Anthony Molino frontmatter. It knows its way among all words, all tones, all attitudes. And it is superbly trained. The intellect of its owner is apparent in nothing so much as his literary skill. Spenditi meno, dunque, e vedi risparmio il fiato della mia povera frase per non farla correr troppo vedi di non [assegnarmi la parte dello sciocco Words without thoughts never to Heaven go 3. E non bastano le parole per raggiungere il cielo The pun in 5. Upon what ground? First Clown. Why, here in Denmark. Per quale ragione?
Table of contents
In quale regione? Qui in Danimarca Montale shows fine judgment in his translation of 5. Morire, dormire. Morire, dormire; dormire, sognar forse. Although Italian hen- decasyllabic verse is usually a close equivalent of English blank verse, D'epiro. Toward the end of the soliloquy, however, Montale loses some of the voltage Shakespeare packs into his verse. Notes 1. The translation was originally published as Amleto, principe di Danimarca, tradotto per le scene italiane da Eugenio Montale Milan: Cederna, All citations from Hamlet are from G. Harrison, ed. She is a literary translator from English into Italian and a prize-winning writer of short novels and poems.
She has published many papers and two books on literary translation. Her research interests include literary translation, translation history and gender and translation. The author of Dux, the Italian version, was Margherita Sarfatti, writer and journalist, colleague of Benito Mussolini at the newspaper Avanti and his lover. What makes this a case of special interest is that at the time of the English translation, in , there was no published Italian original. Apparently Sarfatti wrote it in , but the book was first published in English transla- tion and only later in Italian.
The analysis of the two texts operated through the manual comparison of the English and Italian versions points out their differ- ences. Changes and differences get evidence of the different project that presided over the publication of the two books. Particularly I want to argue that changes have been dictated mostly by the dif- ferent needs of propaganda in the two countries.
Furthermore, that they are due to what the writers believed to be the different tastes and also expectations of the English and Italian readers. The title is the first thing that catches the eye of the reader and it also offers the first indication of the differences that it is possible to find in the English and Italian version of the book.
In its reassuring banality, it immediately pres- ents the reader with the main topic of the book. Its singularity and so the reason to prefer this particular biography is pointed out by the name of the protagonist only, Benito Mussolini. The Italian title is quite different. It is a Latin word, Dux. In line with the emphatic and concise style of the time, the only one word title of the Italian sounds quite aggressive. The Latin word links Mussolini directly to the Roman Empire and to the glory of Rome whose restoration fascist propaganda boasted about Falasca Zamponi , The very first impression communicated by the titles seems to be confirmed by the opening photographs included inside the texts.
The English book opens in the frontispiece with a smiling photograph of Mussolini with some papers in his hands. The 11 photographs of the English version are taken from the public and private life of the dictator to present the image of a dynamic Prime Minister who rides an horse or caresses his favorite lioness, whose singularity has been balanced by the photographs of his children. The last photograph of the English text reproduces the greeting to George V visiting Rome.
On the contrary the 32 photo- graphs of the Italian text are mostly taken from his public life. Ad- ditional illustrations include pictures of him as a volunteer soldier in the First World War and many images of public ceremonies and of him in uniform or at work as Prime Minister. The photographs of his children and of the greeting to George V are not present. There is only one smiling picture in the Italian text whose unicity reinforces the Italian myth of the never smiling dictator Sarfatti , The title together with the photographs offer a different image of the Duce, a smiling reassuring one for the English public and an intimidating, aggressive one for the Italian public.
As the choice of the title and images are usually based on what the editor or the publish house believes to be the tastes and expectations of the readership Spirk , , it could be argued that two different projects presided over the creation of the English and Italian text and the different projects obeyed to the different needs of the propaganda at home and abroad. On 30 May , Giacomo Matteotti, a member of the opposition in Parliament, denounced the violence of the fascist paramilitary squads and the results of the elec- tions as illegal.
On 10 June Matteotti was kidnapped and murdered by a group of fascists who were members of the Ceka, the political police. Mussolini soon asserted his non-involvement in the murder, but from the beginning public opinion accused him of being its insti- gator. Attacked by public opinion and by members of the opposition, Mussolini faced the most difficult time of his political career.
In the meantime, an aggressive press campaign against Italian fascism was going on in England and the agreements that were to be signed between the Italian government and the American company Sinclair Oil had no little part in it. The English government considered the agree- ments, signed on the 29 April , as an attack on English interests Canali , 66 since the British Petroleum, the Italian branch of the English Apoc, had been cut off from the Italian market. In April , Matteotti travelled to London and met many members of the Labour party.
