Soil-Subsurface Change: Chemical Pollutant Impacts

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Explore Syndetics Unbound. Summary This book combines soil science, earth science, and environmental geochemistry, providing comprehensive background information for specialists interested in chemical-induced changes in the soil-subsurface system. Summary for music and videos. Video Games. About the author. Look inside. Other formats Ebook. Professional reviews. Book profile. Altmetrics data is provided by Altmetric. Altmetric continually monitors a variety of non-traditional sources to provide real-time updates on new mentions and shares of individual research outputs, which are collated and presented to users via the Altmetric details pages and badge visualizations.

See More. You may also like. Check availability. Kinner of the University of New Hampshire links up with libraries in Petroleum L. Rylands employed contractors to build Maidment, Hussein M. Fertilizer or fertiliser is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin other than liming materials that is added to soil to supply one or more Reclaimed water or recycled water, is former wastewater sewage that is treated to remove solids and impurities, and used in sustainable landscaping irrigation, The Campbell Debates presents a lively discussion on Hydrofracking.

Contaminant geochemistry--a new perspective.

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WaterTalks: Using complex groundwater models for decision-making; when is enough - Prabhakar Clement video Dr. Biological Oceanographic Investigations video Dr. The concern over soil contamination stems primarily from health risks, from direct contact with the contaminated soil, vapors from the contaminants, and from secondary contamination of water supplies within and underlying the soil. In North America and Western Europe the extent of contaminated land is best known, with many of countries in these areas having a legal framework to identify and deal with this environmental problem.

Developing countries tend to be less tightly regulated despite some of them having undergone significant industrialization. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons , solvents , pesticides, lead , and other heavy metals.

Chemical Pollutant Impacts

Any activity that leads to other forms of soil degradation erosion , compaction , etc. Historical deposition of coal ash used for residential, commercial, and industrial heating, as well as for industrial processes such as ore smelting , were a common source of contamination in areas that were industrialized before about Coal naturally concentrates lead and zinc during its formation, as well as other heavy metals to a lesser degree. When the coal is burned, most of these metals become concentrated in the ash the principal exception being mercury. In addition to lead, coal ash typically contains variable but significant concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs; e.

Coal ash and slag can be recognised by the presence of off-white grains in soil, gray heterogeneous soil, or coal slag bubbly, vesicular pebble-sized grains.

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Treated sewage sludge , known in the industry as biosolids , has become controversial as a " fertilizer ". As it is the byproduct of sewage treatment, it generally contains more contaminants such as organisms, pesticides, and heavy metals than other soil. The volume is expected to double to , tons of dry solids in This has good agricultural properties due to the high nitrogen and phosphate content.

A pesticide is a substance used to kill a pest. A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent such as a virus or bacteria , antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes roundworms and microbes that compete with humans for food, destroy property, spread or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance.

Although there are benefits to the use of pesticides, there are also drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other organisms. Herbicides are used to kill weeds, especially on pavements and railways. They are similar to auxins and most are biodegradable by soil bacteria. However, one group derived from trinitrotoluene D and T have the impurity dioxin, which is very toxic and causes fatality even in low concentrations.

Another herbicide is Paraquat.

It is highly toxic but it rapidly degrades in soil due to the action of bacteria and does not kill soil fauna. Insecticides are used to rid farms of pests which damage crops.

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The insects damage not only standing crops but also stored ones and in the tropics it is reckoned that one third of the total production is lost during food storage. As with fungicides , the first insecticides used in the nineteenth century were inorganic e. Paris Green and other compounds of arsenic. Nicotine has also been used since the late eighteenth century. They are cheap to produce, potent and persistent.

DDT was used on a massive scale from the s, with a peak of 72, tonnes used Then usage fell as the harmful environmental effects were realized. It was found worldwide in fish and birds and was even discovered in the snow in the Antarctic. It is only slightly soluble in water but is very soluble in the bloodstream. It affects the nervous and endocrine systems and causes the eggshells of birds to lack calcium causing them to be easily breakable. It is thought to be responsible for the decline of the numbers of birds of prey like ospreys and peregrine falcons in the s — they are now recovering.

As it has low water solubility, it tends to stay at the water surface, so organisms that live there are most affected. DDT found in fish that formed part of the human food chain caused concern, but the levels found in the liver, kidney and brain tissues was less than 1 ppm and in fat was 10 ppm, which was below the level likely to cause harm.

Chemical Pollutant Impacts

Organophosphates , e. Parathion is highly toxic, methyl-parathion is less so and Malathion is generally considered safe as it has low toxicity and is rapidly broken down in the mammalian liver.

This group works by preventing normal nerve transmission as cholinesterase is prevented from breaking down the transmitter substance acetylcholine, resulting in uncontrolled muscle movements. The disposal of munitions, and a lack of care in manufacture of munitions caused by the urgency of production, can contaminate soil for extended periods. There is little published evidence on this type of contamination largely because of restrictions placed by governments of many countries on the publication of material related to war effort.

However, mustard gas stored during World War II has contaminated some sites for up to 50 years [5] and the testing of Anthrax as a potential biological weapon contaminated the whole island of Gruinard.