By and large, however, the aria, well ensconced by , had begun to lose some of its improvisational character, as method began to take the place of humorous madness. None of these precedents could have sufficiently interested or impressed Da Ponte for him to wish to emulate or plagiarize it. He was,. Thematically, the organization of the aria is quite simple.
Tutta a queste, gioja mia Tutta siete si per me is a grotesque and scaled-down version of the model, while the second evokes a ballroom scene dominated by Don Giovanni and his girl of the hour dancing to the tune of various instruments. In that recitative, Don Giovanni, still compared to the King of Macedon, is described as a person whose principal aim it is to transform the world of women into a harem: Il mio padrone invece, Che conquistar non vuol paesi, e ville A dieci, a cento, a mille Cerca di conquistar tutte le belle, Onde andiamo girando a quadro, e a tondo Per convertir in un serraglio il mondo.
Could it be that Mozart who, in Le nozze di Figaro, was so eager to supply music that he mistakenly composed a stage direction31, have blundered in this instance as well? Hardly so; for as the rhyme scheme of the first eight lines abbc deec , to which the music closely adheres, implies, Da Ponte wished the actual aria to begin at this particular point. The last six lines of this segment are, once again, patterned after the model.
- Above and Beyond?
- Through an Open Window (A Summertime Romance Book 1)?
- The Book Of Romance.
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At this point in the score, Mozart breaks the musical continuity by substituting an andante con moto for the opening allegro, while retaining the dominant key of D Major. This task completed, Leporello once again changes mood. Now his sarcasm comes to the fore. Our critical survey, itself an annotated, historically sequential catalogue, has demonstrated — I hope successfully — that, both dramatically and melo-dra-. Per me Non confonderti. Siccome io dicoy che Alessandro il Grande Della Francia, e della Spagna Ve ne sono non so quante:.
Il mio cor da gelosia Tutto sento a lacerar. Egli non merta Che di lui ci pensiate Dei nomi di sue belle. Breig and H. Fladt Mainz: Schott, Following further cosmetic changes, primarily affecting Parts Three and Four, the final draft of the cycle appeared, at long last, in , thirteen years before the quadruple premiere in Bayreuth.
There I have left him lying under the linden tree and have said farewell to him with heartfelt tears. There he is better off than elsewhere. The first comprehensive outline of the tetralogy is sketched in letters to Uhlig Nov. Although the scenes in which previous events are recapitulated may at first seem redundant to audiences attending the whole cycle, Wagner considered them intrinsic to his overall plan.
Structurally, Siegfried, a veritable tragi-comedy9, is peculiar in so far as it consists of two interlarded sets of scenes, those concerned with Siegfried and those dominated by the Wanderer i. Wotan in disguise. Conversation while Mime works at his forge. The origin of the Nibelungs, etc. Kapp Leipzig, n. Borchmeyer Frankfurt, It is on these that we shall concentrate. Our understanding of the standard text will be greatly enhanced by tracing the evolution of certain significant traits, especially the change of tone from serious to mock-heroic.
The following epitome of what would have been Act One of Siegfried shows him to be well-meaning and supportive: After a long pregnancy, the cast-out Sieglinde gives birth to Siegfried in the Wilderness [ Shortly after having given birth to Siegfried, Sieglinde dies, after telling Reigin her story and entrusting the boy to him. The catch, which in the final poem is manifest from the beginning, is revealed only in a subsequent passage: Now Mime incites the youth to kill the worm, in order to show his gratitude.
He leaves the cave [ Only after having done so, he fights and kills the dragon. In the prose version of the proto-Twilight of the Gods, for example, his hunchback foster-father is called a strong dwarf, splendid smith, and wise counsellor; and in the metrical version he appears, with alliterative force, as a manly creature, excellent smith and prudent counsellor to the orphaned boy In both versions of Siegfried he shows himself to be a windbag, hypocrite, liar, weakling and coward. The fact that Mime, the clownish mimic, does not honour the truth is repeatedly demonstrated, although some of the apparent contradictions between the truth and his deceptive representation of it can be resolved by a comparison between the texts of Siegfried and Young Siegfried, which shows that Wagner was not uniformly successful in eliminating discrepancies That Mime is insidious and hides his dubious purposes under a torrent of deceitful phrases is made explicit when Siegfried, coached by the little Woodbird, learns to distinguish between essence and appearance.
II of his Life of Richard Wagner. How ironic, and yet how appropriate, that it is he who should offer to give lessons in fear! Having completed the prose sketch for Young Siegfried, he told his friend Theodor Uhlig of the discovery which,. If, once again, we search for evidence in the original plot outline of The Ring, The Nibelung Myth as Sketch for a Drama, we find that, at that point, Wagner had not yet linked fairy story and heroic legend, although even then he must have known that in the Teutonic legends Siegfried is commonly referred to as one who knows no fear, which, naturally, is a far cry from saying that, for whatever reasons, he must learn it.
The motivation furnished in 18 The letter was written on May 10, Into the world will I fare and learn fearing since I will never learn it from you. Wagner must have noticed that this was a grave lacuna and, resolving the issue in his mind, added a note which supplies the much needed rhyme and reason: Siegfried now feels himself quite free of Mime.
He will leave him in order to go into the world: for this reason he once more demands the sword. Mime tries to instil into him fear of the world so as to keep him in the wood. He paints for him one terror after another in the world beyond the wood. Mime must explain it. He describes fear. Siegfried cannot learn it and now will go forth just to learn it. Mime resolves quickly to teach it to him himself. In the corresponding passage of Young Siegfried, Wagner realizes this idea but unduly complicates matters by coupling the notion of fear with that of cunning List.
Accordingly, in the text that finally emerged and served as a basis for the composition of the music, Mime does not teach Siegfried anything except speech, and even that reluctantly Siegfried, my son, you see it yourself: you will have to yield your life to me. You get me all wrong. Although the intrinsic motif of fear was retained, it was altered from phase to phase of the creative process.
Thus both in Young Siegfried and in Siegfried it is neither the protagonist nor Mime but the Wanderer who brings up the subject, and each time in a different manner. That is the next step, for once Siegfried has done the seemingly impossible by forging Notung, there can be no doubt as to who will kill him. Yet, on second thought he realizes that he is now caught on the horns of a dilemma: if things are to work out as he wants, Siegfried must forge the sword and dispatch the dragon but, having been struck with fear in the process, must then meet his own fate: How do I hide my anxious head?