According to Mauro Canali , 63 — 81; - , Matteotti came to England to get evidence of the corrupt dealings between the Italian government and Sinclair Oil. In fact the periodical English Life published a posthumous article , 73 in which Matteotti declared he had evidence of the corruption that was going on and could name names. The assassination had a great impact on public opinion and cast a shadow over fascism and its leader. In Italy Mussolini could control the press, but nothing could be done to prevent the British press from speaking against fascism. The publication of a carefully written biography could reassure the public opinion and give sup- Calvani.
The text analysis First of all, the Life of Benito Mussolini and Dux are two different books and this is not simply due to the translation process. It could be argued from the very first fast comparison of the two tables of contents: the English translation has got 42 chapters while the Italian one has got 48 chapters. The existence of a different previous Ital- ian original for the English translation has been confirmed by the leaflet enclosed to the Italian version.
The Italian publisher says that due to the extraordinary success of the biography of Mussolini in England the author decided to publish it in Italy as well. Missing the original text sent to the translator by the author, I considered as first hypothesis the possibility that the original had been written by the author, Margherita Sarfatti, directly in English. This would have been an answer to the question of why rewrit- ing what should have been ready for publication. Morgan of the United Press. Was it possible that Sarfatti wrote Dux in English and sent it to Whyte to give it literary form?
The answer seems to be no, it is revealed by the letters that Prezzolini wrote to Sarfatti in order to arrange the publication. He contacted Margherita Sarfatti who had written articles for him in the past. In particular, in the letter of 7 July , he says he will talk with the publisher about it, but he adds that he fears the publisher could stake claims on her not perfect English knowledge. Furthermore he explains that the publisher could have his transla- tor, probably also a popular writer, who will help in the spreading Calvani.
She eventually agreed with him if in the letter 13 may Prezzolini presses Sarfatti to finish the book. As it seems, she sent the chapters to him as soon as they were ready, but Prezzolini says that in this way they could not press the translator to finish his work, while on the contrary they wanted it to be soon finished in order to publish the book in Autumn and sell the foreign rights to other countries. So, if she had already written the book in Italian, other reasons must have convinced the author of the convenience of rewriting the book for the Italian public.
To have a clear idea and a complete account of the changes and differences, I did a manual analysis of the whole English and Italian texts, but due to length limit in this paper I will present the analysis of representative selected extracts. Furthermore there is a whole chapter, in Italian only, dedicated to the idealization of fascism and transformation of its violence into a sort 1 See Sarfatti , , The ridiculous plaid down the arrogance.
It is also interesting to notice the presence of many different passages concerning the alleged powerful fascination that the Ital- ian dictator seems to exert over women of all ages and nationalities since he was a child, slightly exaggerated in the English version. So the Italian text can clearly claim the innocence of Mussolini even Calvani. But the differences do not consist only in cuts or addings in the English or Italian version, they include real manipulations occurred in translation in order to make the original conform with the tastes and expectations of its new readership.
The very same episode has been narrated in the fourth chapter in Italian but it is slightly different. Mussolini is described as leader as usual, but the boys run away at the shouts of the farmer. The wounded boy has not been shot in Italian, but he fell down of the tree breaking his leg. The farmer has got a shotgun but he does not use it and Mussolini rescues his friend defying the farmer.
To conclude the different chapters, the differences in the very narration, the different construction of that narration together with the differences in the pictures and in the presentation of the books testify the different strategies used by the English and the Italian writer in order to adapt their text to the different social and political background of England and Italy. Both versions have been written and published for propaganda, but the very same end seems to be achieved in a slightly different way allegedly according to the different public and its assumed expectations.
References Canali, M. De Grazia, V. Falasca Zamponi, S. Costabissara: Angelo Colla. Translated by Frederic Whyte. Stokes Company, New York. Sarfatti, M. Spirk, J. Whyte, F. She also leads the podcasting faculty program at her college and is coordinator of the First Year Seminar. Brief History of Translation Studies Theories of translation have rapidly developed in the 20th and 21st centuries with the increasing demands for translation in the fast changing world of information and communications.
Many renowned theorists in translation studies including Jakobson, Steiner, Fedorov, and Cary as well as Seleskovitch and Lederer from the Parisian school and other relevant representatives such as Vermeer, Toury, Even-Zohar, Venuti, Lambert, and Derrida, proposed different approaches to the theory of translation. While Jakobson, Steiner, and Fedorov insisted on the necessity of creating a scientific theory of translation, Cary claimed that this discipline Guarnieri. The contribution of the theorist Even-Zohar is interesting especially for his take on recipro- cal influences between national systems, and for the relationship between translated literature and literature in general.
According to the Israeli theorist, literature is governed by a conglomerate of elements that change and transform while in connection with one another. In his Polysystem Theory, translated literature is not an isolated item, but it is part of a system.
