Reflexion über die Grundhaltungen in der Poetik (German Edition)

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The strata can be subdivided in varying degrees, but their basic order may not be changed. The lower stratum is always stronger and autonomous, but supplies the material for the higher level, which in turn has room for higher principles. As I have attempted to express in my formulation, each stratum makes the subsequent one ontologically possible.

At the same time, the forming of the more abstract strata determines the forming of the strata that sustain them. For literary works of art, the foreground and middle strata are decisive. The background strata concern psychology and philosophy just as much as they do aesthetics. This model should be applicable to all forms of at least partially representational art, though not to art which is completely non - objective.

The advantage of strata models lies in their clarification of abstract relationships of characteristics and complexes of characteristics. There is, however, the danger of interference by geological or biological notions. The character of literature as art consists precisely in the appearance Erscheinen of several qualitatively different strata, one behind the other.

Therefore, it might be more appropriate to speak of foreground , middle , and background strata. The only justification for a system of this kind lies in its usefulness , which can be ascertained by asking: what can it make us see that we could not see without it? In comparison to other kinds of objects e. Our special relationship to art can be explained by the fact that only art has as many strata as our own personality structure.

Our aesthetic experience consists in penetrating several strata, from the texture of the foreground to the last strata of meaning. In contrast, the contemplation of a chair carries us, at best, through three strata: 1 the material, 2 its order, and 3 the function, purpose or usefulness of the object. A scholarly tract might present us with something that resembles eight of our strata, however in a different relationship.

In art e. This circumvention of mediating strata is only possible in language because of the double function of its first stratum , material. The material of the other arts color, clay, tones, etc. This kind of meaning, adhering to our words by long established convention, is also used for non - artistic, theoretical statements.

Language can therefore be used in two ways: one way resembles the use of color to build , stratum by stratum, a world that acquires meaning. The other way is a linguistic system that combines symbols with pre - established meaning. In the first, artistic , mode, the artist guides us through one stratum after another.

The poet might describe a person in some characteristic activity and make us interpret the psychological meaning of these actions, as we would in an actual encounter. The poet does not formulate the meaning directly. Or an author can sketch reality alternately through description and direct statements.

The special character of any kind of art can be much better described by use of the strata concept. A classic example of a problem that could not be solved before the arrival of strata aesthetics is that of the special position of music within the other arts. Ingarden said only one, whereas Hartmann distinguished several.

Matthews, and yet contain no appearing reality human beings, landscapes, etc. What allows us to skip one or more strata and still have powerful emotional experiences? What the painting looses by its static character in the second stratum, it has to re - gain by the concreteness of its third stratum. In the fine arts, we have to project by way of association movement and the experience of liveliness into the objects and persons depicted in the third stratum.

The omission of the third stratum of depicted reality therefore only seems to make an exception to the ontological laws of stratification, according to which each stratum has to be supported by the next lower more concrete one. Music is the only art that can afford to be abstract non representational and still convey emotional experience because its very medium is motion in time. Motion for us contains expression because we are used to experiencing it as the expression of something alive. Therefore, we project emotional qualities directly into the real motion of music, just as into the associated motion of depicted reality in a painting.

Therefore, in music, the stratum of coordinated material can carry emotional qualities ontologically. Even sociological aspects of literature can be illuminated with the help of the strata model, if we do not limit its application to the observation of phenomena within literature the same is done by psychological and psycho - analytical interpretation[17]. As an example, let us refer briefly to the old topic of discussion between Marxists and their adversaries, whether literature is determined by economics, and if so, how?

It is not the consciousness of men that determines their modes of existence, but rather their social existence that determines their consciousness. Whether an individual like Raffael is able to develop his talent depends completely on the demand for his talent. This, in turn, is dependent on the division of labor and the resulting progress in education. Originally, our consciousness was seen merely as a reflection of the outside world.

They can only affect the political stratum next to them and will reach the cultural level only via intermediaries. Peter Demetz[32]summarizes these more sophisticated visions:. There is no longer a direct contact between more distant spheres; economics may exert its influence upon the neighboring area of politics, but it can no longer force the more distant sphere of literature directly under its tyranny. The more abstract fields of the superstructure are only lightly touched by economic impulses, which, in turn, are subjected to serious metamorphoses on their way through the intermediate levels.