It is forfeited to the bold youth unless Fafner teaches him fear. But woe, poor me! How would I attain the ring? Darned fix! Since the scenario that would suit Mime best — Siegfried killing Fafner and, in turn, being killed by him — is unlikely to be enacted, the resourceful dwarf literally concocts an alternate plan: he will cook a poisonous broth Sudel which he will dish up to the thirsty boy after the fight.
The plan backfires, and Siegfried emerges unscathed but without having learnt to fear. Still uncertain of his calling but acting on another hint from the Woodbird, he embarks on a new adventure. In her realm he is to acquire his sentimental education. What he is to learn now is a kind of fear that is in no way physical. Rather he, the loner, who has until now met only animals, dwarfs, giants and gods, is to become a thinking and feeling member of the human race.
Approaching the sleeping Valkyrie, he reflects: How do I, coward, feel? Is this what fear is? O mother! Your brave child! How conquer fear? How muster courage? To awake myself I must awaken the maiden. Fear it is, but of an entirely different order. Although the two seem to be equated in the drama — they are in no way differentiated in the text — the story simply does not make sense if there is no distinction drawn between them.
This different type of fear is the first step in his experience of human love, which in turn gives him back the confidence to forget self-doubt. Indeed, as soon as he has discovered what it feels like to be afraid in an emotional sense he also learns that another new experience, that of human love, enables him to overcome it. As the fire in the blood is kindled, as we pierce each other with our glances, as we burn in ardent embraces, my keen courage returns to me, and the fear, ah!
Love, united with knowledge and free of anguish, is about to conquer the world and, in the process, topple the mythological edifice erected in the earlier portions of The Ring. In gaining this insight, they have learned their lesson, and no further schooling is needed. Pariser Farce oder wienerische Maskerade? Richard Strauss1 Sein wir in Frankreich?
Sein wir unter die Kurutzen? Oder in Kaiserlicher Hauptstadt? Ochs von Lerchenau2. Fischer, , S. Von hier an durchgehend als Dramen V zitiert. Was den Rosenkavalier selbst anbetrifft, so liegen zwar zahllose Arbeiten, Rezensionen usw. Es bleibt abzuwarten, was in dieser Hinsicht der inzwischen erschienene, von Dirk O. XXIII leistet. In: Modern Languages 39 , S.
Wie der Name dieser Figur andeutet, handelt es sich bei ihr um einen ausgesprochenen Typencharakter. Die Briefe, in denen diese Frage behandelt wird, finden sich in dem von Hilde Burger herausgegebenen Briefwechsel Frankfurt: Insel-Verlag, der beiden. Siehe vor allem S. Juli August Fischer, 2 , S. Gilbert erkannt, die freilich in ihrer Argumentation zu weit geht In: Modern Language Review 64 , S. Herbert Steiner Frankfurt: S. Wie Dirk O. Februar an seine Schwester.
Und Hofmannsthal teilte Strauss am Die Skizze, die Kessler und Hofmannsthal zwischen dem 8.
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Abgedruckt in Dramen V, S. Und Kesslers Bemerkung in einem Brief vom Februar Mai Sie freut sich auf die Ehe [ Mary E. So verlegte er die Begegnung kurzerhand in den Salon Gilbert Anmerkung 24 , S. Niveau der Opernhandlung stark angehoben wird. Soweit die Charaktere. So wurden der der Marschallin Maria-Theresia. Pourceaugnac ist pathetisch im komischen Sinn, weil er eine Zielscheibe des Spottes ist. Im Rosenkavalier dehnte er dieses Versteckspiel auch auf manche Nebenfiguren aus. So grob will Er sein? Gilbert Anmerkung 24, S. Bei Hofmannsthal, dessen lyrische Ader und psychologische Finesse von jeher Bewunderung erregten, erwer52 Ebd.
II, S. Geronte kompromittiert vor der Hofgesellschaft.
Faublas im Travesti meldet sich. Faublas erbleicht. Die Liebenden allein. Sophie ab zum Vater. A droite, premier plan, une autre porte. Faublas, qui vient de sortir du lit, est dans sa petite culotte et chemisette de cavalier. Sa robe de nuit est sur un meuble. Und bei Hofmannsthal liest man: Das Schlafzimmer der Feldmarschallin.
Neben dem Bett ein dreiteiliger chinesischer Wandschirm, hinter dem Kleider liegen. Auf einem kleinen Sofa links liegt ein Degen in der Scheide. Um wenigstens den Schein des Anstands zu wahren — wie sich sehr bald herausstellen sollte, bei weitem nicht genug, um die moralischen. Je me souviens de ma Sophie. Je la vis si belle!
Ich will nicht den Tag! Da haben Dich alle! Wie der folgende Passus aus einem Brief des Dichters an den Komponisten vom Also [ Wenn man so hinlebt, ist sie rein gar nichts. Aber dann auf einmal. In den Gesichtern rieselt sie, im Spiegel da rieselt sie. Dramen V, S. Et il continua sans regarder sa femme. Hier sehen sich Germanistik und Komparatistik vor eine gemeinsame Aufgabe gestellt. Annina ebenso : Euer Gnaden werden sich schaden [ Juli an den Dichter schrieb. Oktavian [ Sophie [ Sperrst dich ein.
Faninal mit gleichem Spiel zwischen ihr und Oktavian, der immer einen Schritt gegen den Ausgang tut, aber von Sophie in diesem Augenblick nicht loskann : Ah, springst noch aus dem Wagen. Auf Lebenszeit. Wie sich bald herausstellte, war das gar nicht so einfach. Oktavian hat sich gesetzt, sie stehen vor ihm. Mit Leib und Leben. Mondo rubaldo. Im Hintergrund links ein Alkoven, darin ein Bett. September August und Straussens Antwort vom Das gilt es zu beweisen. Man kann sich vorstellen, wie Hofmannsthals verfeinerter Geschmack auf diesen Edelkitsch reagierte.
Beginnen wir mit dem Ingenu libertin. Als er sie sieht, erhebt sich Faublas, wohl mit schuldiger Miene, und entfernt sich ein wenig von Sophie. Doch sobald ihn die Marquise ruft, trennen sich die beiden, und einen Augenblick lang steht Faublas genau in der Mitte zwischen ihnen M F S Sophie macht der Marschallin einen verlegenen Knix. Oktavian zwischen beiden hin- und herpendeln Aber die letzte Entscheidung ist noch nicht gefallen. So geriet das ganze Libretto in unser Blickfeld.
