When all the candles are ablaze, everyone must stop in amazement and rejoice at what has been wrought. This is not a tale told by a man who is opposed to the Jewish character of the Jews. I want to bring up my children with what might be called the historical God I can conceive of an omnipresent will, for I see it at work in the physical world. I see it as I can see the functioning of a muscle. The world is the body and God is the functioning of it. The ultimate purpose I do not and need not know.
For me it is enough that it is something higher And although these references are erratic, uncertain and generally embarrassed, they are sometimes also straightforward in the belief they express:. By means of our state, we can educate our people for tasks which still lie beyond our horizon. For God would not have preserved our people for so long if we did not have another destiny in the history of mankind.
Obviously, none of this means that Herzl became an Orthodox Jew, either in his observance or in his beliefs. Certainly, he did not find Jewish customs and traditions and ideas easy to accept, but he was far from being an opponent of such traditions. He had absorbed ineradicable elements from the cultures of the nations among which his intellectual pursuits had taken him This gave rise to many doubts Perhaps the generation that had grown up under the influence of other cultures was no longer capable of that return [to Judaism] which he had discovered as the solution.
But the next generation, provided it were given the right guidance early enough, would be able to do so. He therefore tried to make sure that his own children, at least, would be shown the right way. He was going to give them a Jewish education from the very beginning. And far from seeing this as a personal matter for his family, Herzl understood that the raising of a nation of Jewish children, who would develop a unique Jewish character, was one of the essential reasons for founding a Jewish state.
The atrocities of the Middle Ages were unprecedented, and the people who withstood those tortures must have had some great strength, an inner unity which we have lost.
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A generation which has grown apart from Judaism does not have this unity. It can neither rely upon our past nor look to our future. That is why we shall once more retreat into Judaism and never again permit ourselves to be thrown out of this fortress We shall thereby regain our lost inner wholeness and along with it a little character—our own character. Not a Marrano-like, borrowed, untruthful character, but our own. In , a year before his death, the Zionist leader returned to this subject in a letter in which he scored Jewish life in the Western countries as being blighted not because of anti-Semitism, but because the possibility of developing a unique character and contributing to the world as Jews had been eradicated.
As he wrote:. What political, social, material or moral influence do the Jews have on It may happen that people of Jewish descent exert a certain influence However, they do this only as individuals who deny any connection with their real national traditions. The Jews of today Only my comrades, the Zionists, wish to be Jewish Jews. Such premature determinations, he argued, would only serve to alienate one segment of Jewry or another. This is among the reasons that The Jewish State , which is so rich in detail on political and economic subjects, is starkly lacking in particulars concerning the way in which the return to the Jewish heritage would express itself once the state had been established.
Even where Herzl had something important to say about the Jewish culture of the state, he speaks only in the vaguest terms so as to avoid unnecessary controversy.
The Jews who espouse our idea of a state will rally around the Society of Jews. Thereby, they will give it the authority to speak in the name of the Jews and negotiate with governments on their behalf.
To put it in the terminology of international law, the Society will be recognized as a state-creating power, and this in itself will mean the formation of the state. On the contrary, the Jewish state would be established with a particular purpose:. At present, the Jewish people is prevented by its dispersion from conducting its own political affairs. Yet it is in a condition of more or less severe distress in a number of places.
It needs, above all things, a guardian And that is the Society of Jews The commission was considering the imposition of restrictions on Russian-Jewish immigration—restrictions that Herzl believed would mean a resounding defeat for Jewish interests, signaling to the world that even a liberal country such as England could not tolerate more than a certain number of Jews.
By publicizing his desire to grant automatic citizenship for immigrant Jews, he was demonstrating how his embryonic Jewish state could do much more than serve as a safe haven for Jews fleeing persecution. The workings of the principle of Jewish guardianship were also evident in documents that Herzl and his colleagues prepared as the basis of negotiations with the imperial powers. On the basis of such a charter, Herzl expected to found a Jewish colony or settlement as a prelude to full Jewish independence. Since these drafts described the actual terms under which the Zionists hoped to establish a Jewish state, they are among the more compelling indicators that we have of the kind of state Herzl wanted to establish.
Of these, the most significant is the proposed charter submitted by Herzl to the British government on July 13, , which led to the offer by the British Foreign Office to negotiate over the establishment of a Jewish colony in British East Africa. The Zionists had been hoping to persuade the British to allow them to establish the settlement in the British-controlled Sinai Peninsula, but this option had fallen through two months earlier.
Prepared by the English Zionist leaders Leopold Greenberg, Joseph Cowen and Israel Zangwill, together with the British lawyer and parliamentarian David Lloyd George—later the prime minister who would actually establish Palestine as the Jewish national home—this draft charter provided that:. The settlement would have a Jewish name and a Jewish flag. Thus the colony that Herzl envisioned as eventually gaining independence was not to be a neutral non-Jewish polity that happened to have a majority of Jews.
To this end it would have Jewish leaders, a governmental form Jewish in character, and the ability to adopt the provisions of Jewish law. And these Jewish characteristics would be represented by particularist symbols such as a Jewish flag. The draft charter that we submit today on July 13 on Downing Street contains these demands In fact, it is fair to say that it would have been worthless to him.
