrient density high content of essential nutrients relative to their energy content are required for sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals to be absorbed despite the only slight increase in energy requirement. A guideline value for the daily amount of water for the general population and also during pregnancy is about 1. In hot environments or during heavy physical activity, a larger amount of water is required. The daily consumption of at least three portions of vegetables and two portions of fruit is desirable Cereal products, particularly from wholegrain cereals, and potatoes are rich in vitamins, minerals and fibre.

Milk and dairy products, which provide protein, calcium and iodine, are important components of a balanced diet. Fish is an important source of vitamin B 12 , zinc and iron. A preference for certain types of meat is not necessary for an adequate iron intake, but low-fat meat and meat products should be chosen specifically. Through the weekly consumption of fish, particularly one portion of oily sea fish e.

A high consumption of carnivorous fish e. The regular consumption of sea fish as well as iodised salt contributes to the supply of iodine. However, salt should be used sparingly. A balanced vegetarian diet with the consumption of milk, dairy products and eggs ovo-lacto vegetarianism can in principle cover most nutrient needs even during pregnancy. Specific counselling is recommended.

In the case of a purely plant-based vegan diet, the supply of critical nutrients must be checked by a physician and individual nutritional counselling given. The study data on vegetarian and vegan diets in pregnancy is sparse and in some cases contradictory Sufficient nutrient intake is possible in pregnancy with a balanced and consciously designed ovo-lacto vegetarian diet, with the exception of the nutrients folic acid and iodine and in some cases DHA , which generally need to be supplemented during pregnancy.

Milk and dairy products, eggs, pulses and cereal products usually provide sufficient protein intake. Pulses, wholegrain cereal products and some types of vegetable contain reasonably large quantities of iron, although less readily available than iron from meat and fish. The concomitant consumption of vitamin C-rich foods e. With a purely plant-based vegan diet, intake of vitamin B 12 , DHA, zinc, protein, iron, calcium and iodine is critical. In particular, adequate intake of vitamin B 12 is not possible with a purely plant-based diet without nutritional supplements and fortified foods.

Vegans who wish to keep to their diet in pregnancy should undergo qualified nutritional counselling as soon as they wish to have children in order to eliminate any nutritional deficiencies before conception. Vegans should have their intake of critical nutrients regularly checked medically during pregnancy as well, so that they can take specific supplements and where necessary consume fortified foods to cover their nutrient requirement Supplementation must begin at least four weeks before conception and continue until the end of the first trimester of pregnancy.

In some countries the dose recommendation is somewhat higher, e. Folate is important for cell division and growth processes, amongst others. Consumption of folate-rich plant nutrients such as greens, cabbages, pulses, wholegrain products, tomatoes or oranges can contribute to the supply of folate. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults DEGS1 , serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were for the first time measured representatively for the adult population. As closure of the neural tube normally occurs within 3 to 4 weeks of conception, folic acid supplementation must be started prior even to conception for the greatest possible risk reduction of neural tube defects.

Currently only a small proportion of women in Germany take a preventive folic acid supplement. In Germany, dosage forms in different doses are available. Women with thyroid disorders must consult their physician before supplementation. According to WHO criteria , Germany is an area with a mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Women wishing to have children should be counselled about the importance of iodine even before pregnancy. Consideration should be given to an adequate iodine intake.

In terms of foodstuffs e. Women with thyroid disorders should be given medical advice and also avoid iodine deficiency. The iodine content in sea algae, particularly in dried algae and seaweed products, can vary considerably and in some cases be very high.


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In addition, algae can be rich in arsenic and other contaminants The consumption of algae and algal products is therefore discouraged. Iron supplements in addition to a balanced diet should only be taken after a medically diagnosed deficiency. Pregnant women who do not consume oily sea fish regularly are recommended to take DHA supplements. Against this background, general prophylactic iron supplementation is not recommended for pregnant women in Germany. This is consistent with recommendations of other European countries e.

UK , France and Ireland The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid DHA is found in particular in oily sea fish. Pregnant women should therefore ensure a sufficient intake of iron-rich foodstuffs. These data indicate that the generally recommended intake amount in the normal diet is not reached. However, menstrual blood loss ceases 52 and intestinal iron absorption increases in pregnancy.