So schrieb Kessler am Hofmannsthal erwiderte am Das eigentliche Publikum verlangt [ Friedrich Nietzsche2. There are surely more than thirteen ways of looking at opera, and any scholar or critic worth his salt is well advised to make up his mind early on as to the kind of approach he wishes to take in a given case. Up to this point in the history of interdisciplinary studies involving the musical drama, theoretical and methodological reflections have been few and far between, and no latter-day Aristotle has come to the rescue to unfold a cogent systematic Poetics of Opera3.
Especially the. Dieter Borchmeyer Frankfurt: Insel-Verlag, , p. It will therefore behoove me to preface my paper with a few observations on the various choices open to the practitioner of Opernforschung in general and its subdivision, librettology, in particular. Needless to say, both Musik- and Literaturwissenschaft err when assuming that either the libretto or the score of an opera can be meaningfully viewed in isolation.
An interaction between the two disciplines is absolutely necessary, and an emphasis on one or the other collaborative art at the expense, or to the exclusion, of the other is merely a matter of convenience or professional competence. Let us illustrate this tripartite and, in the original sense of the word, trivial scheme with a few examples drawn from the literature on Tristan und Isolde.
But insofar as chromaticism also subserves a dramatic purpose, even here the literary dimension is not lacking. In short, Wagner, too, seems to treat Tristan und Isolde more or less as a symphonic poem Given the fact that Wagner was an artistic Doppelbegabung of the first order who believed that language and music — the male and female principles — were destined to join hands in marriage, it is hardly surprising that most of the devices he uses, and often introduces, pertain somehow to both spheres of artistic activity and should ideally be judged by those endowed with scholarly Doppelbegabung.
In the 6 The letter was addressed to Franz Brendel and published on 9 September, ; it is reproduced in the Dokumentarbiographie, pp. Berlin: Duncker, , p. Gerhard Schuhmacher Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, , pp. Among the features that enjoy what might be called dual citizenship in the land of opera, the most obvious, and obsessively treated, is the leitmotif.
Indeed, in some of its applications it must be regarded as a quasi-literary device transferable to literature Thomas Mann. Jahrhundert, ed. Salmen Regensburg: Bosse, , pp. Since it was intended for performance in the theater, Tristan und Isolde shares certain basic structural features with all plays; hence the option of treating it within a dramaturgical framework, following the examples set by Francis Fergusson14 and Kerman, whose analysis of the paroxysmal cycle experienced by Tristan in Act III is primarily, though not exclusively, structural In fact, thematology as practiced by a long string of critics from Wolfgang Golther to Michael S.
Batts and Egon Voss has long been a staple of Tristan und Isolde criticism The fifth chapter of Michael S. A third road toward the comprehension of Tristan und Isolde as a literary phenomenon — the one, curiously enough, least travelled in the year reception of that masterpiece — is the verbal or linguistic one. The few efforts that have been made to assess the work from this point of view have been largely polemical.
The piece. Dietmar Holland Hamburg: Rowohlt, includes several of the essays previously mentioned. On the lexical level, Wagner, who prided himself on being a perceptive etymologist, excels or, in the eyes of his severest critics, sins in proliferating neologisms, some of which form part of a carefully designed pattern.
Syntax is another subject warranting closer scrutiny than has so far been accorded it, for simply to affirm that the text is muddled throughout and an early example of willed unintelligibility is an act of critical cowardice. A whole. In fact, in dealing with rhetorical figures, I have already arrived at the level of Gehalt, which must now occupy us for a moment. Seeking to discover an integral meaning in Tristan and to determine its underlying Weltanschauung has been the occupation of many Wagnerites, often indulged in with a passion rarely encountered in scholarly pursuits.
Since I shall face the philosophical issue head-on in the course of analyzing a central passage from Act II, the only kind of approach I need to deal with at this juncture focuses on the sexual issue. With respect to the role of sex in Tristan und Isolde, two scholarly factions are at loggerheads with each other, the one upgrading, the other downplaying its importance.
All textual references will be to this edition. Except in one potentially significant case, the discrepancies between this version and the one found in vol. Stage directors, take care! Whatever the merits of this assessment, the analysis fails to take into account that the text is not strictly Christian and that Tristan und Isolde aims not at renunciation but at fulfillment. Depending on the mood of the moment and, one guesses, his readings of the day, he planned at different times to end his drama in different ways.
Ils sont ensemble et pourtant ils sont deux. See pp. With two mutually exclusive endings, contradictions abound, but may be resolved with reference to Die Sieger, the Buddhist drama about renunciation of carnal love as a precondition for the release from earthly fetters and for rejoining the God in his Nirvana.
This work was to have formed a diptych with Tristan und Isolde. Wagner never proceeded beyond a brief prose sketch39; but the work, pondered for many years, entered the mainstream of his art by way of Parsifal. Two letters to Liszt written within the space of three months indicate how Wagner hoped to extricate himself from the dilemma caused by the conflicting views. Hatto Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, It is dated 16 May, Martin Gregor-Dellin [Munich: List, ].
Here: pp. We must look, first of all, at the sequence of events relating to the genesis of Tristan und Isolde, in order to ascertain whether the words came before the music prima le parole e dopo la musica As it turns out, the matter is more complicated, and the answer less decisive, than one would wish it to be.
The documents at our disposal indicate that Wagner began to think about writing Tristan und Isolde in late The direct impulse for that enterprise was his response to another dramatic 41 Briefwechsel zwischen Wagner und Liszt, p. Unfortunately, this sketch has not survived. After a two-year period of gestation, Wagner decided in mid to carry out the project.
The first musical sketches for Tristan, most likely based on the early outline, were made in December, However, the systematic, sequential Vertonung did not begin until after the libretto was finished. Wagner completed the full score of Act I on 3 April, , in. Zu manchem werde ich wohl auch eher die Musik als die Verse machen. In January , the score in its entirety was published, but five years elapsed before the premiere of the opera on 10 June, , at the Munich Hof- und Nationaltheater These are the ascertainable facts and the raw chronological data.
They do not offer a satisfactory answer to our question as to what came first, the text or the music.
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What 48 The so-called Wesendonck-Lieder, which Wagner considered to be studies for Tristan und Isolde, were composed between late November, and early May, Und vor allem steht nicht fest, wie die musikalischen Ideen, die in die dichterisch-szenische Konzeption eingriffen, beschaffen waren. According to Dahlhaus, these Formideen were vague and yet firmly embedded in the text. This raises the question as to the exact point at which, in the genesis of the work, the embedding took place.
A partial answer could, in my opinion, be arrived at on the basis of a detailed comparison between the prose sketch, which already contains a number of. In other words, Tristan und Isolde progressively ceased to be a literary product. I do not wish to prolong the argument unduly, which was broached mainly in order to show that there is no easy solution to the problem and that, with all due respect to Wagner the musician, we do have a right to treat Tristan und Isolde as a verbal construct — a better right, at any rate, than can be claimed by those who choose to treat it as a symphonic poem.