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According to Even-Zohar, any foreign literature which is brought in from another country is able to influence the native literature at various degrees. In the s, thanks to Susan Bassnett, Translation Studies became a field that analyzed questions related to translation techniques and systematic approaches to translation were first imple- mented. The translated work would no longer be seen secondary in regards to the original, but instead would be studied as an autono- mous piece of narrative.
Venuti, thus, remarks the difference between an approach that brings the foreign text closer to the target culture, adapting it to its own literary and cultural paradigms; and a system that aims, instead, at a literal translation which leaves the reader free to discover the foreign elements of the original text. According to Lefevere, translators have an important, yet undervalued, role of mediators since they are responsible for the success of another work. Even recent post- colonial theories have shown interest in the theory of translation.
According to this definition, the translation becomes inevitably a process of transculturation. In recent years computer applications of translation studies have greatly increased. Based on this recent interest in automatic translations and of Corpus-based Translation Studies, linguists, mathematicians, and engineers have opened their fields to the study of the disciplines of computational linguistics, translation technology, and theory of information from which new and original approaches to translation studies are now emerging. Thus the American translator is not merely a professional who seeks a faithful rendition of a text.
In the United States, the translations of the works of Italo Calvino were published quite swiftly, and apart from Weaver, the Guarnieri. The only two works translated respectively ten and eight years after the Italian editions were Il Sentiero dei nidi di ragno and Il castello dei destini incrociati. Trilogia was published in a single volume in collecting all of the three short stories under the title, Our Ancestors.
The first is that Americans lacked interest for the historical context of Neo-realist narrative. For the translation of Cosmicomiche, he received a translation award in Unlike Colquhoun, Weaver established a personal rapport with Calvino, which probably helped to speed up the translation process. Weaver frequently spoke to Calvino on the phone to con- firm even minor corrections and revisions. Weaver reports that he often thought that Calvino wanted to translate his work himself. It was hard, Weaver recalls, to talk to him; he was an extremely reserved person, who did not love gossip and unnecessary confidence.
Even though they knew each other for over twenty years, they still used the formal pronoun Lei. Another curious episode was the case of Sotto il Sole Giaguaro which came out first in the English translation done by Weaver and then in Italian.
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In Italy the entire work was published only in while in the United States the entire col- Guarnieri. Inside this work one can find an essay that was translated by Weaver in , with the title The Pen in the First Person La penna in prima persona. Weaver also translated the preface of the Sentieri dei nidi di ragno published in Italian in We know that Calvino himself was a translator and an advo- cate of translation research.
When the novel gets to the most interesting part, the Reader decides to go back to the bookstore where he bought it to complain. He meets Ludmilla the female reader with whom he would begin the search for the integral novel, ultimately to find out that all of the existing copies are flawed. These stories leave the reader suspended in determining the endings and give voice to the notion of multiplicity of stories that generate from a single source. In light of this view, then, a translator is not free from external pressures, from memories of what is read or absorbed.
To avoid such inconveniences Calvino endorses the creation of a language composed of precise and concrete linguistic features that would increase its translatability. His vision, though, also establishes that this language maintains the secrete es- sence of the text, an intrinsic truth as defined by Eco. This language dualism, typical in Calvino which characterizes most of his literary style, reveals constant struggle between the crystal nature of his vocabulary and the exuberance and imaginary, chaotic nature of his imagination.
Speaking of his collaboration with Calvino, Weaver, also re- Guarnieri. In another way, he was not easy to translate. Although he was not a scientist, both of his parents were, and he liked to read scientific works. This is particularly true of Calvino. The short story presents different cultural levels, Italian, Japanese, and Anglophone, while these contexts are to be transmitted to the reader in the most accurate way possible. The simple plot of the narration becomes, however, rather complex with the persistent erotic-visual implications that distinguish the story.
The plot begins by intro- ducing the protagonist of the story, a student who is attempting to improve his attention span under the guidance of Mr. To accomplish this, he tries to concentrate his attention on a single Guarnieri. Subsequently, when the student bends over a small pond in order to smell a water nymphaea, he casually comes in contact with the bosom of the daughter, Makiko, and wife of Mr. Okeda, Mrs. Miyagi, who were kneeling down to pick up flowers. On his way back home, the protagonist asks Makiko out on a date, and she accepts.
However, that night, something unexpected hap- pens. While the student plays hide and seek with the daughter, he enters a room where Miss Miyagi was placing flowers into a vase and picking up the leaves that had fell on the floor. Driven by the woman, the two find themselves making love while the daughter who had finally reached in the room looking for her date and Mr. Okeda secretly watch them in true voyeuristic fashion. The language of the novel in question is sensual and precise, just like Calvino desired.