Therefore, the EFSA, for example , assumes an equally high dietary iron requirement for pregnant women as for non-pregnant women. As well as determinations of Hb, the additional determination of serum ferritin in the context of antenatal care is useful in obtaining evidence of insufficient or empty iron stores Vegetarians have a small intake of DHA and have a lower DHA status than women who also consume fish, meat and eggs The alpha-linoleic acid ALA contained in some vegetable oils e. Women who do not regularly consume oily sea fish should therefore take DHA as a supplement during pregnancy.

DHA is important for the development of visual function and brain in the fetus Vitamin D is formed in particular in the skin during exposure to sunlight. Thus, a supply of vitamin D can be guaranteed by spending a regular amount of time outdoors. For light skin types, it is sufficient in the summer months in our latitudes to expose the unprotected face and arms to the sun for about 5 to 10 minutes daily in the midday period. Sunburn should be avoided at all costs.

In the absence of endogenous vitamin D synthesis, i.

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This is insufficient to achieve a sufficient intake with limited exposure to sunlight and low endogenous vitamin D synthesis throughout the year. Pregnant women who rarely spend time in the sun or extensively cover their skin or use sunscreen lotions on exposure to the sun as well as women with dark skin types should therefore use a supplement with vitamin D Pregnant women must avoid raw, animal-based foods.

In addition, they should follow the recommendations to avoid listeriosis and toxoplasmosis in the choice, storage and preparation of foods. Pregnant women must only eat eggs if the yolk and egg white are firm from being heated. They are based on data from zoonosis monitoring and other communications from the Federal States on the presence of zoonosis pathogens in foodstuffs studied and study results of food-related disease outbreaks, literature analyses and expert opinions as well as from members of the Committee for Biological Hazards and Hygiene at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment.

As salmonellosis can be harmful to mother and child, eggs should be consumed only when cooked thoroughly. Listeria can also be found in heated foods. It can also proliferate at refrigerator temperatures as well as in products packaged under vacuum or in a controlled atmosphere. Pregnant women should prepare their food as close as possible to the time of consumption and consume it rapidly.

In restaurants and cafeterias they should where possible consume food that has been heated immediately prior to consumption. As well as choice of foods, hygiene in storage and preparation plays an important role in protecting against food-borne illnesses. Women who are planning a pregnancy and pregnant women must follow the general exercise recommendations for adults. Women must also be physically active in everyday life during pregnancy and must limit or regularly interrupt sedentary activities. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active for at least 30 minutes at least 5 days a week and preferably daily.

Moderately active means that conversation is still possible during sporting activity talk test. Women who engage in sport can also be more intensively physically active in pregnancy. Data findings focused exclusively on overweight and obese pregnant women are not quite so extensive.

The recommendations on the level of activity of 30 minutes of physical activity on at least 5 days a week are documented by the improvement in cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness and the prevention of noncommunicable diseases In terms of pregnancy-specific aspects, the evidence for certain levels and intensities of activity is limited; generally, however, in a complication-free pregnancy the positive effect of exercise on the course of the pregnancy and the health of mother and child is undisputed For pregnant women, aerobic endurance activity is particularly recommended and should be undertaken at moderate intensity and in exercise units of at least 10 minutes.

Moderate intensity means the exercise is experienced as slightly strenuous and conversation is possible talk test. Physical activity in everyday life is also desirable, e. Women should not begin new types of sports with unaccustomed sequences of movement in pregnancy. Types of sports that are considered inappropriate are those with a high risk of falls and injury, e. Possible warning signs are vaginal bleeding, labour, loss of amniotic fluid, dyspnoea, dizziness, headache, chest pain, muscular imbalance, calf pain and swelling Physical activity is contraindicated in haemodynamically relevant heart diseases, restrictive lung disease, cervical insufficiency, premature labour, persistent bleeding in the second and third trimester, placenta praevia after 26 weeks of pregnancy, ruptured amniotic sac, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension or severe anaemia Reported barriers are lack of time, lack of motivation and above all fears and safety aspects Professionals should encourage pregnant women to arrange their everyday life and leisure time so as to be active and to limit or regularly interrupt sedentary activities.

On the basis of the available evidence it is not possible to define a safe and risk-free amount of alcohol for the fetus or a time window in pregnancy when alcohol consumption does not present a risk Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS is the most common avoidable disability in neonates with an estimated incidence of 0.

The extent of the individual health risk to the child is difficult to predict and is affected by maternal and fetal characteristics. Although large systematic studies have demonstrated no negative long-term effect of mild to moderate alcohol consumption , it is safest to avoid all alcohol consumption For this reason, specialists should provide differentiated and sensitive advice.