If as a literary scholar I venture occasionally onto territory that is more essentially musical, I do so in full awareness of the pitfalls and quicksands that are in store for me. The evidence I am prepared to offer is so forthright and cumulative that it is strange, even shocking, that it has never been marshalled before.
Once again Peckham, shrewd but purblind observer that he is, will serve as our whipping boy. Realizing full well that Tristan und Isolde is all about the principium individuationis, he once again completely misses the mark. There are many ways of looking at Tristan und Isolde conceived as a poem, a symphony or a mixture of both, but also as possible models of or analogues to its underlying world view, that is, the realization that Non-Being is preferable to Being Various religious and philosophical systems advocating the dissolution of self preceded by abdication of the will and its re-absorption into a larger, depersonalized or disembodied, stream may have gone into the making of this music drama, whether directly or indirectly.
Among them are medieval. It is a noun frequently used in Tristan und Isolde. The model that the creator of Tristan und Isolde selected was provided by Indian, specifically Buddhist thought, in which he had steeped himself since It is described at length in a letter to Liszt of 7 June, , whose central for our purposes passage reads: Die Bramanen-Lehre stellt [ This sounds like a slightly foreshortened plot outline for Die Sieger, of which Tristan und Isolde is a secular mirror image, Heilige having here been replaced by Liebende. Both men were profoundly interested in Buddhism at the time of writing their masterpieces.
This mingling of the divine element with the earthly was the Fall from heaven. Logically, then, the act of creation occurs in the Prelude, that is, before the curtain rises, the dramatis personae appear and the action gets under way. Doch Nirwana wird mir schnel1 wieder Tristan.
Sie kennen die buddhistische Weltentstehungstheorie. In Act I the wind — objective correlative of the WeltAtem — is still seen as a hostile and destructive force with entirely negative connotations. Zeigt ihm die Beute, die ich ihm biete! The quotation comes from p. Den Winden Segel und Mast! In analyzing the process by which the world constructed in the Prelude is slowly but surely deconstructed, I shall focus on that portion of the dialogue between hero and heroine in Act II, Scene Two, in which the Ent-Ichung is thematic.
Tristan: Isolde: Tristan: Isolde:. Nie erwachen! Tristans Liebe? It is hardly coincidental, for instance, that it is Isolde, rather than Tristan, who stresses the und, 62 I have omitted the stage directions. Ich kann nicht mehr sagen, meine Liebe oder deine Liebe; beide sind sich gleich und vollkommen Eins, so viel Liebe als Gegenliebe. The strategical blueprint to be used for our subsequent analysis specifies that each stage in the unfolding process of disintegration in Tristan und Isolde be marked and justified. However, since Wagner was an artist rather than a logician, he had to take musico-esthetic factors into account and was not, or was not primarily, concerned with fashioning solid causal links within the chain I shall construct here, rearranging the order in which the steps are presented in the opera so as to lay bare the ideal sequence, or rather sequences, for there are actually two series which run parallel to each other: a short one revolving around the notion of consciousness, and a long one gauged to that of identity.
Pinpointing the stage at which consciousness vanishes, these words terminate the series, whose parts, scattered over the three acts of the opera, make up a pattern that correlates with the inner action. The second, longer, and much more intricate series focuses in its first, phenomenal phase on the way in which the names of the two 64 Leo Spitzer, A Method of Interpreting Literature, pp. In the first stage, marked by that portion of Act I which precedes the drinking of the love potion, Tristan and Isolde are kept apart inasmuch as their names are not permitted to occur in one and the same line or without intervening text.
With the sudden intrusion of external reality, no further progress toward the perfect union of the lovers is made in Act I. At this point, then, no und is in sight, at least not in the finished libretto. O Wonne! Ich nur dein! Nur dein! Stages two to eight in our schematic presentation are all encompassed within the passage from Act II, Scene Two. We might call the second stage of the irreversible sequence possessive, that is, a condition in which the lovers, still very much themselves, seek to appropriate each other in preparation for the actual exchange of identities that is to follow.
In this case, for instance, anticipatory overlappings occur on the musical plane. The third stage, foreshadowed in the title of the opera and fully thematized in our excerpt, is that in which a perfect balance is struck, but not yet at the cost of lost identities. The und which plays so weighty a role in the central portion of the interchange is used like an anchor to show that, while it is still in place, all is well with the phenomenal world. This manoeuver is neatly executed, near the end of our key passage in the following verbal exchange: Tristan: Tristan du, ich Isolde, nicht mehr Tristan!
Isolde: Du Isolde, Tristan ich, nicht mehr Isolde! This metamorphic act has taken us to the very brink of the world of phenomena which, if Tristan is to have his way, must be thrown over for that of noumena. On the fringes, linking the physical with the metaphysical realm, lies the domain of myth, for which Wagner, throughout his career, displayed a very special affinity. Whereas mythical figures are embodiments of concrete natural or, as the case may be, abstract supernatural forces, the figures of legend, as Tristan and Isolde, are fictional counterparts of historical or pseudohistorical personages that may ultimately rise to the level of myth.
In both cases, it is the names which, firmly affixed to their bearers, offer stability and give permanence. For that reason, the loss of names, resulting in anonymity, entails the destruction of the very fabric of which myths and legends are made, a return to a chaotic sphere in which the principium individuationis has ceased to function and where individuals are, at best, reduced to qualities Cardiff: U of Wales P, Lornsen, Karin. Martin, Anne, ed. Unterm Strich.
Karikatur und Zensur in der DDR. Leipzig: Edition Leipzig, Marven, Lyn. Body and Narrative in Contemporary Literatures in German. Oxford, UK: Clarendon, Stuart Taberner. Hundert Jahre Kabarett. Merkel, Ina. Mielke, Christine. Die Welt 29 June Naughton, Leonie. Nause, Tanja. Niven, Bill. London: Routledge, Ossenbruegge, Julia. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, Pine, B. Joseph II, and James H. Plowman, Andrew. Rentschler, Eric. Mette Hjort and Scott MacKenzie. Ergebnisse der Trendforschung. Roland Conrady and Martin Buck. New York: Springer, Rosenfeld, Gavriel D.
