Seller Inventory GEB More information about this seller Contact this seller Condition: Assez bon. Seller Inventory CLA Seller Inventory LYM Seller Inventory Seller Inventory ZAE Seller Inventory PAZ Seller Inventory PAU Seller Inventory GEA Seller Inventory LIB Mass Market Paperback.
Condition: Used: Good. Published by Harlequin Historical About this Item: Harlequin Historical, Paperback or Softback. Condition: New. The Warrior's Viking Bride. Seller Inventory BBS Published by Hamburg Cora, About this Item: Hamburg Cora, Sprache: Deutsch Gewicht in Gramm: Condition: Comme neuf. Seller Inventory TOB Published by Cora Verlag, Afterwards they ascended the Seine. Online library of Toulouse, licence:public domain. The inhabitants of Rouen asked Rollo to protect them from other Vikings.
The bishop Witton was negotiating with Rollo and the latter accepted. Rollo won, he and his men plundered Melun afterwards. More and more Norvegians and Danish were settling in the region around Rouen and this region got the name Normandy, region of Normans. Rollo expanded his dominion along the Risle , along the Orne and in his forces besieged Bayeux and took it.
The contract warranted Rollo the reign over Neustria. Neustria was situated in the northwest of France between Loire and Schelde. Above that, the contract allowed Rollo to plunder Brittany. Rollo promised in return to protect France from other Vikings. At the time of this contract, Rollo was over 50 years old. Rollo converted to Christianity and allocated land to his loyal followers. Rollo was buried in Rouen after his death in Gisant recumbent effigy of Rollo in the cathedral of Rouen. Many omens presaged death to the people in Normandy, their relatives or acquaintances in the 19th century.
Someone would decease if an owl cries near the house, strangely enough, this portent seems to have the same meaning in Mexico. Someone would perish if a hen crows like a cock, if three magpies stand together or if a persons hears three knocks on the flooring of his sleeping room. Different omens appeared in dreams to presage death, dreams of teeth, of priests or of laundry. If a corpse had open eyes, somone else would decease as well. A mole, that was digging in a basement or kitchen with hard packed clay floor announced the near death of an inhabitant.
If a dead bird fell in the chimney, a member of the family would perish. If the fattened pig died before slaughter, someone in the house would pass away. To find out if someone, that was far away, for example in a war, had died, people held a key with two fingers over the Gospel according to John. If the key was not moving, the person was dead. To show to the neighbours, that someone had deceased in a house, a white cloth was hung in the window. Detail of a tomb slab of the 14th century.
Two angels carry a soul up to heaven. Philbert, unknown artist died over years ago. The soul of someone that was hung or hung himself, stayed between heaven and earth. Souls like that often came back to haunt the living. Up to the 20th century it was custom to go to the source of Catherine of Alexandria in Lisors Eure, Haute-Normandie and ask her, to help to find a partner, by praying and leaving her donations of coins and needles.
If a young man wanted to ask the family of his beloved for her hand in marriage, he brought a bottle of cidre as a gift. If his appeal was denied, the parents layed a broom across the entrance. If he was accepted, the couple was engaged for several years. If a girl was able to peel an apple without interruption, she would get a beautiful wedding dress.
If she threw the paring over her shoulder behind her, it showed the first letter of the forename of her future husband. An exotic custom, that existed until the 19th century, had Gallic origins. Normandy Girl, painting by James Carroll Beckwith — , painted around Young women added a drop of their blood to the cup of coffee or wine of a young man they wanted to enamour.
Bad omens could delay a marriage. Painting by Auguste Toulmouche , painted in If bride and groom were not born in the same village, they were considered as horsain , strangers. In such cases the bride had to make gifts to the young men of her village, or invite them to the wedding, to integrate her husband. It was considered as a bad omen to marry on the day of a funeral. It was frowned upon to marry in May, because that month was dedicated to Virgin Mary.