Calvino underlines the importance of using a language which reveals its richness, full- ness and concreteness in order to become a modern language which is highly communicative and ultimately easy translatable. Weaver, before this translation, probably read the Italian version several times to grasp the tone and the atmosphere in order to faithfully reproduce it.
The style of which is written in an average Italian, Guarnieri. In an interview regarding her English translations, she admits that the degree of difficulty of a translation depends on the linguistic style of each author. In addition, this story facilitates the work of the translator since the syntax is made up of short sen- tences which render the work of the translator almost transparent. Yet in this story, the colons remain unaltered. From the comments released by Weaver, it becomes clear that his main preoccupation was to preserve the original structure of the Italian text.
We will see how in the short story On the Carpet A clear example is this short paragraph with the original Italian and the English version translated by Weaver: Le foglie del ginkgo cadevano come una pioggia minuta dai rami e punteggiavano di giallo il prato. Io passeggiavo col signor Okeda sul sentiero di pietre lisce. Il signor Okeda disse che era possibile. Le premesse da cui partivo, e che il signor Okeda trovava ben fondate, erano le seguenti. Se una notte Here is the English version: The ginkgo leaves fell like fine rain from the boughs and dotted the lawn with yellow. I was walking with Mr.
Okeda on the path of smooth stones. I said I would like to distinguish the sensation of each single ginkgo leaf from the sensation of all the others, but I was wondering if it would be possible. Okeda said it was possible. The premises from which I set out, and which Mr. Okeda considered well founded, were the following. It is important to underline that in Italian, these verbs in the past manifest actions that are limited in time. The imperfect is used to describe a habitual action like the falling of the leaves each year in the fall.
The verbs As I was walking camminavo and I was wondering mi domandavo demonstrate undefined lengths of time in English present perfect , while in Italian the imperfect provides an entirely different meaning. The Japanese-themed short story offers different reflexive forms. One of the difficulties in the translation of these verbs is understanding which type of reflexive it is, sometimes one must distinguish between the impersonal form and the passive structure.
In addition, there can be ambiguity in certain verb functions: for example, the verb cambiarsi means two different things: changing clothes but also transforming Nermin Abd El-Hamid Hamdy 1. These examples determine that there is no precise correspon- dence with Italian; if we think of the present indicative in English, it has different connotations. Therefore, it is best to translate them using their actual use in English without trying to find an equivalency Guarnieri.
Another translation that can create problems is the word terreno which can be translated with land, country, field, plot or site, and that Weaver, in this case, translated with ground. Weaver in translating this short story, documents how he approached the final version of his translation and shows all of the challenges, big or small that he encountered. Translating Seduction The strong visual-erotic footprint of this story, is marked by an important verb, guardare, which in the narration acquires different visual nuances and is translated in many different forms, from look to gaze to seeing.
The variety of these verbs is also found in the English language: to follow, to see, gaze, to look, to examine, to stare, to contemplate, to spy, to watch, to appear, to observe, to describe. There are other examples of the translation of the verb guardare in this story which are significant to discuss. However, if one choses to use the verb to watch this corresponds to the verb guardare, osservare, while if one selects the verb to gaze, this would mean to remain in contemplation and to stare at someone. In the English translation one loses the visual aspect that characterizes instead the Italian sentence.
In another passage of the story, the visual aspect is however preserved in the English translation: screditare agli occhi dei docenti; rendered with discrediting in the eyes of the University professors. This shows, once again, that translations do not always follow rigid rules and that every word has to be weighted and translated on a case by case basis. Miyagi appear to be more precise in the English version.
Guardava fissamente, ma non sua moglie e me, ma sua figlia che ci guardava. Okeda had been there. He was staring hard, not at his wife and me but at his daughter watching us. The peculiarity of the English translation resides in the fact that Weaver interpreted the word spasimo like a precise act, without leaving the Anglophone reader any other possibility; while in Italian the meaning of this word offers several other implications. One must also notice that in English, Mrs. Miyagi gains the title of Madame, since, as Weaver explained, it is a term usually attributed to foreign people.
If he used Mrs. Miyagi, her sensual appeal would weaken. Other verbs that more or less pertain to the sight in the story On the Carpet… convey erotic tones.
Although the character of Mrs. Miyagi ap- pears in a captivating role, in reality, according to Frasson-Marin, this is no other than a hoax used to diminish her role. The description of the narrating voice of the story seems to be the sacrificial victim, forced to engage in involuntary sexual acts. In addition, the woman always attracts the man with the art of seduction rather than her intelligence, culture or dialogue.
