J-Honey Introduces: A Spoonful of Honey

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Despite the well-known role of honey bees in environmental monitoring, studies using these hymenopterans as active samplers of airborne particulate matter PM are completely lacking, even if the morphological description and the physico-chemical characterization of PM collected by the bees would provide accurate information on both the emission source s and the potential health hazards [ 9 — 11 ]. Indeed, this is a key point for developing adequate control strategies in order to reduce the impact of pollutants on both the environment and public health.

Studies on atmospheric pollutants include the vast field of airborne particulate matter. PM is broadly defined as a complex mixture of airborne chemical components which are commonly classified by particle size. They include ultra-fine particles up to 0. PM can be directly emitted as primary compounds or formed as secondary compounds by chemical transformation or condensation of gases such as SOx, NOx, VOCs and ammonia.

Primary sources comprise both natural sources, such as windblown dust, volcanic eruptions, forest fires and sea spray, and anthropogenic activities. The latter represent a broader domain, ranging from agricultural operations to industrial processes, mining and postmining activities, combustion of wood and fossil fuels, incineration of wastes and motor traffic vehicles, aircrafts, ships, trains , etc. Over the years, several human diseases have been linked to PM exposure, which may be responsible for short-term, long-term and cumulative health effects [ 16 — 20 ].

Neonatal premature mortality, morbidity, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, asthma and lung cancer are among the more frequent effects observed in patients exposed to airborne particles [ 16 , 18 , 19 ]. Toxicological researches have shown that, at a cellular level, PM may induce cytotoxicity, neurotoxicity, mutagenicity, stimulation of pro-inflammatory factors, and even epigenetic alterations of the DNA with consequences on gene expression [ 19 , 21 , 22 ].

Moreover, the size of the particles and their surface area determine the potential to elicit the adverse biological effects. Ultra-fine particles are of much concern, as they can penetrate deeper into the airways of the respiratory tract, enter blood circulation, and then distribute to most organs, including the brain [ 19 , 21 ]. The study was carried out in a post-mining area of Sulcis-Iglesiente, in the municipality of Iglesias Carbonia-Iglesias province, Sardinia, Italy.

Sulcis-Iglesiente is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants mostly metals and metalloids deriving from past mining activities on the health of the resident population [ 23 , 24 ]. The dissected alimentary canal of the hymenopterans was also investigated to detect inorganic particles potentially ingested during feeding.

Its surroundings are known for the baryte and Pb-Zn ore deposits, extensively exploited during the Nineteenth Century and until recent times through dozens of mines. As a result of those intense mining operations, several million metric tons of ore material were extracted, leaving to broad daylight extensive tailings. This is especially the case of the Monteponi mining complex, located immediately West of Iglesias.

The hill—which is subjected to preservation regulations as an industrial archaeology site—mainly contains iron oxy-hydroxides associated with Zn-silicates and carbonates, gypsum, and toxic elements such as Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Mn, and Ba [ 26 — 27 ]. In total, the RM cover an area of about 15 ha with a volume of , m 3 , occupying a major part of the lowest, West—South West flank of the mined hill of Monteponi.

At the present state, the RM sediments are only contained by wooden bulkheads. The steep slopes, along with the fine grain size of the material, promote intense weathering of the postmining materials. During rain events, runoff transfers the sediment load to the surrounding areas via the San Giorgio creek, which lies immediately downhill [ 26 — 27 ]. North of Monteponi, the open pit of Cungiaus is the largest of Sardinia, covering more than 10 ha of surface. Past mining activities exploited an extensive mass about one million m 3 of calamines since the year of discovery to the first half of the Twentieth Century [ 25 , 28 ].

Besides the past intensive mining activity, Sulcis-Iglesiente is also exposed to emissions by industrial plants, mostly located along the South West seashore industrial district of Portovesme. The main industrial plants include different units: a sector for the production of alumina from bauxite and the production of aluminum by electrolysis of alumina currently in standby ; electric power stations, composed by a coal-powered generation plant and an oil-powered plant; and a Pb-Zn smelter that uses steelwork dusts for Zn extraction.

This type of smelter is known to produce post-processing atmospheric fall-out impacting on the immediate surroundings [ 29 ]. At the beginning of November , twenty worker bees were sampled alive with a butterfly net, while returning to their hives. The climate was characterized by warm and sunny weather.

Honey bees were collected at 11 a. The bees were immediately put in soda glass capped vials Chromacol Limited , stored on ice in order to keep them inactive, and quickly brought to lab for sample preparation. In order to analyze the gut content and the intestinal wall, the remaining body thorax and abdomen was put in sterile saline solution and the alimentary canal dissected.