If two sisters married on the same day, one of them would become miserable. If it was raining on the day of the wedding, the bride would cry, because the rain looks like tears. To avoid bad luck the bride was wearing a handkerchief or a stocking of a happily married woman. The bride may not sew her wedding dress and she may not look backwards during the wedding procession. Wedding procession of three couples in Auray in Brittany. Postcard of , collection H. While bride and groom exchanged wedding vows, young men shot with their guns in the air, to dispel evil spirits. The groom served during the wedding feast, wearing a white apron and a cotton bonnet.
In the wedding night the bed of the happy couple was decorated with small statues of phalluses and bells. The sorcerer went near the house of the couple, called the husband, and if the groom answered, the sorcerer wrapped a fresh penis of a wolf in a white ribbon. To lift this curse the husband ate a roasted green woodpecker, salted with blessed salt. If the woodpecker did not solve the problem, the groom inhalated the smoke of a tooth of a recently deceased man, peed across his wedding ring, smeared his doorstep with the fat of a wolf and fabricated a ring, that enclosed the eye of a weasel.
A green woodpecker. It consisted of white wine with spicery, pepper and chili. Other aphrodisiacs were roasted turtle doves, swallows, common wood pigeons or sparrows. If a man wanted his wife to be more passionate, he gave her a bit of belladonna do not attempt. Parallax compensating focusing view finder, and arrangement to conform to different lens foci.
This invention combines the advantages of the Technicolor beamsplitter with those of multilayer film. A bilayer film is placed in one gate and a monolayer in the other. The bilayer film records blue light on the outer emulsion layer and red on the inner. Needless to say, a destroyable yellow filter divides the two emulsions. The monolayer film records green light.
The bilayer film is processed to a reversed positive and colour developed to yellow-cyan.
The monolayer film is similarly reversed and colour developed magenta. From the bilayer film the blue and red separation negatives are extracted, and from the monolayer the green separation. Clearly, imbibition matrices can then be made as usual. The method should offer important advantages, as for example:.
Avoidance of the common absorptances [sic! Therefore, if, for example, the yellow record—superimposed on magenta and cyan records—is copied with blue light, the magenta record and the cyan record contribute undesired density patterns, since they likewise pick up a certain amount of the cyan record densities, whereas the red light provides a comparatively pure copy of the cyan record.
Accordingly, one of the offending cyan and magenta records—for example, the magenta-coloured record of the green aspect—is taken separately, and can therefore be printed without introducing falsifying components in the other two records. It will be evident from Fig. Evidently prints can equally well be made on trilayer film coated two layers on one side and one layer on the other, or coated in the conventional way as in Kodachrome and Ansco, all three layers on one side.
The notion is well adapted to the making of good duplicates. Negative Development. Before development the blue record negative is treated in a bleaching bath to destroy the red filter coating on the surface of the emulsion.
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A solution of hydrosulphite may be used. Alternatively blue filters of varying density may be used to control contrast. After exposure the matrix film is given a flash fog to threshold value with light identical to that used for printing the image. An ultra-violet absorbing filter is inserted between the light source and the film. In the Technicolor process the film upon which the dye transfers are made is a normal black-and-white positive film bearing a completed silver image sound track, a lightly printed picture key, [footnote: 1 Said now to be omitted, but in Dr.
Since the sound track is developed independently of any considerations of the characteristics of the picture image the conditions for ideal processing are present. By means of copper water-jacketed runways the mono-metal register-pin travelling band is kept at such a temperature that the film sandwich is kept heated during the transfer. Corporation covering certain aspects of the Technicolor imbibition printing machine, the following dyes are mentioned:.
The machinery used today by Technicolor Ltd. Owing to the war, no replacement was feasible and as a result of the increasing demand for colour productions this machine has continued to run practically non-stop week-ends excluded ever since. It is now said to be running at the increased rate of feet per minute. The machine was built by the LB. Corporation U. See LB. The machine is four banked, the fourth not being in use i. Each roll of blank is spliced to the preceding one by a normal cement join.
This water is kept flowing at a rate of 9 gallons per minute. A jet of de-aerated water is directed at the point of first contact between blank and matrix. This defect is most liable to occur in areas of great colour contrast i. At about the same time as the blank is being fed on to the machine, the appropriate yellow matrix is also being run on to a continuous feed elevator, each roll of matrix being cut to length, for synchronization with the blank, by the matrix make-up department.