Moreover, according to the French critic, when the women exercise these qualities, these are strongly criticized and diminished by Calvino. A related approach proposed by Frasson-Marin, is the topic of gender in translation which deserves attention. The determination of gender in Weaver is a recurrent problem in his translations, however, he opted for solutions that obscured female characters.
In this case, the American translator makes a particular ideological choice and he is now at the same level of the author, and becomes a co-writer of the original text. During the s, a new approach for translation studies surfaced, mostly in North America and in France, which focused on analyzing gender in translation. Several sociologists explored this innovative field, commonly known as Sex and Language since it is known that in constructing gender identity, language has a defining role.
Thus, it becomes important to recognize the different approach that a writer and the translator has in relation to gender difference since it can create problems in the translation of the text. In Italian there is no gender neutral and all words have a spe- cific gender attribution; in English this distinction does not exist; and there are no few words that point to the gender of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles. In another instance, Weaver managed with difficulties the challenge posed by the feminine gender in the story of Marcovaldo.
For example, to translate the word for female rabbit coniglia he chooses to eliminate the word and only use the generic terms of male e female. This can also be seen in the collection of short stories entitled Gli idilli difficili, where un impiegato and una impiegata clerk become a man and a woman in the translation. Features of the Technical Translation To understand the process of translation, it is important to showcase a few examples that indicate the challenges faced by translators, but also to disclose the ones tackled by William Weaver.
Among the selected ones, there is the issue of the morphosyntactic Guarnieri. In the following paragraph taken from On the Carpet, we notice how the Italian syntax follows a predictable pattern: a subject, a verb and object. However, the order can change if one wishes to emphasize a certain word or element. In fact, the whole first page of the short story written by Calvino creates an atmosphere of delayed sensuality, one that recalls the movements of classical ballet.
We find the same verb at the end of the story, but this time Weaver, translates it with twirling, a verb that in English has differ- ent meanings such as twisting, curling, bending, winding. In English, Weaver was able to recreate the same effect with the use of the following words: losing, pleasant, sensations, distinct, others, confusing, comes, blades, grass, perse- vere, purpose, perhaps, edges, times, silence, served, as, conjectures, series, stages, lesson, tiniest, sheaf, diffused, impressions.
All of these words appear in the English text according to a clear strategy on the part of the translator to convey the sensuality and eroticism chosen by Calvino for this story. Weaver shows his mastership in being able Guarnieri. This is, in part, due to the verbal richness of the English language. Another relevant aspect to underline in the translation of the vocabulary is the so-called lexical equivalence according to Bruno Osimo 83 ; something very important to preserve in order to achieve textual accuracy. In this story, there are words that are translated in a rather generic way, something that goes under the name of under- translation.
For example, the word scrutare, which in Italian means to look at intently is translated with to examine. To translate it with the verb scrutinize would have seemed more appropriate since to inves- tigate as a synonym is closer to the original meaning. We also have an example of an over-translation with turbare translated with upset which indicates a type of disruption that conveys sadness.
In Italian, the verb instead offers more interpretative solutions: it does not only imply sadness but it can be a synonym of confusion, trouble, disorder, agitation and anxiety. One can be worried but not necessarily sad. Obviously an error that Weaver does not commit is to confuse the so called false-friends; words that formally appear similar to Ital- ian, but instead mean something different.
Another word is biblioteca, which is translated with library, since libreria in Italian is the bookstore. Pavimento should not be translated with pavement but with floor since pavement means sidewalk and concrete. Furthermore, the word gentile could be translated with genteel, but kind is its correct equivalent. The American translator instead chooses its Latin equivalent which creates an awkward outcome — an erudite word which generates a different atmosphere.
What is needed in a good translation is not just the equiva- lence, but finding words can be associated with a word in a particular context. Both times when Guarnieri. The first one refers to hard labor unskilled , always remunerated, while the second term usually refers more to a profession, an activity where personal ability is at stake. The phrase tavolo da lavoro is translated with you are at your desk, omitting completely the verb linked to work.
The word lavoro can be found in Palomar and Marcovaldo. In the first one, the expression per un lavoro delicato is translated with a delicate job; while in the Marcovaldo this word is often translated with work. In many dictionaries the word is translated with flower-bed. A close reading of the story in Marcovaldo, we notice how the translation differs, given the fact that aiuola usually refers to a piece of land in which one can grow flowers, vegetables, or seeds.
It appears an exaggeration to choose bed of dirt, while path seems a clear example of an under-translation. These numerous translation examples are presented to dem- onstrate in concrete terms what it means to be a skillful translator. Nonetheless this also shows how Weaver used his creativity and artistic talent for his translations. Weaver demonstrates that his practice is a combination of creativity, training and inspiration.