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Undoubtedly the creative intellect acquires a new dignity: the higher its achievement rises above the economic basis, the more freely the laws of its own being will operate once more. It is remarkable that here also the ontological laws of stratification are valid, i. Which strata could be distinguished was indicated in by S.

How much these strata resemble the ontological ones does not have to be shown. In a similar manner, Engels analyzed the relationship in For Stalin these stratified interactions were too complicated. Once the upper strata have been established, they have a life of their own to a certain degree, and can influence the lower ones. All kinds of tension can develop between cultural strata, i. But finally, according to all Marxists, the lower strata are going to win out. Among the more narrowly defined problems that Strata Poetics might be able to offer solutions to, the following might be representative:.

In comparison, however, it is rather coarse - meshed. Nicolai Hartmann has opened our eyes to the fact that even the form of art is always graded or stratified[36]; that is to say, each stratum has its own form. If, for example, we deal in the second stratum of poetry with sensibly ordered word material, we would still have to ask how it is ordered style. The various levels can only exist in a certain form, be it good or bad.

It is therefore as inappropriate to ask for the form of a literary work of art as it is to confuse the content with the material of poetry. The content has, according to our model, at least four levels. Formation can apply to the psychological as well as to the representational level or the word material. Even meaning can comprise four to five levels. Structural analysis has always rightly stressed the interaction of levels more than the levels themselves.

The answer is: as in life. It is usually not stated directly, but appears in the external behavior of man, often merely in a small but typical segment of his environment; in short, in what is depicted by the preceding strata. The useful term transparency Transparenz therefore is to be understood as a shining of the last level through the first ones. This unconscious transference can even be extended: the poet is shaped by unconscious influences from his environment. In turn he shapes his work, which in its turn projects unconscious stimuli back into its social environment the audience.

Structures that qualify especially well as vehicles for expression of our standard experiences are repeated with slight variations. Therefore, genres can be defined as groupings of literature having resemblances in the structure of their strata that especially qualify them for expressing basic human attitudes Grundhaltungen and experiences Grunderlebnisse. The strata of a genre are held together by the same double dependency which also characterizes each single literary work: on the one hand, each level can only exist on the foundation of those under it; on the other hand, its character is determined by higher ones.

Only literature of a grand scope epic poem, novel, drama develops all levels. But it seems that, in the single work as well as in a genre, no intermediate level may be omitted totally, since the next higher one always has to rest upon it. Even lyrical poetry, which does not contain action and conflict and which goes directly from the sphere of the external 2 or the representational 3 to the stratum of moods and emotions 5 , only seems to constitute an exception.

Without it, the literary work could not exist. For even if it often seems so, it is impossible that things speak to us directly. Nevertheless, the characteristic manner and intensity in which the lyrical speaker is still present does contribute to the distinction of lyrical genres like sonnet and song. If one knows how something is constituted ontological description and why psychological , the question of the historical and sociological circumstances under which it developed in a specific way is still not made superfluous.

On the other hand, one only fully understands the history and environmental relation of any phenomenon following an examination under the aspects mentioned earlier. Their purpose is to aid concentration on a main effect catharsis. The unity of time takes into consideration the loss of interest, which may occur if characters are presented in overly long time intervals. What we often take to be value criteria e.

It might have done so, if its proponents would have succeeded in a more detailed and precise description of our experience of the stratification of literature. This, however, seems to be only possible for individual cases and not in general. Strata theory only describes pre - conditions for the aesthetical impact of literature in the process of the foreground - strata becoming transparent for the background - strata.

Grundriss der allgemeinen Kategorienlehre. Berlin, Hannover, - Bonn, ; Amsterdam: Rodopi - Verlag, Darmstadt, ; also Untersuchungen zur Ontologie der Kunst. His attempt at establishing individual strata - models for the other arts cannot be discussed here. Neue Deutsche Hefte , 92 Bern, Leipzig, ; Stiehm Verlag, - For the exterior is shaped, as it is, in order to let the formation of the interior shine through. Therefore it is determined by the last strata. The exterior levels exist for them. And in this sense the formation of the concrete foreground is determined by the last background - stratum.