The matrix is attached to its predecessor by means of a 6-inch length of monel strip perforated in the same manner as a piece of negative cine film , and by four two-pronged clips. A driving sprocket with a three-position free wheel, normal, and stationary type of dog clutch, supplies this elevator from the feed reel. Another sprocket carries the matrix into the top of the dye tank, where it runs in vertical paths past two cascades.
In der Normandie/ in Normandy
These cascades are supplied with dye pumped up from a vat below the floor. The dye is passed through three filter bags, one large one in the vat and two smaller ones over the dye-tank cascades. During its travel through the dye tank the matrix passes over a driving sprocket and a weighted jockey pulley attached to a cord.
This cord actuates the speed control arm of a four-bush motor which drives this section of the machine. In this way the driving motor speed is governed by the tension of the film. This does no more than supply or take up stock in the event of slight sluggishness of the controlled driving motors when responding. From this elevator the matrix passes two blow-offs one either side of the film , runs downwards past a mercuroid trip switch and enters the roll tank from the top, passing under a roller on to the pin belt where the blank is pressed on to it by the first 6-inch roller and held in register by the pins.
The pin belt is feet long, consisting of monel perforated strip 35 mm. The whole length is soldered into a loop. Four wheels of approximately inches diameter enable it to travel from end to end of the machine four times. The path from the wheel nearest the wet end passes through the roll tank by means of a water gate either end. Towards the under side of the upper two paths, which travel from the wet to the dry end, and the upper side of the under two paths of the pin belt i.
This trunking is rectangular in section approx. The side of the pin belt bearing the film is protected with wooden covers which are hinged for easy access. The greater the temperature the greater the contrast. It is therefore Technicolor policy to keep these table temperatures constant according to a standard technique by means of mixing valves. The matrix and blank in close contact, and held in register by the pin belt, emerge from the water gate nearest the dye end of the roll tank, and pass under the large seating belt. This seating belt is a loop of copper strip, about 9 inches diameter, similar to a piece of negative perforated cine film, but having smaller perforation on the track side.
The large seating belt is followed by the small seating belt. The latter is similar to the first but only forms a loop 7 inches in diameter. It has only one seating roller and is of less weight. The object of the seating belts is to ensure the correct seating of the blank and matrix perforations around the pin belt teeth. Incorrect seating of the blank and matrix would cause transfer around the perforations.
Results of this are to be seen in the form of half round areas of colour with sharply defined edges against the perforations. The defect is most noticeable on the non-track side. A close contact between blank and matrix is still further ensured by the use of two weighted rollers, the first having a 4 lb. After these pressure rollers a sucker is placed to remove surplus water from around the perforations and pins. This is then followed by a blow-off to remove any surplus water drops from the cell side of the blank.
If such a defect does occur, the number of perforations, frames, or feet, out of sync, are measured and the necessary length of leader attached to the next roll of blank or matrix whichever is applicable to be run on the machine. The pin belt is friction driven by the two dry end wheels, which are chain driven by a constant speed motor. This is the only motor on the colour bank that is not controlled, and is therefore the one that sets the overall speed of the machine, and is termed the main drive motor.
It is this twist that brings about the stripping or parting of the two films. A mercuroid switch is placed on the blank just after the stripping point. Both matrix and blank run over pulleys both now being emulsion downwards and run in horizontal paths towards the dry end, immediately below the lower tables. The blank runs horizontally in a dry box from end to end three times before emerging at the dry end to travel to the top of the machine and over a captive diabola which by means of a cord governs the speed of the matrix dry box drive motor. The drive for the blank dry box is supplied by a friction loaded rubber covered pulley powered by a chain from the main drive motor.
The blank, after passing a mercuroid switch, travels into the pre-wet bath of the succeeding colour bank i. The object of this tank is to wash the matrix clear of any remaining dye a mercuroid switch being placed at the entry into this tank. After this the matrix passes into a wash tank and then up through the floor into the matrix dry box at the end of the transfer machine.