A translation cannot be considered only like a second-hand copy of the original, born out of a mechanical process, but instead it should be considered as a creative act and as a work of re-interpretation. From dialect, ways of sayings which in Italian are plenty, every novel has had its own main dif- ficulties.
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Palomar, The Cosmicomics, and in The Castle, it was the syntactical aspect. Every word is intentional and calibrated. The translator has to grasp his whole essence in order to return it to the public in its full integrity. Many translators of Calvino chose to make the integrity and essence of his poetics a priority respecting both form and content. Colquhoun Boston: Beacon Press, Of the Fiabe italiane we have three different translations, the one by Louis Brigante Italian Fables. The book, Ultimo viene il corvo was translated by Archibald Colquhoun and Peggy Wright, with the title, One afternoon and other stories London: Collins, The story, La speculazione edilizia, was translated with the title, Plunge into real estate by S.
Carne-Ross in by Pocket Books. New York: Vintage International, , and the collection of essays, Prima che tu dica pronto Numbers in the dark and other stories. London: Jonathan Cape, NY: HBJ, Invece temo non sia altro che un bol en plastique, una scodella come esempio di prodotto in serie. Ho ripiegato su un gioco dassonanze salvando solo il ritmo del verso. Ho capito bene il pistone e il cilindro? Penso che sarai in vacanza e non so quando vedrai questa lettera. Ti ringrazio per tutto quello che potrai dirmi e ti auguro un buon agosto, tuo Italo Calvino.
He then collaborated with Quadri and Solmi in translating Queneau. Works Cited Anselmi, G. M, Fenocchio, G. Tempi e immagini della letteratura, vol. Bruno Mondadori. Milano, Bondi, M. Fortunati V. La cultura italiana e le letterature straniere Guarnieri. Third Volume. Ravenna: Longo editore, Bowker, L.
Computer-Aided Translation Technology. A Practical Introduction. University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa. Calvino, I. Barenghi, M. Milano: Mondadori, I Meridiani, Print Calvino. Milano: Mondadori, II. Torino: Einaudi, New York: Harcourt Brace, Una pietra sopra. The Uses of Literature. Patrick Creagh. Harcourt Brace, Marcovaldo, or The Seasons in the City.
Derrida, J. Derek Attridge. London: Routledge, Eco, U. Dire quasi la stessa cosa. Milano: Bompiani, Even-Zohar, I. Federici, F. Amsterdam: Rodopi: Frasson-Marin, A. Geneva-Paris: Editions Slatkine: Glissant, E. Poetica del diverso. Roma: Meltemi. Guarnieri, G. Summer- Fall Holmes, J. Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Monaco, R.
Newmark, P. A Textbook of Translation. NY: Prentice Hall, Nida, E. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: Brill, Osimo, B. Manuale del traduttore. Milano: Hoepli, May 15, Thorne B. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House, Tymoczko, M. Translation and Power. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, Weaver, W. Biguenet, J, Schulte, R. Chicago: Chicago University Press, In una tranquilla mattina d'estate Tatiana e Dasha, sorelle ma soprattutto grandi amiche, si stanno confidando i segreti del cuore, quando alla radio il generale Molotov annuncia che la Germania ha invaso la Russia.
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Uscita per fare scorta di cibo, Tatiana incontra Alexander, un giovane ufficiale dell'Armata Rossa che parla russo con un lieve accento. Tra loro scatta subito un'attrazione reciproca e irresistibile. Ma si devono confrontare con le ferite, il dolore, le fatiche che si portano dietro. Nonostante abbiano un figlio meraviglioso, Anthony, si sentono estranei l'uno all'altra. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. His disillusionment is so great that he leaves Rome and sets out on a life of adventure in search of the truth about himself, the world and the Church.
In his wanderings through medieval Italy it is the year he encounters many situations, some happy and some terrifying, and manages to defeat all his enemies. Master and guide in his journey is a wise monk, Petro, who faced himself directly the ordeal bearing his faith up above his head. In this journey, Runo takes part into battles, discovers true love in the arms of a beautiful countryside girl, and, event.
It is also known as Pereira Declares and Declares Pereira. Its story follows Pereira, a journalist for the culture column of a small Lisbon newspaper, as he struggles with his conscience and the restrictions of the fascist regime of Antonio Salazar. Plot The novel is set in Portugal in the summer of , during Salazar's dictatorship. Pereira, an old journalist of a Portuguese newspaper - the Lisboa - who loves literature and practically spends all his life for it, reads an essay written by a young man about death.
He calls the young man, whose name is Monteiro Rossi, to ask him to write "advance obituaries" about great writers who could die at any moment. Not having ever been much concerned with politics, Pereira's world is turned upsi. It tells the story of how the former doctor Duca Lamberti is assigned to treat the alcoholic son of a millionaire, and begins to unveil the secrets surrounding the death of a young woman in the affluent world of Milan.