Shall we, then, end up by having a theocracy? We shall permit no theocratic inclinations on the part of our clergy to raise their heads. We shall know how to restrict them to their temples, just as we shall restrict our professional soldiers to their barracks. The army and the clergy shall be honored to the extent that their noble functions require and deserve it.
But they will have no privileged voice in the state What, then, did Herzl actually believe concerning the role of the Jewish religion and its representatives in the Jewish state? That is, not every people would necessarily have the same kind of positive elements at the basis of its civilization. Indeed, a people such as the Germans might be divided religiously and geographically, and its essence might be best expressed in the German language.
The Swiss, on the other hand, lacked a common language, but were nevertheless united by history and territory. This is not to say that Herzl opposed efforts to forge Jewish culture beyond the bounds of religion—the revival of the Hebrew language, Jewish art, Jewish literature and a Jewish academia. Herzl supported them all, and he wished to contribute to the Jewish cultural revival himself. It would be Judaism.
The significance of this idea could easily be seen after the founding of the Zionist Organization in Herzl established the ZO as a democratic movement with a mass membership and annual elections. And yet despite this concern for the welfare of the stranger, Herzl was from his first steps as a Jewish nationalist unwilling to accommodate Jews who had converted to Christianity, whom he considered to have betrayed not only the Jewish faith, but the Jewish people.
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Let the cowardly, assimilated, baptized Jews remain We faithful Jews, however, will once again become great. Nor was this just rhetoric. It was policy. The Zionist Organization would not accept baptized Jews as members. Thus for Herzl, loyalty to the Jewish religion was at the heart of Jewish nationalism.
And it was this fact, so central to his thought and his politics, which dictated the place he envisioned for organized Judaism in the Jewish state. As he wrote in his diary,. The rabbis will be pillars of my organization, and I shall honor them for it. They will arouse the people, instruct them The rabbis would be the leaders of every Jewish community, spreading word of the great event of the return to Palestine from their pulpits:. The appeal [to emigrate] will be included in the religious service, and properly so.
Archived from the original on 8 December The Pity of it All. New York: Metropolitan Books. Stefan Zweig — Wie ich ihn erlebte. Berlin: F.
Theodor Herzl (Herzl, Theodor, ) | The Online Books Page
Herbig Verlag. Transcription of England and Wales national marriage registrations index — Retrieved 17 December Salzburger Nachrichten in German.
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Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 15 March Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 23 February The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 August The New York Times. The United Press. Retrieved 28 November Born into a wealthy Jewish family in Vienna, Zweig turned from casual globe-trotting to literature after World War I, wrote prolifically, smoothly, successfully in many forms.
His books banned by the Nazis, he fled to Britain in with the arrival of German troops, became a British subject in , moved to the U. He was never outspoken against Nazism, believed artists and writers should be independent of politics. Friends in Brazil said he left a suicide note explaining that he was old, a man without a country, too weary to begin a new life.
His last book: Brazil: Land of the Future. The Guardian. Introduction to "The Royal Game". New York: Obelisk. Just a pedestrian stylist". Retrieved 26 September Stefan Zweig. Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 3 February — via kirjasto. London Review of Books. The publishers of our newspaper cannot bring themselves to acquire your AMutterrecht . As a novelette it is much too long a[nd] in our novel section - in which we bring pieces by Ohnet!
For this you were surely prepared from the beginning, because you did not send the originally requested short i. What has to be excused and what I would like to excuse with these open lines is the duration of the reply. Please consider kindly that the two gentlemen, who in addition to me make the decision in such cases, are badly overworked a[nd] stay up night after night.
The management of a large newspaper takes a terrible toll on the people who run it. Now, if we could not bring this story B perhaps you can please us with a short one. Three to four hundred lines can be accommodated immediately. I would urgently wish even for this because it would be the best proof for me that you are not angry. We feel ourselves so much in your debt that this fact alone guarantees a quick decision. After checking in vain the newspaper's issues for April and May for a clue, this author found on June 1 what he had been looking for.
On Page 1 of Nr. A novel by Wilhelm Jensen. Among others there arises the question: Did Theodor Herzl see, read, shorten, possibly alter Jensen's manuscript? Did he see in the novella only Aan old sweet story or did he realize that there was some relevance to Freud's work? We don't know yet who prepared Jensen's manuscript for publication by the NFP. A comparison between the newspaper and the book version of Gradiva shows many spelling changes.
Other than that, however, the book version is practically identical with the newspaper version, that is, it was neither expanded nor otherwise altered. Important differences between newspaper and book are shown in Appendix AC. They have not been translated. Some are clearly errors by the Viennese typesetter: June 1, p.
The misspelling of ABertgang as ABartgang , pp. The most important and significant difference between the newspaper and the book versions consists of o n e word: In the NFP on page 33, third column on June 15 we find: A. It is much more likely that AGequadder , which means rather foolish or idle talk, would have been the word used by Wilhelm Jensen in his manuscript, but that a Viennese editor Herzl?
AGequadder is used mainly in the Rhineland, and Jensen may have heard this expression from his parents-in-law who were Rhinelanders; he may just as easily have heard it from his good friend Wilhelm Raabe.