Pregnant women must avoid smoking and stay in rooms where people are smoking or have smoked. Smoking has a negative effect on fertility 64 and can increase the risk for premature births and miscarriages, birth defects, premature placental detachment and low birth weight, but also the later risk for obesity and allergies in the child , , , , , , , They should motivate them to adopt weaning measures and point out that the wish to have children and pregnancy are good opportunities to stop smoking. To encourage smoking cessation, materials are also specifically available for pregnant women and for disseminators as well as advice lines www.

Nicotine is frequently contained in e-cigarettes. Even for e-cigarettes without nicotine, health concerns are raised Pregnant women are therefore recommended to avoid e-cigarettes. The data are inadequate for assessing possible detrimental effects of caffeine on the mother and child and for quantifying amounts of caffeine that do not present a risk. Caffeine crosses the placenta rapidly but cannot be metabolised either by the fetus or in the placenta The relationship between maternal caffeine intake and pregnancy duration, birth weight, fetal growth retardation and small for gestational age SGA has been investigated in studies.

Another meta-analysis shows a linear association between caffeine consumption and miscarriage rate, although other possible confounding factors were not considered A Cochrane meta-analysis was unable to draw any conclusions about the effectiveness of abstention from caffeine on birth weight or other relevant endpoints because of limited data Data on the mean caffeine content of beverages are shown in Table 1. Further typical ingredients of energy drinks are glucuronolactone, taurine and inositol, the interactions between which have not been fully established, as well as large amounts of sugar.

Pregnant women should therefore avoid energy drinks. Medications, whether prescription-only or over-the-counter, may affect the child. The overwhelming majority of medications have been insufficiently studied in terms of risks in pregnancy. In the consumption and prescription of medications, the individual risk to the mother from not receiving treatment must be weighed against the risks to the unborn child. Substance-specific recommendations can be given in the course of a medical consultation.

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Where necessary, a dose adjustment or a switch of medication may be necessary even before conception. Necessary treatment must not be stopped because of wrong assumptions about harm to the unborn child. Information about the safety of medications in pregnancy and during breast-feeding is available via the website www. Women with chronic diseases who are planning a pregnancy require special medical counselling. Expectant parents must be informed and given advice about breast-feeding because breast-feeding is best for mother and child.

A Cochrane review article comes to the conclusion that all forms of additional support have a positive effect on the increased duration of breast-feeding and the duration of exclusive breast-feeding The recommendation is consistent with recommendations on the promotion of breast-feeding in Germany and in other countries Measures to support breast-feeding exert a positive effect on the initiation and duration of breast-feeding Professionals and trained lay people, personal as opposed to telephone support, four to eight contacts and settings with high initial breast-feeding rates can promote exclusive breast-feeding Although different forms of support in pregnancy and during the post partum period show positive effects on the attitude to breast-feeding, it is not possible to provide more specific details, e.

Pregnant women must not exclude any foods from their diet to prevent allergies in the child. The avoidance of certain foods during pregnancy is not beneficial for the prevention of allergies in the child. Pregnant women are recommended to consume oily fish regularly also with respect to allergy prevention. The recommendations are based on current data and the German guidelines for allergy prevention of Dietary restrictions are therefore not meaningful and can also be associated with the risk of insufficient nutrient intake.

However, foods to which the woman herself exhibits an allergic reaction should also be avoided in pregnancy. The consumption of prebiotics and probiotics during pregnancy does not offer any sufficiently proven benefits for allergy prevention in the child. From the point of view of allergy prevention in the child as well, pregnant women should avoid smoking and areas where there is or has been smoking. In families with a medical history of allergies, the acquisition of cats should be avoided.

Furthermore, pregnant women should avoid high exposure to air pollutants and mould accumulation in order to protect their health. Women who are planning a pregnancy should have a dental check-up and where necessary undergo specific treatment. Appropriate oral hygiene and a healthy diet for teeth reduce the caries-associated microflora. Regular appropriate oral hygiene is one of the general health care measures and is recommended for all adults Altered defence reactions in the gingiva and hormonal changes in pregnancy increased oestrogen and progesterone levels encourage the development of inflammation of the gums gingivitis , characterised by increased sensitivity and a tendency to bleeding Existing periodontitis can be exacerbated The frequency depends among other factors on the individual risk for caries and periodontitis The German Society of Periodontology DG PARO recommends supporting oral hygiene by professional teeth cleaning with oral hygiene instruction at the beginning and end of pregnancy Where diseases of the teeth and gums are present, the dentist should be consulted where possible even before the pregnancy.