It was the first in a series of four novels about Dr. Duca Lamberti. An English translation by Howard Curtis was published in Kirkus Reviews. The story follows the escapades of a Florentine mechanic, a local "Don Giovanni," who romances several women simultaneously and secretly. His multiple relationships come to the women's attention, and they conceive a plot to punish the mechanic for his behavior. The film represented Zurlini's directorial debut, and was one of the first movies to be filmed in Florence.
In , a television miniseries adaptation aired on Italian television channel Rai Uno. The book is a metaphor for the genesis of the new democratic Italy that arose out of the ashes of the chaos of pre-fascist, fascist and war-torn Italy. The new Italy is governed by division and loss of conservative Christian values and the question is posed by Michele Tintori if the chaos is a result of this loss.
It was translated into English and published by Ignatius Press in It was published in Not too long afterwards, Riccetto is stealing from a blind beggar and a convent. Over the next few years, the reader follows along with Riccetto as he goes from robbery to scam to prostituting himself and back again while drifting around. During this time, many of his companions are killed or die off and there is constant immorality at hand. He is released afterwards and goes back to his s.
I ragazzi del massacro is a crime novel by the Italian writer Giorgio Scerbanenco. It revolves a murder case where a young Northern Italian woman is found dead and naked in a classroom. It was the third installment in Scerbanenco's Milan Quartet about the medical doctor and investigator Duca Lamberti.
External links Italian publicity page in Italian. Rinascimento privato Private Renaissance was the last novel written by the Italian writer Maria Bellonci. It won the Strega Prize in It is a fictional autobiography of Isabella d'Este, covering the major years of the Italian Renaissance from a private point of view within the court of the Duke of Mantua. Structure The book, like other works of Bellonci, is very well documented and accurately based on original documents that the author had the opportunity to study in detail.
However, this is not a historical reconstruction, like his previous book about Lucrezia Borgia, although that may perhaps have generated the idea for Private Renaissance, but it is a true historical novel, with a few inventions by the author. These include the introduction of the fictional character of Robert de la Pole, an English clergyman who writes to Isabella over several years from various points around Europe, who while fictional nevertheless appears to have been inspired by the historical English Cardinal Reginald Pole. He and his men storm and conquer Persian towns and harbours; even the legendary town of Halicarnassus is defeated.
Alexander's army marches on to the snow-covered Anatolia, where it records yet another few victories. Despite defeating the king Darius III, the city of Tyre and the Towers of Gaza prove to be formidable enemies, although they ultimately have to surrender to Alexander. The Macedonian army then heads south towards the mysterious and epic land of Egypt; and it's here, in the sands of the endless Libyan Desert, that the Oracle of Ammon lies.
And what the divine Oracle will reveal to Alexander will change his life forever. Set in Lisbon, the narrative centres on an Italian author who meets the spirit of a dead Portuguese poet. Tabucchi wrote the book in Portuguese. Alain Tanner directed a film adaptation, also called Requiem. An Italian translation was published the year after through Feltrinelli. Reception The book was reviewed in Publishers Weekly: "Chance encounters, ambivalent symbols, black humor and nonrational events pervade the narrative as Tabucchi's alter-ego meets his father as a young sailor; the ghost of Isabel, a former lover who committed suicide; Tadeus, who may have been the father of the child Isabel was carrying; and other colorful figures, alive and dead.
Finally, Tabucchi meet. The novel is the third and last of a trilogy in which Piccolo Mondo Antico is the first and Piccolo Mondo Moderno is the second. Recalled to a sense of his faith and his honour by an interview with his wife, who sent for him on his death-bed, he was plunged in remorse, and disappeared wholly from the knowledge of friends and relatives after depositing in the hands of a venerable priest, Don Gius.
The episode was first aired on 2 May The nephew panics, and, wanting to protect his uncle from the embarrassing circumstance of his death and not trusting himself to be able to move his uncle's body due to his epilepsy, calls his uncle's friend and political crony Attorney Rizzo for help. Rizzo assures the nephew he will take care of it, but then, instead of trying to help, attempts t. It tells the story of a general who is about to cut down an old forest for the sake of financial gain, but discovers that the forest is inhabited by invisible spirits.
Buzzati wrote the novel with inspiration from Arthur Rackham's illustrations for fairy tales and fables. Leicester: Troubador. Spartan original title: Lo Scudo di Talos is a historical fiction novel written by the Italian writer Valerio Massimo Manfredi in Because of the rigorous Spartan laws, Talos must be sacrificed to the wolves of Mount Taygetus as his physical weakness would not permit him to help the military city of Sparta during its many wars.