New York: Cambridge UP, Schlant, Ernestine. Schulze, Gerhard. Die Erlebnisgesellschaft. Shaw, B. Is Hitler dead? And Best Nazi Humor. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, orig. New York: Alcaeus House, Sich, Daniel. Aus der Staatsgegnerschaft entlassen. Staritz, Dietrich. Geschichte der DDR. Steakley, James D. Fernando de Diego and Agatha Schwartz. Ottawa: U of Ottawa, Sutton-Smith, Brian.
The Ambiguity of Play. Taberner, Stuart, ed. New York: Camden House, Taberner, Stuart, and Paul Cooke. Stuart Taberner and Paul Cooke. Twark, Jill. Berlin: de Gruyter, Weber, Max. Wichner, Ernest, and Herbert Wiesner. Zachau, Reinhard K. Banska Bystrica: Univerzita Mateja Bela, Zivier, Georg, et al. Kabarett mit K. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, At issue for eastern Germans was the sensitive negotiation between maintaining a sense of their own cultural heritage as eastern Germans and adapting to a western German mentality, a process of self-discovery complicated by the feeling that the West was colonizing the East.
Among these individuals are those who were born in Germany and have German citizenship, those who came to Germany as guest workers but remained citizens of their home countries, those who came to Germany illegally, and those who came to Germany seeking asylum. Satirical humor from this immediate postwall period illuminates these divisions and rivalries, caricaturing the participants in their ongoing identity negotiations and thereby depicting an eastern German identity based on what eastern Germans should not become, as seen from the viewpoint of the caricaturists: xenophobic vigilantes, western German impersonators, and GDR historical revisionists.
Stuart Hall writes that identities are constructed through, not outside difference. His definition applies particularly well to the case of eastern Germans, whose identity remains in flux after over twenty years as Bundesdeutsche citizens of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the immediate postwall period, this group sought solace first as western Germans, then as Bundesdeutsche, then finally as eastern Germans in a unified German context.
As popular cultural artifacts, their reach into German society was significant. Unofficially, the readership was far higher, as subscribers passed along their copies to friends and family. Sometimes it seemed to abandon any pretense of critique altogether. There was an emphasis on sexual humor and an abundance of amateur photographs of nude women with a deliberately rural aura to them. In the GDR, cultural policy dictated that satirists support socialism in that they focus on the behavior of the individual, as opposed to that of the collective Neubert 7.
This reaction reaffirms the importance of context. Getting eastern and western Germans en masse into that mindset beyond a temporary relocation, however, has proved difficult. Furthermore, because unification was not kind to many eastern Germans, it compounded their overall inferiority complex. Their presence disrupted the neatness of the East-West dialogue that began with the Mauerfall fall of the Berlin Wall. Today, German citizenship is still based on jus sanguinis, although the process of naturalization was eased somewhat with the revised German nationality law, which came into effect in the year Tes Howell 33 help re define a German national identity?
This hierarchy surfaced in jokes about Ossis eastern Germans and Wessis western Germans reproduced in published collections and on countless Internet websites. Der lebt auf unsere Kosten. Henri Bergson viewed such humor as a discursive weapon against breaches of propriety. There was, indeed, a strong social-corrective thrust to eastern German humor in the s, as had been the case in the GDR.
All texts discussed 11 Literature in East Germany was seen by socialist leaders, as well as many authors and artists, as an unambiguous tool that should assist in building a new, socialist society. A gesture, therefore, will be its reply. Laughter must be something of this kind, a sort of social gesture. By the fear which it inspires, it restrains eccentricity. By exaggerating the potential impact of extreme right-wing groups and their nationalistic discourse in satirical texts and cartoons, Eulenspiegel humorists took a stand against the disastrous effects of racism and fear.
Tes Howell 37 Figure 1 that eastern Germans faced from a group whose members they had perceived as being the least likely to discriminate against them, particularly from a dominant position. The Vietnamese in eastern Germany, for example, maintained a reputation that they had acquired in the GDR for industriousness and dedication to their jobs Siemons They subsequently gained an advantage after over the newly unemployed eastern Germans in seeking employment in such low- paying occupations as street vending, bricklaying, textile production, and factory work.
In fact, their presence was seen as provocative in the East, a provocation that quickly turned into violence as eastern German youths in particular realized that unification had actually brought them very little. Prior to the March election in East Germany, the first and only free parliamentary election there, some pundits believed that this party would gain a strong foothold in what were to become the five new Federal States. Up to this point, Schulz has ironically claimed to address a right-wing audience, because the Eulenspiegel is generally leftist in its approach to contemporary German politics and society.
Da sind wir deutsch wie die vom Rhein,13 Dem stopfen wir das Maul voll und mausert sich ein rotes Schwein14 — Reis, das schlagen wir zu Quark! Europa — das ist hier, uns schmeckt nur deutsches Bier. The note thus serves to deflect responsibility for the content: Schulz makes an alarmist statement about the potential growth of right-wing extremists in the former GDR, while simultaneously avoiding being labeled a racist and a Republikaner sympathizer.
Two reader reactions to the song testify to a favorable reader reception, although the overall paucity of published responses to such an inflammatory piece is surprising. Mach Dir betr. Sleeping with his wife would thus be an expedient way to dishonor the Turk. Schulz still felt compelled to disclaim any connection to it. This inflammatory song only begins to make sense satirically in connection with the cartoons flanking it on the right and bottom. The image on the right is of a boorish-looking German man, dressed in a pea coat decorated with a swastika pin, with a closely shaved head, large nose and ears, close-set, almost crossed eyes, a toothbrush moustache resembling that worn by Adolf Hitler, and beard stubble, set against the backdrop of the unified German flag.
This cartoon adds another layer of meaning to the song—that REP supporters are not only violent and belligerent, but they are also unintelligent. Below both the song and the portrait of the oafish German male is a cartoon by Paul Pribbernow depicting a diminutive man, apparently of African descent, standing with arms at his sides on a scooter being pulled quickly along a track by a rope though the pulling mechanism is not visible and wearing a modern t-shirt with palm trees on it implying his equatorial country of origin.
He looks ahead obliviously as beefy Nazis or neo-Nazis with billy clubs bolt from the gates at a racetrack resembling the kind used for greyhound races. Such uniforms were, and are still today, worn by German neo-Nazis. The cartoon powerfully blends three conceptual spaces: 1 the Nazi era the Hitler figure, Nazis, police, military jackboots, billy clubs, circa ; 2 late twentieth-century xenophobic violence in Germany neo-Nazis, shaved heads, military jackboots, African male victim, circa ; and 3 the greyhound racetrack racetrack gates, bait animal, gate operator, greyhound dogs.