It leaves tins to be rolled up on the take-up. The cyan bank is identical to the yellow the yellow and cyan banks being built side by side in one unit this formed an original two-colour machine. The blank bearing the yellow and cyan dye image passes over to the magenta bank. This bank, and a disused one alongside, forms another of the original two-colour machines, and stands parallel to the yellow and cyan banks with a gangway about 6 ft.
The magenta bank is very similar to the yellow and cyan, but has the following differences. A small tank containing alcohol, with a fixed elevator running in it, is placed between the wash back and roll tank. This is only used when a certain matrix is known to be bad for air and transfer. It is on the magenta that these defects are most pronounced.
The softening effect of the alcohol on the dye laden matrix emulsion not only minimises the above defect but also increases dye spread.
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The weights attached to the rollers after the seating belts are increased to 6 and 12 lb. The last two modifications are introduced in order to reduce the chances of air, and transfer. The blank on leaving the magenta dry box passes over waxing rollers running over the perforation tracks. After this the blank runs past a mercuroid switch, on to the take-up elevator. The mercuroid switch is a glass phial one-third filled with mercury, into which electrodes protrude at one end, the phial being mounted on an arm pivoted about two-thirds of its length.
On the short arm two wheels are mounted so that they ride on either side of the film i. The tension of the film running vertically causes the arm to remain horizontal. In the event of the film breaking, the weight of the glass phial, or mercuroid, on the longer arm, causes it to fall to a near vertical position, the mercury forming the circuit between the electrodes.
The closed circuit actuates a relay which stops the machine, rings a bell, and switches on a pilot light each section having its own appropriate light.
These lights are coloured either yellow, cyan or magenta, according to their colour bank. The de-aerator is a machine situated on the ground floor i. The water is then sucked from the bottom of the cylinder and pumped up to the IB. To be set against the great reproductive advantages of an imbibition machine, of which we are all aware, are the following disadvantages not including the difficulties to be overcome in the production of matrices.
In the event of off-sync, or off-frame troubles, many feet of film might be run before the correction can be applied. In the event of a machine stop at least two reels of production might be N. Any machine stop of more than 3 minutes would cause permanent register trouble owing to distortion of the matrices on the hot tables i. Any particle of dirt would give a defect many times its size—i. But if it was deposited on the matrix after the dye tank, or at any time on the blank, it would be represented by a surrounding area of transfer if on the matrix by one colour; if on the blank by all the succeeding colours.
If the blank emulsion is too hard — transfer would ensue, and possibly — air. If the blank emulsion be softened to overcome these two defects, bleeding or dye spread would increase. A mean technique has to be pursued which admits both defects to a lesser degree. There must exist the continual problem of register, owing to the stretch and shrinkage of new and old matrices besides the troubles experienced with negatives, masters, dupes, etc. This might be caused by a mild form of shrinkage either blank or matrix. The above defects are peculiar to a pin-belt machine.
But the more usual defects are still present, i. The following description of an imbibition printing machine patented by the LB. Corporation is concerned with the means at present employed by Technicolor in U. Convention date, Dec. Reference should be made to Figures A-D.
In the process of an apparatus for printing in multicolour from a set of photographically prepared gelatin matrices, the blanks to be printed and the matrices are fixed to supports and carried through cycles, the cycle for the matrices being automatically controlled and including the steps of applying excess dye to the matrices, removing a part of this dye, and pressing the matrices into contact with successive blanks. Preferably the matrices are overexposed and overdyed so that the removal of dye results in a gradation which corresponds to the straight part of the characteristic curve of an emulsion.
The removal of dye is also adjustable to attain colour balance in the resulting pictures and may be effected by sprays. Apparatus for the process comprises a set of machines corresponding to the number of colours to be printed. In the form shown, each machine comprises a dye bath 3, Fig.
The dye removal sprays are delivered by an oscillating tube 40 and may be deflected by a movable hood 50 to vary the quantity of dye removed. The matrices are carried by blocks 26, Fig. Automatic control of the hood 50 may be provided. As shown in Fig. At the top of its travel, a pin on the hood closes the cut-out switch causing the motor to stop and the hood returns under gravity.