All quotations above have been translated by me. Ruttkowski : Die literarischen Gattungen. Essays on aesthetics, poetics and terminology of literary studies Anthology, Pages. Wolfgang Ruttkowski Author. Add to cart. Proceeding from this conviction we shall try here to establish a demarcation of these often used terms and at the same time prove their interdependence Stratum The strata - model has been fully and consistently developed only in Nicolai Hartmann's ontology [1] , which also represents a synthesis of all prior strata - conceptions.

Since we do not attempt a historical survey a summary of his main ideas may suffice here: The world is stratified. A comparison of Hartmann's and Ingarden's subdivisions yields the following [8] : a. Our scheme should accommodate all kinds of literary and pictorial art.

Genre: Structures, that qualify especially well as vehicles for expression of our standard experiences, are repeated with slight variations. The Strata Model New concepts and models of thinking can precipitate new insights by giving a fresh direction to our observations and showing us what to look for.

Hartmann and Ingarden Hartmann and Ingarden are the only two thinkers who applied strata models systematically to aesthetic phenomena, but neither compared his findings with the others. Advantages of Strata Models The advantage of strata models lies in their clarification of abstract relationships of characteristics and complexes of characteristics. The Question: What is Art? Marxist Theory and the Strata Model Even sociological aspects of literature can be illuminated with the help of the strata model, if we do not limit its application to the observation of phenomena within literature the same is done by psychological and psycho - analytical interpretation[17].

Befriedigung Genugtuung Satisfaktion Zufriedenheit. Begegnung Beisammensein Treffen Zusammenkunft Zusammentreffen. Begehrlichkeit Gier Gierigkeit Habsucht. Begleitmusik Hintergrundmusik Musikuntermalung. Beharrlichkeit Standhaftigkeit Unentwegtheit. Beherrschung Contenance Fassung Kontrolle. Beherrschung Hegemonie Herrschaft Vorherrschaft.

Beieinandersein Beisammensein Zusammensein. Beispiel Exempel Musterbeispiel Paradebeispiel. Bekanntmachungsblatt Report Tagesbericht. Belastung Spannung Spannungszustand Tension Zug. Belegung Zuordnung Zuteilung Zuweisung. Beleidigungsklage Beleidigungsprozess. Bengel Lausbub Lausbube Lausebengel Schlingel.

Beobachter Betrachter Publikum Zuschauer. Beratung Besprechung Hinweisgabe Konsultation Ratschlag. Beraubung Entziehung Entzug Raub Verlust. Bereinigung Berichtigung Fehlerbehebung Fehlerkorrektur Richtigstellung. Bericht Depesche Meldung Neuigkeit Report. Berichterstatter Journalist Korrespondent Publizist Reporter. Berichtigung Korrektur Mangelbeseitigung Reparatur Verbesserung. Besatzer Besatzung Besatzungstruppen Okkupationstruppen. Bescheinigung Beurkundung Zertifikat Zeugnis.

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Branche Gewerbe Industrie Industriezweig. Branche Industriebranche Industriezweig. Brandherd Krisengebiet Krisenherd Unruheherd. Brandmarkung Kennzeichnung Stigmatisierung. Branntweinbrennerei Brennerei Destille Schnapsbrennerei. Briefwechsel Korrespondenz Schriftverkehr Schriftwechsel. Brillianz Funkeln Glanz Leuchten Strahlung. Buchgemeinschaft Buchklub Literaturverein.

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Disziplin Wissenschaftszweig Wissenszweig. Dogma Glaubenssatz Lehre Lehrmeinung Lehrsatz. Doppel Durchschlag Durchschrift Kopie. Doppelschichtkondensator Goldcap Supercap Ultracap. Draht Kabel Leiter Leitung Verbindung. Dreher Zerspaner Zerspanungsmechaniker. Drehung Rotation Umdrehung Umkreisung Umlauf. Drogenkonsumraum Druckraum Fixerstube Gassenzimmer.

Drucklufterzeuger Luftkompressor Luftpresser. Durchschnittsertrag Durchschnittsrendite. Fehlbildung Fehlentwicklung Unterentwicklung. EDV Informationstechnik Informationstechnologie. Edelstein Klunker Schmuckstein Schmuckwerk. Effizienz Energieeffizienz Eta Wirkungsgrad. Eigenverantwortlichkeit Selbstverantwortung. Einbau Montage Zusammenbau Zusammensetzen. Eingreifen Eingriff Einmischung Intervention. Einheitspreis Pauschalbetrag Pauschale Pauschalpreis Preispauschale.