The skinheads likely represent eastern German youth and its growing xenophobic tendencies, tendencies that are, ultimately, residues of fascism. In the fictional world of the caricature, Hitler is still pulling the strings— even from the grave. The overarching goal of this Eulenspiegel page is to expose right-wing extremists as primitive bullies, as well as to condemn the prevalent racism and its destructive potential in eastern Germany in particular and Germany in general.
Taken out of context, however, especially in the case of the song, the reader may be left to wonder how each text qualifies as satire as a letter writer named G. Only taken together can the reader understand each text as satirical commentary on contemporary German society, intended to ridicule and correct the xenophobic tendencies that right-wing extremists fostered among some eastern Germans, youths in particular.
The cartoon illuminates a hybrid space for new, postwall German counter-narratives, which defied harmonious governmental and media representations of the unification process in both East and West. However, in the s, Turkish youth co-opted it, using it to denote not only a cultural, but also a discursive, community, as a sociolect particular to the Turks residing in Germany Zaimoglu Thus begins his journey through a Kafkaesque labyrinth of bureaucracy, during which he loses his job and, debatably, his sanity.
A modern-day fool, Engin is continually a victim of his circumstances and cannot navigate the system well enough to vindicate himself. Engin grants the reader access to the experience of living with this threat. Engin and Leckmikowski are thus competitors in a truly capitalistic endeavor. But Yusuf refuses to play this game, for money talks in post- unification Germany and can alter the parameters and rules of any given community. Auf dem Gebiet kenne ich mich bestens aus. Ich habe genug Philippinos aus der DDR rausgejagt!
Satire dient dazu, auf Punkte zu zeigen, die nicht richtig sind, die menschenfeindlich oder menschenverachtend sind. Satire selbst kann den Zustand ja nicht verbessern. Conclusion After the dynamic transformations of the Wende period and the unification process caused great uncertainty for eastern Germans, unleashing long-simmering resentments, anxieties, and rivalries.
Humorists used this volatile time to reflect on existential questions and the potential for correction of uncivil behaviors, prompted, among other causes, by xenophobia, because, although eastern and western Germans had their difficulties reuniting, they always recognized each other as fellow Germans. Tes Howell 51 German affairs and who never had a chance to achieve political representation in the GDR, were forced to compete with East Germans for recognition as equal citizens in the new bundesdeutsche reality.
By presenting humorous texts with such sharp commentary on contemporary culture, humorists were able to draw attention to these failures and successes, ultimately aiding in the discursive creation of an eastern and unified German identity that was more tenable, through its rectitude and complexity, than what grew organically out of the unification process. Onlein und in Farbe. Krause, Bernd. Eulenspiegel 29 : 2. Pribbernow, Paul. Schulz, Volker. Seidler, G.
Eulenspiegel 25 : 2. Swienty, Dietmar. Eulenspiegel 28 : 2. Secondary Sources Ayim, May. Heimat und Einheit aus afro-deutscher Perspektive. Berlin: Orlanda Frauenverlag, Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic. Cloudesley Brereton and Fred Rothwell. London: MacMillan and Green Integer, orig. Bhabha, Homi K. Homi K. Blackbourn, David. Oxford: Oxford UP, Cooke, Paul. Oxford: Berg, Epitroupolis, Mike-Frank G. American Culture in Europe: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger, Germany in Transit: Nation and Migration, A Sourcebook.
Berkeley: U of California P, Gregson, Ian. Character and Satire in Postwar Fiction. NY: Continuum, Grub, Frank Thomas. Ein Handbuch. Hall, Stuart. Stuart Hall and Paul du Gay. London: Sage, Hensel, Jana. Hamburg: Rowohlt, Hermenau, Antje. U of California-Berkeley, Tes Howell 53 Jaschke, Hans-Gerd. Bonn: Dietz, Jung, Peter. Verordneter Humor. DDR Berlin: Edition Hentrich, Klein, Olaf Georg. Warum Ost- und Westdeutsche aneinander vorbeireden.
Kress, Gunther, and Theo van Leeuwen. Anderssein gab es nicht. Kuck, Dennis. Tes Howell. Kulish, Nicholas. Leue, Gunnar. Neubert, Werner. Die Wandlung des Juvenal. Satire zwischen gestern und morgen. Rosbach, Jens. Deutschlandradio Kultur 28 May Siemons, Mark. Slackman, Michael. Soldan, Angelika. Steinlein, Christina. Berlin: Eulenspiegel, Yesilada, Karin. Zaimoglu, Feridun. Kanak Sprak. Hamburg: Rotbuch, Go for Zucker, , Swiss director Dani Levy, who has been living in Berlin for decades, broke one of the longest-standing taboos of post German cinema: using the comedy genre to grapple with questions of Jewish identity in Germany and specifically the Berlin Republic.
It is presumed that if a Jewish director spins a humorous story around Jewish characters, Jewish humor must be in play. The purpose of this chapter is first to outline several characteristics attributed to Jewish humor in traditional and more recent scholarship. These features will then serve as a framework for exploring the wit that pervades Alles auf Zucker! Both in terms of content and technique, Alles auf Zucker! Establishing the type of humorous lens through which these relations are screened is critical, not only because it aids in understanding the mostly favorable reception this unlikely comedy has enjoyed in twenty-first century Germany and around the world,5 but also because it offers insights into the status of German-Jewish relations and Jewish life in Germany today from the perspective of this minority group.
He owes money to many lenders, has troubled relationships with his wife and children, and is in danger of gambling his way into homelessness. In fact, it took Levy over three years to secure financing for the film Biehl. After initially rejecting the script, the German broadcasting company Westdeutscher Rundfunk WDR finally decided to take on the project in Alles auf Zucker!
Can the Shoah Be Funny? Some Thoughts on Recent and Older Films. If the brothers cannot reconcile, the money will be donated to the Jewish community in Berlin. As mentioned above, much like humor in general, Jewish humor had until recently been the subject of many anthologies but only limited scholarly debate. Even after few instances of Jewish humor can be found there. Broder, and the author Esther Dischereit. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the vast immigration of Russian Jews to Germany in the s, however, Jewish artists, intellectuals, and authors are beginning to gain a more prominent voice in Germany, above all in its capital, Berlin.
The past two decades have been a period in which eastern and western Germans have had to negotiate their coexistence and reunification. In addition, Germans from the former East and West have had to adjust to an increase in minority residents and citizens, including Jews, whose population has grown from 10,, in to an estimated , today Knobloch. The reemergence of Jewish humor not only informs us about the status of these renegotiations, but it can also help set the tone for future efforts to establish a more normalized coexistence marked by mutual tolerance and respect.