Later, honey stomach, ventriculum and rectum were longitudinally cut, gently opened and air-dried, in order to preserve the gut content. Worker bees were sampled at 1 p. The weather was partly cloudy. This control site CS was far from any known emitting sources of PM i. The hives were placed along the creek floodplain, and the surrounding hills consisted mainly of sandstones, marls and calcarenites, with noticeable clayey layers [ 31 ].

All honey bees used in this study were collected in the presence of the beekeepers and with the permission of the owners of the private land were the hives were located. The authors are not aware of any restriction regarding the sampling of soil sediments in the RM and CUN sites. Main choice criterion of the sites was the exposure to wind uptake. BNG samples were collected up to 10 m from the hives. While BNG site undoubtedly fell within the foraging range of the apiary, CUN and RM possibly did not because they were quite distant from the apiary, i.

In addition, foraging bees were exclusively collecting honeydew from holm oaks Quercus ilex , which were absent in both sites. In each candidate site, 3 to 5 samples were collected: shallow pits were excavated down to max 5 cm and up to 0. Samples were air-dried and an aliquot about 1 g was mixed with all other samples from the same site in order to obtain a representative group sample. The obtained mixture was then poured and mounted onto SEM stubs using double adhesive carbon tape.

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Five replicates were analyzed for each soil sample. The CS soil composition was not measured, but derived by literature [ 31 , 33 ]. Soils of the area are mostly developed over fluvial sediments of various grain sizes, ranging from clays to conglomerate of sedimentary origin Holocene—Upper Pleistocene, and older [ 31 , 33 ]. SEM-EDX measurements were carried out on both the dissected portions wings, head, hind legs, alimentary canal of the honey bees and sediment samples.

No coatings or other treatments were applied. Secondary Electrons SE and BackScattered Electrons BSE images, as well as EDX point analyses, were acquired in alternating sequence at the same conditions of 20 kV with a nominal beam current of about 1 nA, in order to provide the chemical composition, morphology, surface characteristics and size of the particles. Each EDX spectrum was then interpreted according to a mineralogical point of view, also taking into account both the simultaneous presence of multiple phases and mineral content of the surrounding geological formations.

A detailed investigation of all the worker bees sampled in Sardinia revealed high contamination due to thousands of inorganic particles on the external body districts i. In all specimens, a large amount of particles was observed on the fore wings upper surface , along the costal margin lining the first branch of the radial vein and the apex Figs 2A and 3. A, B Fore wings of Sardinian worker bees displaying PM bright spots most concentrated along the costal margin lining the first branch of the radial vein and the apex.

BSE images. C A detail of particles gathered along the first branch of the radial vein. SE image. Fewer particles were dispersed on the remaining sector of the fore wings Fig 3A and 3B and on the hind wings S1 Fig. Heads showed particles almost exclusively along the medial plane, in a narrow area nearly between the bases of the antennae and the median ocellus Figs 2A and 4 ; PM was also observed on the scape of each antenna Fig 4.

BSE image.

On the third pairs of legs, the coverage of inorganic particles was always rather diffused along the most distal segments of the inner surface, and involved the structures dedicated to the body grooming, pollen collection, and wax handling e. B Distal tarsal segments. C Detail of the structures involved in the grooming behavior and pollen collection.

The pecten spines arrow and the pyramidal spines of the auricle arrowhead convey and pack the pollen into the pollen basket located on the outer surface of the leg. The pollen comb pc , composed by transverse rows of stiff spines, brush off pollen from the lateral surface of the body and collect wax scales from the abdomen. Where present, the ultra-fine and fine particles were uniformly spread across the scanned surfaces Fig 6 ; EDX analysis revealed that they were always fragments of baryte.

Finer particles were often observed adhering to and covering the bigger ones, thus forming complex, multi-grain aggregates of different mineral phases Fig 7. A Multi-grain aggregate of diverse mineral phases, including fine and ultra-fine grains of baryte asterisks; EDX spectrum , and bigger particles of a phyllosilicate arrows , whose EDX spectrum is shown in B. C A multi-grain aggregate mainly composed of baryte. D A detail showing fragments of Na-rich plagioclase arrowheads and its EDX spectrum note the contamination of baryte and possibly dolomite.

