Fabrication Fig. The process involves four photolithography steps and four electrochemical deposition steps. Si wafer serves as support for the first process steps and may later be reused. A positive resist Shipley S serves as etch mask for the Cu-etch with a sodium persulfate solution. The so defined Cu electrodes serve as seed layer for the ECD of the thermoelectric materials. The two electrodes can then be connected individu- ally at the wafer edge through a customized electroplating chuck with two separate electrodes.
Etch holes and openings for ECD are aligned to the underlying electrodes. Developing results could be improved with ultrasonic agitation. The first ECD step is illustrated in Fig.
Atop of the connected elec- trode the copper thermolegs are grown with current controlled cathodic electrochemical deposition FIBRoplate IKO plating Fig. Output power per area over thermocouple length for variations of thermal contact resistances KC and KH. Regimes of conventional and micro fabrications system in a copper sulphate electrolyte. The other electrode is of thermoelectric generators. In the next step the Ni-thermolegs are deposited as shown in Fig. The pH value of the bath is kept between 3.
For both ECD steps square wave current pulses of 10—20 ms are applied to achieve good results in high aspect ratio holes. Any residual unevenness resulting from overgrown metal is removed in a polish step. One can see small scratches caused by the abrasive particles. Output power per area over thermocouple length for variations of AV. The SEM image in Fig. Because the thermocouples need Overview of parameters influences on the maximum power output and the opti- to be connected in series the electrodes patterned in Fig. For that the SU-8 Pmax lopt layer with the embedded thermolegs needs to be released.
The LOR is accessed via the etch holes. Flipping the SU-8 disk gives access to the plating electrodes; g patterning of top interconnects and bond pads. The SU-8 device layer is bonded onto a lower packaging layer. In this etching step the thin plating electrodes are removed as well.
First devices have been fabricated with this process. In this case the device has no additional packaging layer. The meander shape serial connection of the thermocouples is visible through the transparent SU Material properties To verify the model by experiment the material properties need to be determined independently.
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Of the materials used for the generator the metals Cu and Ni are well characterized so Fig. Array of Cu- and Ni-thermolegs in a SU-8 mold after polishing. In contrast for SU-8 many properties have not been investigated thoroughly. The thermal resistance of the sample is determined by measuring the power supplied to the heater and the temperatures measured on the hot side of the sample after reaching equilibrium. All parasitic thermal resistances from the setup, the thermal contact grease and the substrate are eliminated by measuring samples of different thicknesses.
The measurement yielded a thermal con- ductivity of 0. According to the model the loss introduced by thermal conduction through the SU-8 for the presented demonstrator is 0.
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Because of their Fig. The optimal length of deposition. Light microscopic images of thermoelectric generator device. Ninety-nine etch holes are collocated across the device. Bright Cu top interconnect and the darker trough shining bottom interconnects electrically connect all thermolegs in series. The ference and range can be adjusted via two PID controller units optimum for Ni—Cu thermocouples would be a length of around driving a hot plate and a Peltier cooler, respectively.
This reduced to 1. Table 2 list all other material properties that value corresponds to a low contact resistance between ther- are relevant for the introduced model. The listed values are taken molegs and interconnects of 7. The importance of from literature [3,11] and will be independently determined in low contact resistance may be directly derived from the thermo- later experiments.
The experiment was recorded with a load resis- 5. Measurements tance of 1. The results were compared with the analytic model described above. Schematic of measurement set-up. First experimental results are in good accordance with the model. This table com- pares the TEGs of different groups to the demonstrator presented and a planned device for which the expected performance was calculated with the introduced model and the listed material parameters.
Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank K. Vollmers for help with the electrochemical deposition, Dr. Hutterli for help with the design. Measured and calculated power output per area of thermoelectric gen- erator in dependence of the measured temperature difference and the calculated References temperature drop over the TEG according to Fig.
Kishi, H. Nemoto, T. Hamao, M.
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Yamamoto, S. Sudou, M. Mandai, S. Yamamoto, Micro thermoelectric modules and their application to wrist- watches as an energy source, in: 18th International Conference on Ther- moelectrics. These resistances Glosch, M. Ashauer, U. Pfeiffer, W. Hasebe, J. Ogawa, M. Shiozaki, T. Toriyama, S. Sugiyama, H.
Ueno, K. The model is in good accordance with the experiment. Stark, M. Stordeur, New micro thermoelectric devices based on bis- 6. Conclusion muth telluride-type thin solid films, in: 18th International Conference on Thermoelectrics. According to the analysis the output power per area is indepen-  M. Strasser, R. Aigner, C. Lauterbach, T. Sturm, M. Franosch, G. Instead it depends just on the ratio of the cross sectional Microsystems, 12th International Conference on, vol.
The power shows a maximum for a certain thermo-  G. Snyder, J. Lim, C. Huang, J. In the range — Bottner, J. Nurnus, A. Gavrikov, G. Kuhner, M. Jagle, C. Kunzel, D. Plescher, A. Schubert, K. And I started to lie about where I lived; I lived in the tenements but I told my friends I lived in the fanciest building in Hell's Kitchen. They would walk me to the building, and I would walk into the lobby. I had befriended the doorman, and he would let me sneak out of the basement. But at the time it seemed incredibly glamorous.
There was an interesting transition taking place in fashion during this time period, the mid-sixties. The beatnik, bohemian, hippy way of dressing had worked for me. I could wear ripped jeans and vintage s blouses I bought in a thrift store in Newburgh, New York for twenty- five cents and look cool. But then the British Invasion started in 1 and the Carnaby Street mini-skirt fashion craze hit.
Ninety-Nine Fabrications Volume 1
I started going to stores like B. Altman, Bloomingdale's, and Henri Bendel, and I would covet all the clothes that came in from Lon- don - the "Total Look" which might be a navy blue suede military jacket and skirt for fifty dollars which was way over my fifty-cents-a-week allow- ance. In those days, there were no sen- sors on the outfits. You'd go into the dressing room with five outfits and the salesperson would give you a tag with a "five" on it - but I would flip a hanger on top of another hanger so they would just count the top of the hangers.
In the winter, I bought a twenty-dollar raccoon coat from my favorite Newburgh thrift store for the express purpose of stealing. I un- stitched the lining, and this raccoon coat was so thick that I could actu- ally stuff whole outfits inside of it. All I would have in my purse was a bunch of safety pins and a subway key. I would try on the clothes and the out- fits I liked would go inside the coat, pinned to the top of the neck.
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