Einmischung Verflochtenheit Verstrickung Verwicklung. Einordnung Einteilung Klassifikation Klassifizierung. Einsamkeit Niedergeschlagenheit Verlorenheit. Einschrumpfen Schrumpfen Zusammenschrumpfen. Einschub Parenthese Zwischenbemerkung Zwischensatz. Einseitigkeit Parteilichkeit Voreingenommenheit. Einstellbarkeit Justierbarkeit Verstellbarkeit. Einstellung Stagnation Stillstand Stockung. Einzelhaft Isolationshaft Isolierhaft. Elektronenabgabe Oxidation Verbrennung. Emanzipation Gleichberechtigung Gleichsetzung Gleichstellung. Emblem Hoheitszeichen Symbol Wahrzeichen.

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Erinnerung Flashback Retraumatisierung Wiedererleben. Erleuchtungserlebnis Erweckungserlebnis. Ermittler Kriminalbeamter Kriminalpolizist. Ermittlung Nachforschung Recherche Suche. Erreichung Realisierung Verwirklichung. Ersatzkartusche Ersatzmine Ersatzpatrone. Erzeuger Fabrikant Hersteller Produzent. Essen Esswaren Lebensmittel Nahrung Nahrungsmittel. Etagenpyramide Stufenpyramide Tempelturm. Exekutive Regierung Staatsgewalt Verwaltung. Fall Kern Kernpunkt Knackpunkt Sachverhalt.

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Fortpflanzungsorgan Genital Geschlechtsorgan Geschlechtsteil. Freiheitsentzug Gewahrsam Haft Sicherheitsverwahrung. Fron Fronarbeit Frondienst Sklavenarbeit Zwangsarbeit. Fundament Grundlage Grundstein Unterbau. Funkstreifenwagen Polizeiauto Streifenwagen.

Prof. em. Dr. Annedore Prengel erklärt die Reckahner Reflexionen zur Ethik pädagogischer Beziehungen

Ganovensprache Gaunersprache Rotwelsch. Geburtsland Heimat Heimatland Herkunft Vaterland. Gegensatz Kontroverse Spannungsfeld Streitfrage. Gegenstand Gehalt Inhalt Thema Wesentliche. Gehaltsvorauszahlung Lohnvorauszahlung. Gehhilfe Gehstock Handstock Spazierstock. Geigenbauer Gitarrenbauer Saiteninstrumentebauer. Geigenharz Harz Kolofonium Kolophonium. Geist Intelligenz Scharfsinn Vernunft Verstand.

Geistergeschichte Gespenstergeschichte Spukgeschichte. Geistesverwandtschaft Interessengleichheit. Gelehrtheit Klugheit Schlauheit Weisheit. Gemeinde Gemeinschaft Kirchgemeinde Pfarrgemeinde. Gemeinschaftsarbeit Gruppenarbeit Teamarbeit Zusammenarbeit. Genauigkeit Gewissenhaftigkeit Sorgfalt. Geneigtheit Sympathie Wohlwollen Zuneigung. Gerichtsprozess Gerichtsverfahren Prozess Verfahren.

Geschichtsforscher Geschichtswissenschaftler Historiker. Geschick Geschicklichkeit Gewandtheit. Geschwindigkeitsmesser Tacho Tachometer. Gesellschaft Gesellschaftsstruktur Gesellschaftssystem Sozialstruktur. Gesellschaftslehre Gesellschaftstheorie Gesellschaftswissenschaft Soziologie. Gesellschaftstheoretiker Gesellschaftswissenschaftler Soziologe. Gespenstergeschichte Gruselgeschichte Schauergeschichte Spukgeschichte. Gestaltswandel Metamorphose Transformation Verwandlungsprozess Wandlung. Gewindekomparator Gewindekontrollapparat.

Gewissheit Sicherheit Zuversichtlichkeit. Gimmick Werbegag Werbegeschenk Werbetrick. Glaubenskrieger Kreuzfahrer Kreuzritter. Gleichrichter Stromrichter Stromwender. Gottesgelehrtheit Religionswissenschaft Theologie. Grammatik Satzbau Satzstruktur Syntax.

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