As a rule amalgam fillings should not be placed during pregnancy In specific indications, amalgam fillings can be removed and replaced by other filling material. The vaccination status should be checked and vaccination gaps should be plugged in women who are planning a pregnancy. Complete protection against measles, rubella, varicella chickenpox and pertussis whooping cough is of particular importance in the family planning phase. While dead vaccines inactivated vaccines: killed pathogens or their constituents can in principle be administered even in pregnancy, live vaccines such as those for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella are contraindicated for pregnant women.

After each vaccination with a live vaccine, reliable contraception must be recommended one month. However, even if this period is not observed and even in the event of inadvertent vaccination in early pregnancy, no fetal damage as a result of these vaccinations is known to date Vaccinations not only protect the pregnant woman, who is more susceptible to infection due to hormonal changes than outside of pregnancy, but also the unborn or newborn child.

Practically all viral infections in pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of abortions, birth defects, premature births and complications of pregnancy. In addition, pregnant women are themselves at increased risk, e. There is a particularly high risk of severe disease courses in influenza infections in pregnancy.

A balanced diet, regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle are particularly important before and during pregnancy. This potential for prevention should be recognised and utilised on a broad basis. Koletzko, M. Cremer, M. This education is not designed and therefore cannot be completed as a long distance learning programme on-site attendance is required. This title MBA is eligible to be used as name affix. Certificates will be handed out during an official ceremony in London in November each year. Career opportunities and salary prospects More salary and better career prospects - these are often the reasons for studying for an MBA.

How much you ultimately earn with an MBA depends on many factors and can not be seriously predicted. But: an MBA degree is a generalist ability to take holistic responsibility and also to run businesses. Typically, these assumptions of responsibility are met by more attractive salary perspectives. Our many years of experience with the program MBA International Business shows us that our alummi have taken on much more far-reaching responsibilities after successfully completing their degree in business.

Can I take this master's degree with my Bachelor's degree? Basically you have to have a pre-academic degree eg Bachelor with at least CP. It does not matter in which academic discipline you have obtained this degree. Where is the degree program accredited? Likewise, the degree program is in the U. Nowadays, English is the business language par excellence. Even many companies based in Germany have meanwhile chosen English as the business language - at least in written communication - to communicate efficiently with international customers, suppliers and investors.

The MBA program enables students to communicate efficiently in English in the various business disciplines. In addition, the program "MBA International Business" is regularly completed by international students with non-German-speaking backgrounds. When does the programme start? In summer and winter semester?

We always offer the study program in the summer and winter semester. What is the difference to the "Master Business Administration M. Master students to-be are often spoiled for choice. What is the difference between the programs, the degrees and the job prospects? In short, what is the right ""master""? It has to be assessed: The classical Master M. The Master's degree builds on this and is research-oriented.

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Typically, students of M. The Master of Business Administration MBA is different: this is a more generalist education aimed at holistic competence building and aiming to take top-level leadership responsibilities. MBA students mostly want to acquire management skills in order to take on a leadership role later. In addition to theoretical and analytical knowledge - for example in marketing, operations, finance or human resources - leadership and negotiation techniques, as well as intercultural competences are taught in order to prepare the MBA graduates for the executive floor. The MBA practice is in the foreground: Anyone who holds an MBA would like to apply the acquired knowledge from their studies as quickly as possible in their daily work.

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The MBA therefore relies on teamwork and interactive forms of instruction, while master's programs with classical lectures and seminars are more scientifically oriented. It will take between appointments to occupy a module. They start on Mondays so that you could definitely fly in to London with an ""early bird"" flight, and take back the evening flight on Fridays.


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  • In principle, this study is designed to learn with and from each other. Likewise, we know that often not everything is perfect and predictable in a professional context. We work in small groups and have always found suitable solutions. Can I work alongside? Yes, the MBA International Business degree program is designed so that it can be pursued with minimal restrictions through attendance events. Is there a possibility of a semester abroad for me? The "MBA International Business" already includes the stay abroad in London during the modules held there up to four times a week each.

    Therefore, no further stay abroad is planned. At which locations is teaching? In London, the events take place at the ""University Square Stratford"", the new campus within walking distance from the central railway station ""Stratford"" near the Queen Elisabeth Olympic Centre. We would be pleased to advise you during the course of your studies and show you options if you would like to follow this path.

    Application requirements "The degree program is accessible to applicants for all disciplines who fulfill the formal admission requirements for the Master's program at universities.



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