It is also worth noting that the remarkable influx of the nineties has stalled since Germany limited the immigration of Russian Jews with the Immigration Act of Taberner traces the history of the term back to the Kohl era and highlights its particular importance for unified Germany. It includes the idea that because Germany continues to express remorse regarding its World War II and Holocaust crimes, it should be allowed to move beyond these admissions of guilt and to establish itself as a democratic, liberal, and tolerant nation.
Particularly the dialectical workings of Jewish humor allow Alles auf Zucker! In most discussions of Jewish humor, only one side of it is highlighted: its self-deprecating nature. Others, such as Edmund Bergler, Martin Grotjahn, and George Mikes, have supported the thesis that Jewish humor has a distinctly self-mocking and self-derogatory character, in which hostility or aggressiveness manifests itself in a masochistic way—that is, it is turned against the Jew himself.
Another critical characteristic of Jewish humor, however—the other side of the coin, really—is overlooked by these and other scholars. There are numerous instances in which Alles auf Zucker! The strict rules to which he subjects himself and his family as well during the shiva provide him with the stability and security that he lost when his relationship with his girlfriend and cousin Jana ended ten years ago. While Levy criticizes the fact that Joshua does not really lead a Jewish life, but rather uses his faith to escape from it, the film also shows the motivation for this move, which in turn evokes understanding and empathy with the character and his plight.
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Along with this critique-cum-sympathy dynamic particular to Jewish humor, most scholars also mention the main topics and stock characters employed regularly in Jewish jokes. Jewish humor traditionally targets backwardness, intolerance, greed, and hypocrisy Richter All family members, in fact, join in the hypocrisy of pretending to live an orthodox Jewish life and to observe the rules of the shiva.
His irate reaction to the traffic holdup is followed by a lightning flash— presumably a sign from above—and prayers from Joshua. On another occasion, when the two families say a prayer before dinner together, Joshua continues to pray after everyone else has stopped.
In addition, Alles auf Zucker! While these stock personalities appear throughout the film, the most interesting character is the protagonist, Jackie Zucker, from whose perspective the story is told. Jackie belongs to the tradition of one of the central and most constant characters in Jewish comedy: the schlemiel. One might even venture to say that he emerges as a hero of sorts, one whose persona evinces the aforementioned critical dynamics of Jewish humor.
We must thus now turn our attention to this typical Jewish prankster. In the context of complex eastern and western German and German-Jewish relations, which are often framed in terms of loser-victor and victim-perpetrator dynamics, this dialectical schlemiel protagonist becomes particularly intriguing and holds critical meaning for the understanding of this film.
How, then, does Levy paint Jackie Zucker as a schlemiel, and what implications do these schlemiel qualities have for his cinematic production? On several occasions in Alles auf Zucker! Later, while high on Ecstasy pills mistaken for aspirin, he admits again to being an idiot for having turned his back on his daughter Jana when she became pregnant and could no longer compete in athletics championships.
Jackie thus emerges as a prime example of the fool, whose weaknesses give cause for laughter. Choosing to stay out late, gamble, and squander the family savings, he does not think about the effects his actions will have on his family. It is important to note, however, that he was born Jewish and ultimately returns to the Jewish faith at the end of the film. It is also fitting that—just like the eastern German Jackie Zucker—the schlemiel is often thought of as a character from the East Patai viii.
In fact, it can be argued that his rediscovered faith may be more genuine because it is born out of sincere internal and external struggles, rather than blind acceptance of religious and cultural traditions. Eventually, his foolishness and lies lead to his undoing, exemplified by his physical collapse, which occurs precisely at the moment in which his deceptions are about to be revealed by his wife Marlene. Conversely, when he finally begins to open up and communicate, not just with his wife and children, but also with his brother and his extended family, his health begins to improve as well.
Only after Jackie undergoes this transformation can his brother Samuel respond by expressing his understanding and willingness to help. A corresponding healing between eastern and western Germany, Levy implies in the film, will require similar efforts in opening channels of communication, recognition, and acceptance. This organ typically refers as much to the emotional and spiritual as to the moral core of a human being. Like his forbears, Jackie, too, has a heart condition.
Hast du noch eins? German and Jewish-German relations, Levy indicates that similar open conversations about the past are needed. If the Zucker mann family embodies the tension of German-German and German-Jewish relations, then the vision put forward by Levy is one of a normalized and peaceful coexistence, marked by tolerance and understanding. But this, Levy contends, can only be achieved if all foolishness—political agendas, personal grudges, and mistrust—is set aside and all players embark on this process with honesty, forbearance, and an open mind.
Just as the schlemiel Jackie reintegrates into his family, his religious community, and society as a whole by shedding his folly, so, too, can the different factions that make up a twenty-first century unified Germany also work to integrate into a society in which all constituents can flourish and have a voice. Not only individual character traits, but also narrative perspectives are important in schlemiel fiction.
One way the reader of schlemiel fiction gets to know the protagonist and his worldview is by experiencing him telling the story in his own voice. The reader, of course, is well aware of the conflicting nature of the versions told by the author and the schlemiel. Film is a medium that is especially well-suited to presenting simultaneous, conflicting textual and visual narration of a single event. In Alles auf Zucker! Levy gives a voice to the schlemiel Jackie at the beginning and end of the film through nondiegetic commentary.
This cinematic technique allows the events narrated visually by the camera to appear quite different from the way Jackie sees them and, thus, illustrates how he interprets his reality. Though Jackie seems to be on the losing side of every conflict during the greater part of the film, it would be amiss to interpret him as a victim of historical and personal circumstances. In fact, Levy distinctly rejects the victim role for his character by treating it humorously in his film.
By letting Jackie put on the victim hat whenever it serves him, Levy demonstrates the degree to which this role has become associated with the Jewish persona. He also shows, however, that Jewish identity comprises more dimensions than such narrow casting evokes, which is one of the main reasons this comedy has enjoyed such strong support from the Jewish community in Germany.
Multi-dimensional in his own right, Jackie is portrayed as a cunning, yet also naive, weak, and dreamy man, characteristic for the schlemiel figure Wisse 53, Sure enough, he cons his pool partners and lies to everyone in his family, but he does so in order to clear his debts, not out of greed. In fact, he proves his innate good-heartedness by displaying generosity toward others. To Jackie, these surroundings not only include the conformist society of socialism, but also his new capitalist reality.
In contrast, Jackie stands out as someone whose actions are not dictated by considerations of economic or social status, but who genuinely cares about other people. Thus, his weaknesses—gambling and cheating—are intimately tied to his strengths: his heart, care for others, and willingness to get himself into trouble to help those in need.