However, the young Talos miraculously survives. Nobody would have imagined that the two brothers would ever meet again and even less so that they would meet on a battlefield. Plot Spartan is the story of two brothers born in the military city-state of Sparta. The elder brother, Brithos, was a Spartan paragon; the younger brother, Talos, was crippled and deformed at birth. Because of the cruel and strict laws in vigour at Sparta, babies that were deformed, crippled or had any health issues would not serve the city-state its purpose, which was to.
It is the third novel of the internationally popular Inspector Montalbano series. The episode was the first of the series and aired on 6 May The exploded shots kill a Tunisian sailor who was on board the Italian boat. On the same day the former merchant Aurelio Lapecora is stabbed in a lift and Karima Moussa, a beautiful Tunisian cleaning lady, suddenly disappears. Thanks to the help. It is the second novel of the internationally popular Inspector Montalbano series. The episode was first aired on 9 May Plot summary The story starts off with "Tano Il Greco", a tired mafia boss, making a deal with Montalbano to stage his arrest in order for him to save face.
The arrest causes Montalbano to have to appear at a press conference and be considered for promotion, both of which he does not appreciate. At the same time there has also been a seemingly unrelated and mysterious theft of a grocery store delivery truck; the truck is discovered the next morning, abandoned, with the stolen goods still withi.
It was subsequently translated into English by William Weaver in The novel is set in the city of Turin, and deals with the investigation of commissioner Santamaria about the murder of an architect of dubious fame, Garrone. Among the protagonists are Anna Carla Dosio, a beautiful and rich woman, and her friend Massimo Campi, a rich homosexual, who, while playing an intellectual game, had the architect Garrone killed in a letter.
Later in the novel, Campi's boyfriend, Lello, a municipal clerk who was investigating by himself on the murder, is also killed. In the end of the novel, suspicions against the two are raised when Santamaria discovers that Garrone had been killed for his blackmailing, related to a project for a new quarter of buildings, against an old woman.
The book is notable for its ironic portrait of Turin's bourgeoisie. It is also considered o. The desert of the Tartars is a novel by Italian author Dino Buzzati, published in The English translation was done by Stuart C.
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The novel was ranked 29th on Le Monde's Books of the Century list. Plot The plot of the novel is Drogo's lifelong wait for a great war in which his life and the existence of the fort can prove its usefulness. The human need for giving life meaning and the soldier's desire for glory are themes in the novel. Drogo is posted to the remote outpost overlooking a desolate Tartar desert; he spends his career waiting for the barbarian horde rumored to live beyond the desert.
Without noticing, Drogo finds that in his watch over the fort he has let years and decades pass and that, while his old friends in the city have had children, married, and lived full lives, he h. An English translation by William Weaver was published in Plot summary In fascist Italy in , Detective Francesco Ingravallo, known to friends as Don Ciccio, is called in to investigate the murder of Liliana Balducci, a well-to-do woman who happens to be a close friend.
As Don Ciccio and his colleagues dig deeper into the grisly murder, the mechanics of the detective novel take a backseat to the wordplay and experimentation with which Gadda presents a panorama of life in early fascist Rome. The Via Veneto Papers is a memoir collection by Ennio Flaiano, originally published in Italian in , with a new expanded edition by Rizzoli in and translated into English by John Satriano in In his antic, melancholy irony, Flaiano wrote as if he were time itself, satirizing the present moment.
This is the first English language edition of the Italian original La solitudine del satiro lit. The book is divided into three sections: The first, The Via Veneto Papers, is an evocation of the Rome of La Dolce Vita, of the early stages in the writing and the realising of the film itself, and, through a series of brilliant little sketches, a commemoration of the aging Italian poet Vincenzo Cardarelli, skeptical survivor from an ea.
Jekyll and Mister Hyde. Plot Tino is an orphan living in a boarding house. A few days before turning seventeen he goes back to his hometown, Turin, to prepare for his graduation exam, and he is hosted by Aunt Galla and Uncle Serafino Calandra in their big house situated at the foot of a hill. No one has ever seen him, except for Uncle Serafino, who takes care of him, feeds him, washes him and pa. It is known as Betrayal in the United Kingdom.
It tells the story of a former medical doctor who becomes involved in a criminal plot involving a mysterious suitcase left with him. Publication The novel was originally published through Garzanti in Milan in It has been described as one of the great works of twentieth century literature, comparable with James Joyce, and in line with the tradition of Rabelais, Sterne and Diderot.
They live in a vil. It is the fourth novel of the internationally popular Inspector Montalbano series. The episode was the second of the series and aired on 13 May Plot summary.