Frequently, the particles were embedded in organic matrix only C and O detected , Fig 8. SEM observation and X-ray spectroscopy pointed out specific morphological and chemical features of the grains. On Sardinian bees natural mineralogical phases and anthropogenic compounds have been identified Table 1. Moreover, two mineral phases containing Ba and Pb, i. A SE and BSE images of a galena triangular fragment asterisks , placed next to a rounded iron particle arrowheads. B SE image of the rounded particle mainly constituted of iron; on its surface partially embedded into organic matrix are detectable nanometric grains of baryte and plagioclases arrowheads.

The Pb and S peaks are related to the galena particle asterisk described above. In addition, on the honey bee body, rare cubic crystals of salt halite were observed Fig Characterization with EDX defined their chemistry as either Fe-rich particles or alumino-silicate Fig Note its scaly surface. B BSE image of a smooth sphere mainly constituted of iron. Several fine and ultra-fine particles of baryte brighter fragments are scattered all around. C SE image of rounded particle mainly constituted of iron, partially embedded into organic matrix.

Other anthropogenic particles showed irregular shapes and consisted of Fe or Fe combined with Zn Fig A Particle mainly containing Fe found on a honey bee head. On control bees, electronic scan detected very few PM compared to Sardinian bees , generally located along the costal and apical margins of the fore wings S3 Fig. Surprisingly, the dissected alimentary canal of the hymenopterans both from Sardinia and control sites did not feature any apparent PM like that carried on the body surface.

Inside the ventriculum and in the Malpighian tubules wall close to gut of all bees, only spherocrystals or spherites i. A, B An opened ventriculum, showing high concentration of spherocrystals inside the epithelium. C, D A detail of the epithelium. E, F Sperocrystals in a Malpighian tubule. These granules were usually grouped in grape-shaped clusters, and ranged between about nm and 1. Sediment analyses deliberately focused on the mineralogical composition of the wind available topsoil and top sediment cover.

The RM sites were characterized by absent soil coverage, with few exceptions i. More rarely, gypsum was detected S6D Fig. General grain habitus was subangular, reflecting cleavage and lattice structure of the individual mineral phases. Most grains were covered by a Fe-oxide layer: this attributes to the Red Muds hill a typical yellow-reddish appearance.

CUN sampling sites were located on an abandoned Pb-Zn mine dump. A portion of the dump was being colonized by shrubs and it was characterized by a thin layer of weakly, patchy developed topsoil, featuring small amounts of organic matter not quantified. BNG sites were the most developed, soil-wise. The sampled topsoils contained visible dark organic matter field observation. Other phases, like quartz and baryte, were only observed as part of the aggregates. During their flights and foraging activity, honey bees come into contact with different types of environmental pollutants, including airborne PM which is eventually collected on their body surface.

In our study many particles resulted embedded in an organic matrix, most likely related to epicuticular waxes, i. Brown, Tommy - That Cat Farr, Little Joey - Rock'n'roll Santa Cleary, Eddie - I Don't Care Burch, Woody - Aquagell Blues Rel-yea's, The - Good, Good Lovin' Rel-yea's, The - The Rugged Rock Mitcham, Ray - Out Yonder Mods, The - Stone Henge Tampellas, The - I Love Girls Channel, Bruce - Come On, Baby Stevens, Carl - Hillbilly Man Gray, Duane - Come Home Hess, Bennie - Wild Hog Hop Lindsey,lewis - The Push Lillie, Lonnie - Truck Driver's Special Grand, K.

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Preachin' Blues Ramblin' On My Mind Stones In My Passway Traveling Riverside Blues Milkcow's Calf Blues Me And The Devil Blues Hellhound On My Trail Levee Camp Blues Government Fleet Blues Walkin' Blues Shetland Pony Blues Special Rider Blues Low Down Dirty Dog Blues Depot Blues American Defense Am I Right Or Wrong? Walking Blues Country Farm Blues The Pony Blues The Jinx Blues Part 1 The Jinx Blues Part 2 High Water Everywhere Part 2 A Spoonful Blues Mississippi Boweavil Blues Some Summer Day Rattlesnake Blues Hang It On The Wall Jim Lee Part 1 Prayer Of Death Part 1 High Sheriff Blues Dry Well Blues Revenue Man Blues Elder Greene Blues Mindreader Blues Sic Em Dogs On Unknown Title Crowing Rooster All Night Long Blues Rowdy Blues Watch And Pray Snatch And Grab It M And O Blues Dark Road Blues Forty Four Louisiana Blues Long Distance Call Honey Bee She Moves Me Still A Fool Standing Around Crying Baby Please Don't Go I'm Your Hoochie Coochie Man It sounds like you overshot hard crack stage.