A second pin occupying a pre-set position on the front of the matrix support 26 then closes one of the switches bringing a stop into the path of the hood 50 as it returns. Preferably the dye bath and sprays are maintained at a raised temperature. Suitable dyes for a three-colour process are Erioglaucine for the cyan component, acid fuchsin for the magenta, and resorcine yellow for the yellow. For example, there may be compensation for sunburn during or following exterior work. Neck, throat, hands and arms require treatment. Babies frequently require no make-up. Object of make-up is largely to reduce range of flesh colour observable in various individuals.
Critical care must be given to close-ups. For studio work the following sources are used, but in each case they are filtered to match a standard daylight. Thus the filters or stock in the camera are unaltered:. The General Electric C. Unfiltered inky lights are used to simulate firelight glow.
Coloured lights may be used for special effects. Large sets are usually illuminated by arc lighting with occasional auxiliary inky units. Small sets are sometimes entirely lit by inky units. For exteriors, metallic reflectors are undesirable owing to sunlight directly reflected varying in colour-temperature from average daylight. For process projection special plates are printed of the required contrast density and colour, depending on the particular background projector to be employed.
Multiple projector heads project up to three matched prints. Background screens have been photographed up to 28 ft. Care has to be taken to achieve foreground-background balance. Lenses on the Technicolor camera are available of the following foci: 25, 35, 40, 50, 70, , mm. These all fit into calibrated mounts that fit on to a master focusing mount. Generally, focusing is checked by measurement.
Eye focusing has been found faulty. Stops are calibrated on an arbitrary arithmetical scale.
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A very original Technicolor speciality is the follow-focus aid which takes the form of a pair of Selsyn motors Now available on the Dufaychrome camera. The motor arrangement is highly flexible. There are eight types of motor and eight combinations of motor-to-camera gears, all of which can be changed in the field. The cameras can also be operated in reverse. Speeds in excess of 24 pictures per second are not permissible. The camera can be mounted on anything from a spider to a high tripod, and on any other piece of equipment as may be desired, such as dollies, three-wheel perambulators, four-wheel velocitators, booms, rotating mounts, etc.
Special mounts have been used for air photography and for underwater work. Speed cameras have been made to shoot up to 96 pictures per second. The threading time of a Technicolor camera is about 3 minutes. Technicolor cartoons are photographed by normal cameras using the successive exposure method with either rotating or sliding filters.
The negative is printed on a skipping intermittent printer. All optical and trick effects known to black-and-white can be used for Technicolor. Negatives are developed at night and black-and-white rush prints delivered the following afternoon. Colour rush prints are delivered the following evening. The records have proved invaluable, not only to the cameraman, but on many occasions to the director and others participating in the production.
Of mm. The monopack is used in cameras which are fitted with mm. Technicolor recommend that the Kodachrome exposure for Technicolor reproduction should be on the low side of normal. Barrel Catling, British director, has recounted his experiences during the making of a documentary which was shot entirely in monopack. His statements do not support the absurdly exaggerated reports which have been quoted from American journals. It is quite clear that after all the fuss there has been some disappointment.
The character of the result is only what was predicted by the writer seven years ago,. Kalmus confidently predicted the demise of the beam-splitter camera. How anybody familiar with the theory of colour photography could have imagined for a moment that it was possible to get prints from negatives extracted from a mm. Kodachrome film which could compare with direct separations defies imagination. The film was English Village, the first British monopack effort.
Catling says that they included a colour chart for every shot. An ultra-violet absorbing filter was used Y-l. The film in this instance seems to have been mm. Kodachrome, since a Vinten camera was employed. Small hand tests were processed at Harrow, but the main film had to be sent to Rochester for processing.
Finishing on September 12, no rushes were available until December 3, when a black-and-white cutting print arrived. The colour pilots did not arrive until December Greens were rendered on the hard side, and light-soaked whites had a pinky halation. Flesh tints tended to be hot. The following August Mr.