This dialectic—weakness turning into strength upon close examination—is one of the most important features of the schlemiel Wisse In fact, as is the case with Jackie, once this weakness—his inclination to help others even if by questionable means—is no longer ridiculed, but recognized as a strength, it reflects badly not on the schlemiel, but rather on those who mock him, turning the erstwhile loser into a moral victor. Thus, while the schlemiel exemplifies those negative qualities of weakness that must be exposed and ridiculed to be overcome, schlemiel fiction also sets up inversions by producing a balanced type of humor that cuts simultaneously into the character and into those who belittle him Wisse At first, they appear to be the perfect counter-image to the eastern German loser Jackie and his clan.
With his mother, wife, and two children, he led the life of an orthodox Jew, as both Jackie and Rabbi Ginsberg acknowledge. He gained status, as his doctoral title suggests, and considerable wealth. Speculation, of course, has much in common with its low-brow cousin, gambling, which Jackie enjoys. Speculation typically involves the lending of money or the purchase of assets, equity or debt but in a manner that has not been given thorough analysis or is deemed to have a low margin of safety or a significant risk of the loss of the principal investment. The kind of activity in which Samuel Zuckermann engaged thus had little to do with respectable financial investing, but rather with imprudent risk-taking in hopes of receiving quick profits.
Not only do the two brothers share the weakness of indulging in speculation or gambling, but their families are also similarly dysfunctional. Even Samuel and his wife Golda turn out to be less orthodox when it comes to financial matters. It does not take long for them to discover that the Zucker household does not adhere to Jewish customs. The latter, of course, is not easily fooled and eventually admits that he has knowingly ignored the breaking of shiva law as long as he could pretend not to be in the know.
He is aware that sitting shiva and having a conciliatory talk with his brother will require putting forth the pretense of following Jewish customs and concealing his assimilation to gentile culture, as well as his true persona. The film gradually reveals the fact that life in western Germany is not as grand as Samuel makes it out to be. In effect, Jackie gains moral superiority over his brother by refusing to pretend to be better than he actually is and by simply accepting his status as an unlucky trickster.
Presenting the dynamic of East-West relations in Germany in the framework of a schlemiel story whose plot develops as a family feud offers a new perspective on this cultural conflict. In this dynamic, western Germany is often seen as the strong, intact, and dominant force, while eastern Germans are mostly regarded as inept or naive. The schlemiel Jackie gives voice to the latter perspective, while simultaneously turning this dynamic on its head. According to Wisse, this represents the essence of the schlemiel dialectic: In fashioning the schlemiel, the Jew admits how weak and foolish he appears to those who dominate him […].
Yet […] he does not submit to self-hatred, and stands proudly on his own record. After all, so goes the inevitable dialectic, he survives. And after all, is he as foolish as he seems? And above all, who are they to judge him? At its best, the finished irony holds both the contempt of the strong for the weak and the contempt of the weak for the strong, with the latter winning the upper hand. By presenting the schlemiel as an eastern German Jew, Levy engages a potent technique of Jewish humor: he suspends the typical winner-loser dichotomy and instead promotes the notion that the winner is not necessarily he who gains the upper hand politically or economically, but rather he who admits to and accepts his weaknesses, remains true to himself, and demonstrates generosity and tolerance toward others.
Such a definition of winner status opens the door to anyone, regardless of ethnic belonging, or geographical or historical heritage, and is based solely on modes of behavior. Levy proposes, is up to the individual, each of whom possesses a free will to alter his fate. Inversions also occur in the realm of moral standing and further highlight the schlemiel character of Jackie. Through his demeanor throughout the film, the western brother leaves no doubt that he perceives himself to be the superior of the two brothers.
In this instance, the supposed loser once more proves himself morally superior by refusing to respond to insults and physical aggression with the same. In this confrontation, Jackie additionally unmasks the tendency of the West to draw attention to and exaggerate the involvement of the East German secret service, the infamous Staatssicherheit or Stasi , in every facet of life in the GDR—a stereotype that has prevailed for years after the fall of the Wall. This play on words is amusing and its clever use of language a staple of Jewish humor. Levy conveys the moral message in this Jewish parable that inherited, historical roles need not be stagnant, but rather must adapt to an ever-changing reality.
It was introduced in to bolster public investment in eastern Germany. This is done, for example, by highlighting this traditional, stereotypical discourse in scenes that provoke sympathetic laughter, and by choosing not to recast the Jews in the victim role they typically inhabit in post German films. These roles evolve as the plot unfolds and are presented from different perspectives throughout the film.
Just as Levy refuses to label one group in German society the perennial victim, his use of Jewish humor also denies any one group the attribute of winner. Discussions of the prototypical Jewish prankster, the schlemiel, have shown that this kind of humor turns such norms upside down, criticizing both the fool as well as those deriding him.
The supposed loser thereby gains the upper hand, mocking his mockers. Levy joins the postwall plea of scholars and the media in Germany and abroad for normalization in the Berlin Republic. He paints a vision of tolerance and acceptance between different social, religious, and ethnic groups. He draws on and mingles familiar stereotypes of eastern and western Germans, as well as Jews, asking his audience to look beyond these and to see the Other as a human being, sharing the same weaknesses, problems, and joys.
His goal appears to be an easing of the tension-fraught relations between East and West, as well as Jew and Gentile, by means of a kind of humor that underscores commonalities. Instead, this film serves as a plea for open and productive interactions, which can lead to a new freedom in identity formation, along with the acceptance of diverse expressions of group belonging.
Levy signals that Jewish citizens living in Germany today want to leave behind their marginalized, passive position of victimhood and instead become active, equal members of German society. This resurgence of Jewish humor in postwall Germany indicates a strengthening, as well as a certain degree of emancipation, of Jewish culture there. This creates a sense of otherness that is imbued with a guilty conscience arising out of history. Senator Film, Dani Levy. First Run Features, DVD orig. X Verleih, , released 6 Jan. Becker, Jurek.
Berlin and Weimar: Aufbau, Die Blechtrommel [The Tin Drum]. Argos Films, Comedian Harmonists [The Harmonists]. Joseph Vilsmaier. Bavaria Film, Ehe im Schatten [Marriage in the Shadows]. DEFA, Hitlerjunge Salomon [Europa, Europa]. Wordery offers Free Delivery on all UK orders, and competitively priced international delivery. We find rare books for you These take a little longer to source. Please check the expected dispatch details above. Huge range Over 7 million titles and growing, all at extremely competitive prices.
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