Did you use a candy thermometer and a double boiler? Those would give you more control. Thanks for the post. Yes we have had great results with medihoney, my dad had a huge diabetic ulcers on legs. The wound specialist we got was awesome. She used Medihoney taught me how to do it in between visits. Cleared it up. Took a bit but worked! Not much scaring. Now when he starts a skin tear, I use it right away. Interesting part here, the insurance was not willing to pay for it as care. We fought them and they did send some. I now use it one my family, and also on my face too.

Great stuff. Need to try. Cindee — thanks for sharing your story. I may have to give them a try once harvest season calms down. I used manuka honey on my cat and it worked. Whenever he got scratched or bitten by another cat his wounds tended to abcess. So I started putting manuka on his wounds right away, about 3 times a day for 3 days, and the wounds never got infected or abcessed. I use honey in my home made cough syrup, I always use local and it seems to do the trick! Sometimes it even tastes yummy! Thanks for all f the information! I have had some problems with teeth and gums.

I think I have some sort of infection. Will the honey help this?

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Yes honey helps mouth problems. I have oral lichen planus and honey has helped me a lot when other things has failed me. I hope this helps. Hi, just wondering how you kept cavities at bay when using honey for lichen.

Also, do you happen to know if the form of lichen you have is related to lichen sclerosis of genitals? Cindy, you may find this reference on lichen sclerosus helpful. Genital legions may be lichen sclerosus or lichen planus. I have also oil pulled….. My Dad was a beekeeper so needless to say honey was a staple in the house. We used it to cure just about everything. Our cough syrup was simple. It was Lemon and honey. I remember also adding a small amount of whiskey, brandy or whatever you had on hand. Also in the winter, you could add hot water or a tea bag and have a great drink.

My Mom used to make a candy that was out of this worlk.

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She lost the recipe but it was very simple. It consisted of powdered milk, peanut butter, honey. Formed into balls, rolled in powdered sugar. Then placed in the freezer to set. Thanks for sharing your memories, Becky. The coconut will absorb some of the moisture and will be dryer so I would either add a little more honey or eat it up faster. Absolutely the one thing I will never be without is honey. We use it for people and animals here on the farm, inside and out. I sliced my fingernail open with a t-post — honey.

Hubby sliced his hand moving some metal sheeting — honey. My daughter cut her hand on a cat food can, which of course was filthy — honey. My youngest daughter had a fairly severe injury to the inside of her mouth — cottonballs soaked in honey and warm water, packed them between her teeth and cheek and the wound had healed with no visible injury at all within 48 hours.

In all cases, the wounds healed incredibly fast with little to no scarring. Just this past week I wrote on my farm blog about coming home from town and a couple days later I knew I was getting sick. I drank honey and cinnamon tea with orange peels anti-bacterials and vit C , all day long for two days and beat the illness back.

I am not selling anything, and I am not a beekeeper. Just a mom who has seen the amazing healing results using honey. I would guess that any local raw honey is just as good as that highly marketed Manuka honey. Thanks for sharing your experience, Tina. Please be careful when you purchase honey. I suggest finding a Local Honey Source farm, farmers market, CSA in your town or neighboring town to get source your honey.

Nothing like local honey AND it will inoculate you against local allergies as well! I buy in bulk from a local apiary, but I know that can be a challenge for some. It is a real problem for many of our New Zealand brands, and there have been many cases now documented of honey fraud.

I agree with many here, get your local wildflower or multiflroa honey and support your local beekeeper! In the U. Can you tell me of a good manuka honey for internal things like stomach issues, ulcers, etc. Thank you. According to FTC guidelines, as a blogger I am not allowed to give out specific health advice. Most of us have many things in our environment, such as processed foods, environmental toxins and antibiotics, that cause the bad microbes to grow and the good ones to die off. Eating good quality food less processed, plenty of veggies and some fruits, GMO free if you can and including prebiotic and probiotic live culture foods in your diet can help restore conditions in the gut that promote healing.

Is there a trick with this honey because it has numbers and letters on them. Just not sure what brand or how to pick one. Really want to try it.


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A digital sampler or hard copy is available and our trade discounts are good. Let me know if you would like more information. Thank you, MaryEllen bookpubco. Where do you get your Manuka honey? Hope I spelled that right, lol. I am nervous about ordering stuff like that because their are so many scams out there.