Catling had not seen his film. It therefore does not seem to be a very practicable proposition in England as yet. HOCH, W. Excerpts from the Specifications or abridgements by permission of the Controller of H. M Stationery Office. Coloured light is used in printing which will reverse or neutralize the effect of difference in the range of film densities in the negative gamma control. For negatives having a high contrast gradient, printing light is used of such wavelength as will produce a positive having a comparatively low contrast gradient, and vice versa.
Thus, for a two-colour process employing red and green taking filters, ultra-violet and blue filters may be used for printing the positives. The process is especially applicable to multicolour printing on a single film in which the contrast gradients cannot be equalized by development. Describes the exposure of two films through the celluloid and the superposition of the two films by cementing them back to back before development.
Technicolor used double-width film at this period, and after printing it was folded with the images outwards. It is stated that the developer is to be pyro, subsequently bleaching with potassium ferrocyanide, fixing with hypo, etching away the soft gelatine, and staining the relief images so obtained. The imbibition film is mounted for development after exposure on a thin metal band, or backing.
Steel plated with copper is suggested. The metal strip ensures perfect registration when printing by imbibition upon a blank film. Processing machinery for dissolving away the unhardened gelatine with hot water which is flowed on to the film at opposite edges from several nozzles. Weaver, E. The gradations in the high-lights of imbibition relief images are made more gradual than those in the half-tone parts by exposure of the film to uniformly distributed light, either previously or simultaneously with the contact printing of the image proper.
The film may be rendered absorptive to light of a particular colour, and the uniformly exposing light may be of that colour. The exposure to uniform light may be approximately the threshold exposure, and both exposures are made from the same side of the film, either from the emulsion side or the celluloid side. Either one or all of the images of a multicolour positive may have been thus exposed to uniformly distributed light. The densities in the shadows of imbibition reliefs are made at least as great as in the half-tone portions.
The film is dyed with a dye absorptive to light of short wavelength, and printing is done with a light of short wavelength mixed with a light of long wavelength. A sharp-cutting dye such as naphthol yellow is used, and it is used in as concentrated a form as possible. Quinoline yellow is mentioned as a restrainer permitting the use of maximum concentration of naphthol yellow. Printing apparatus for imbibition matrices.
The machine enables one negative bearing two-colour records in alternating sequence to print two separate positive films; two printing lights are employed, one for each gate. The type of negative used in this printer is that obtained with a beam-splitter camera of the type described in E. The arrangement of the images is the same as in E.
Dyes for imbibition printing are highly purified in such a way as to remove any solid matter or impurities, so that the dye will be absorbed upon the printing matrix in accordance with the density of the printing image, without the formation of self-agglomerating components, and will also be freely imbibed into the receptive gelatine surface without diffusion and without the formation of layers or matter which tends to adhere to the surface or becomes detached from the printing matrix. To the dye solution may also be added a viscosity agent to prevent lateral diffusion, and this may comprise a second dye having relatively low penetration or dispersion, and high definition with respect to the film to be printed.
Two acidified dye compositions for red and green respectively are specified. Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian : Colour Cinematography. In the Hernandez-Mejia patents finally became available, and Technicolor initiated immediate steps toward perfecting a three-color dye-transfer, imbibition print system. This beam-splitter reflected part of the light to an aperture at the left of the lens and allowed the remainder of the light to pass through to a normally located aperture.
Three specially hypersensitized films passed through these two apertures. In the rear aperture, a single Super-X Panchromatic film was exposed behind a green filter. This filter transmitted both red and blue light, but excluded green. Behind the magenta filter were two strips of film, one behind the other.
The front film in the bipack, being an orthochromatic emulsion, recorded only the blue components of the light reaching it. The film carried a red-orange dye which absorbed the blue rays, leaving only the red to affect the rear film. The panchromatic film in the rear of the bipack thus recorded only the remaining red light.
The three negatives record the primary color aspects red, green and blue of the scene, but they resemble ordinary black and white negatives. For example, if a red barn were photographed in a green field with a blue sky overhead, the red record negative would have only the image of the barn, the green record negative would have only the image of the field, and the blue record negative would correspondingly have only the image of the sky. Each of these color separation negatives would then produce a special positive relief image matrix.