A good local, raw wildflower honey is also excellent. These are neighbors I know I can trust. Living in Australia, i find Manuka easy to buy, and locate. And i also use it in homemade cough syrups. My health food shop also stocks pure, non heated, raw organic honey, complete with propolis, also effective for anti bacterial treatments.

We are spoiled here for pure, wholesome, healthy, organic honey. Honey is such a perfect natural food. Love it. This is a great article with excellent comments as well. My baby used to have endless sore throats unti he started having honey daily after 12 months and now he is a super healthy baby boy. Seriously local honey does miracles to my family and I am so thankful for that. I have been using medical manuka honey to heal wounds for many years.

Feel free to write me with any questions you may have. My website is in Norwegian, but I am working on translating it to English.. Yesterday, bought Wedderspoons Manuka honey K factor12 at a local store. It is hard to know if this is genuine or not. Any suggestions on the right type of Manuka Honey to buy and really, really would appreciate advice on how to treat the wound with honey; how much to use, how to spread the honey and dress the wound, how often to treat and what to expect and approximate days of usage before improvement that is diminishing smell, reduced fluid flow and general sealing of the wound can be seen.

Have to spread the honey on the dressing because it will hurt the dog if honey is poured on the wound and then spread. When my husband severely burned the palm of his hand on a hot engine, creating a large, deep blister, we coated the area in honey and changed the bandage daily for two days. He found that when he unwrapped the bandage, the honey had all dried, and it was no longer sticky.

After two days, the wound had healed so well that he no longer felt the need to use honey and switched to a simply large bandage.

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Change the wrap daily, or sooner if it becomes soiled. Hi from New Zealand. A couple of comments from the home of Manuka. I would not use any honey that can be squeezed out of a bottle, call me cynical but I have seen far too many lab results showing those clear runny products have been watered down with sugar water. Unless you know the beekeeper, leave the clear runny stuff alone. There are many benefits from muli-flora honey, and even common single source ones…but my personal preference is multi flora, bringing many potential components into the mix. I have used it on large wounds on my horses, and even the veterinarians will tell you to use it to promote healthy new wound tissue.

This works extremely well; it allows the body to get on with the healing and repair process without being disturbed by frequent bandage changes, which can introduce new contaminants. Just a note — I did know the beekeeper who provided the honey in the squeeze bottle directly.

He does part of his harvest like that for gift giving and people who like a small container to dispense on the table. Most of my honey I buy in bulk. If you can get the dog to keep the bandage on, yes, it should help. A number of my homesteading friends have used honey to treat animal wounds. Thank you very much for the quick reply Laurie.

I really appreciate it. Today I went and bought a small pot of manuka honey. I made sure it was pure. It was cloudy and thick like creamed honey. I put it on the wound 9 hours ago and the swelling has gone down already. I really hope this works. That would be super amazing. You make no mention of honey used to treat eye problems.

I use runny honey to reduce the irritation of blepharitis, a chronic condition for which there is no known cure, and would also use it on sties and other eye infections. I was wondering if this would help on boils on someones butt. But my mom is diabetic. And she has one we cant get rid of. I was hoping this might help. What are your thoughts on this. Useing that manuke honey. Thank you for your article n I learned a lot thru the various comments. I need to ask if anyone can advise.

Let me share about my sis. My 67 year old sister is diagnosed with stage 4 vulva cancer, after chemo n radio therapy, she developed very bad bacteria infection which leaves her with a large hole in her groin. Her case is complicated as she has to change her dressing at least 3 times a day as she is wearing a diaper. Plenty of fluids unless you are told otherwise by your doctor is normally a good idea. Would it just be applied a couple times a day?

You could try it, but long term diet changes and gut healing is probably a better bet. On nov27th I had an abscess drained at the ER it turned out to be a staph infection. Now today December 5th the last few days my open wound has been itchy the foul smell is going away. I got scared and worried and I called urgent care they are telling me to get it drained again?

Which is weird everything has drained out the past few days. So I decided to buy the manuka honey today.


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Or on the dressing gauze? Will it help my wound to heal faster and also drain whatever is left in my open wound? Sorry for my little story. Thanks in advanced. The honey can be applied to gauze and then to the wound, or directly to the wound. Please be careful and seek medical attention if the would gets worse or does not improve. It should draw out moisture from the wound and speed healing. Again, if you do not see improvement, please see a doctor. You can cover the wound in honey and bandage it, but it would be a very good idea to see a trained healthcare provider, as it sounds like you may have an infection.

Please see a doctor! You may still have something stuck in the wound, and it sounds like it has a deep infection that may kill you. This could be very serious.



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