These positives differ from ordinary positives in that the picture gradations are represented by varying thicknesses of hardened gelatin. This strip, with the superimposed images in precise register, becomes the final completed print used in projection. Extreme control over the entire process was maintained by the Technicolor Company to insure optimum results. All features were shot on fewer than forty cameras owned and maintained by the company, and all release printing was confined to one of two plants—located in Hollywood and London.
The films used in Process Number Four were made exclusively by the Eastman Kodak Company, and they possessed exceptionally low shrinkage rates. The subsequent registration of the three images was exact to within one-thousandth of an inch, with color fringing all but eliminated on even the largest screens.
By May of , the first three-component camera had been completed, and, under the direction of Troland, one unit of the Technicolor plant had been equipped to handle Process Number Four. The difference between the new process and Technicolor Process Number Three was truly extraordinary. There are now rich, deep blues and it is no longer necessary to avoid or to regret the existence of blue skies, blue water, and blue costumes.
The old process presented blurred outlines which were even harder on the eyes than its imperfect colors. Color producers today may again mishandle their medium. But at least they will have good colors, well focused, to abuse. Unfortunately, most producers were unwilling to try the improved system. After failing to interest the feature filmmakers, Kalmus turned his attention to those in the cartoon field. These initial contacts also proved unsuccessful.
Although the Silly Symphony cartoon utilized the new process, a regular animation camera was used. The starting point was staggered one frame for each pass, thus the resulting release print would contain the complete color record. Released in , Flowers and Trees was extremely successful. Within a short period of time the Silly Symphonies series in Technicolor began to make more money than Mickey Mouse films in regular black-and white. As a result, Disney contracted to produce both utilizing the new process in the spring of , 73 and in , The Band Concert became the first Mickey cartoon in full Technicolor.
Kalmus realized this and rewarded Disney by granting him exclusive cartoon rights to both Technicolor processes. This agreement later became a source of embarrassment. Once the success of color cartoons had been proved, the other producers again came around to Dr. Kalmus to get film—for their cartoons—Dr. Kalmus said he was sorry but he did not have any film for them. This made the producers angry and left Dr. Kalmus in a difficult position. Mayer would naturally have no goodwill for Technicolor in anything else.
And, after all, Dr. Kalmus was thinking of features, not cartoons, as the ultimate Technicolor good. It was almost two full years before competing studios were finally permitted to produce their animated shorts in Process Number Four. Finally, on September 1, , the exclusive arrangement with Disney expired, and Variety reported:. Tri-color cartoons will dominate the field. The use of Technicolor in feature-length film production was still to come. Picture producers admitted they had been wrong concerning the value of color in cartoons, but none were willing to incur the risk or expense of producing a full-color dramatic film.
In an attempt to spur interest, Technicolor lowered their base print price from 7 cents to 5. In the spring of , Merian C. John Whitney was an unknown to the motion picture industry. In one of his early tests he first photographed, with black and white, a woman dressed in orange, against a green background. Following this he recorded the same scene with the color camera. Inspection revealed a beautiful blending of colors as the actress moved back and forth in front of the backdrop.
Then the designer took an important step which now promises a final combination of art and science. Jones called for first one combination of lights, then another. This time a carefully planned interplay of colored lights proved that color film could be used to psychological advantage. It is altogether likely that Pioneer Pictures will lose money on its early productions, particularly since Mr.
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Whitney is determined to turn out pictures slowly, carefully, and expensively. But should Pioneer Pictures be sufficiently successful to inspire a color vogue among the standard producers, Technicolor stock would undoubtedly zoom. This is an important item, because although Mr. Whitney does many things for fun he also does them for money. La Cucaracha an outstanding short. The Technicolor sequence in the ice-cream factory is a fantasy which will please the most fastidious. The lavish. Rouben Mamoulian replaced Lowell Sherman as director after the later became ill and died during principal photography.
One day prior to its world premiere, Mamoulian told a Variety reporter:. When you look at an object, you see form and color. Pictures are primarily visual.