As the style became more popular, manufacturers like Wallace Nutting began to produce historic reproductions inspired by surviving antiques. House histories and picture books were another popular means of promoting the Colonial Revival in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The typical picture book focused on interior details like fireplaces or wood paneling.
Until the late twentieth century, however, the colonial revival in the decorative arts avoided serious scholarly investigation. In recent years, historians have attempted to go beyond simple promotion or connoisseurship to ask important questions about the place of furniture, needlework, wallpaper, and other objects in the Colonial Revival movement. The Colonial Revival also affected American landscape and garden design. Due to the perishable nature of plants and a lack of precise documentation, colonial gardens have been difficult to accurately reconstruct.
The movement to recreate "grandmother's garden" produced formal, ordered gardens in yards and estates of all sizes. Colonial-inspired gardens at large estates were frequently exhibited in photographic surveys. The colonialization of the American garden extended to the larger landscape as well. Colonial Williamsburg remains the most important full-scale reproduction of a colonial urban design, although the underlying armature of many East Coast cities like New Haven and Savannah is essentially that of colonial times.
During Williamsburg's reconstruction in the s, both professional and popular magazines documented its progress. Such romantic visions had little in common with historical predecessors, but their popularity, demonstrated by "museum villages" like Old Sturbridge Village and Historic Deerfield, led to the development of a pervasive stereotype. Many recent communities, designed under the rubric of "New Urbanism," consciously seek to integrate planning ideas and sometimes building styles from these Colonial Revival towns.
The Colonial Revival has also influenced American art, but it is difficult to characterize a colonial revival "movement" in art analogous to that in architecture and the decorative arts. In the art world, there was no discussion of the inherent value of painting in the manner of colonial artists, nor was there any particular effort to reemphasize the subject matter of colonial painting. In other words, the fundamental essence of the architectural colonial revival - to revive the spirit of colonial architecture through direct imitation or inspired emulation - had no counterpart in art and sculpture.
Instead, the colonial manifested itself in other ways. For example, a small group of painters produced colonial genre scenes around the turn of the century depicting quaint domestic scenes that emphasized period costumes and furniture. They also had the effect of domesticating and personalizing history for the average person. A few historical or genre paintings were included in American art surveys, and artistic journals published short descriptive essays on the work of individual artists, but no insightful analyses exist until the late twentieth century.
A similar situation exists in the field of sculpture, where a few statues were created of historical figures e. Because of the public nature of sculpture, there was probably more public contact with these historical monuments than with Colonial Revival painting.
The issue of reproducing actual colonial sculpture was irrelevant since sculpture was virtually non-existent before the Revolution. Unfortunately, unlike architecture, no literature exists to analyze colonial-themed sculptural works or disseminate them to a wider audience. M eanings and A ssociations.
The Colonial Revival has been associated with many ideas that range beyond the revival or survival of a historical heritage. Since the expansion of the national historic consciousness in the s, promoters have used Colonial Revival styles in art and architecture to advance notions of patriotism, good taste, moral superiority, family life, democracy, and the simple life. Patriotic qualities have been central to the Colonial Revival since the earliest days. The Centennial generated a great surge of interest in American history.
These sentiments also inspired the birth of a cultural Colonial Revival. Peabody declared in "With our Centennial year have we not discovered that we too have a past worthy of study? In the process, racial identity became tied to the American colonial past. When the flood of Southern and Eastern European immigrants began in the late nineteenth century it engendered fear in some of America's Anglo-Saxon Protestant population particularly in the Northeast , which strengthened many advocates' devotion to what was perceived as America's true "national" style.
The patriotic aspect, which we might think of as the most salient quality of the Colonial Revival, was quickly coupled with other associations. In architecture and furniture design, the qualities of "refinement and dignity" found in colonial examples, along with simplicity and proper proportions, were considered by many a fresh counterpoint to the busy eclecticism found of most Victorian work. Interest in the Colonial Revival was therefore equated with timeless good taste. Non-aesthetic qualities were also important to the popular development of the Colonial Revival.
One of the first ideas to be connected to the movement was "democracy. Along the same lines, the Colonial Revival decorative objects and furniture admired by consumers of elite culture were also available to the lower classes, thanks to mass production. This allowed colonial styles to "trickle down" to the masses so that everyone could get their own small piece of history.
One of the most interesting associations attached to the Colonial Revival concerned its ethical value. A sense of moral deterioration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries inspired many revivalists to surround themselves with material products from what was considered to be a more family-oriented period of American history. As Karal Marling states, much of the architectural interest in the colonial past was "devoted to the regeneration of American virtue through the restoration of the American home.
R easons for the C olonial R evival's P opularity. The continuous popularity of the Colonial Revival in America since the s is due to a number of factors. Patriotism or nationalism is certainly a significant reason. The ethical argument - that furniture and architecture from a more virtuous time has an inherent moral superiority - is also important. In terms of aesthetics, much of the attraction to colonial architecture is a result of its "correct" proportions and adherence to classical principles.
But economics has also entered into the equation. Colonial reproduction furniture began to be mass marketed to the public in the s. While intended to denote handcraftedness, the pieces were inexpensive precisely because they were machine-made. Small inexpensive houses in various colonial styles were also marketed to the mass public in the early twentieth century.
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The Colonial Revival house, also known as "modernized colonial" for its combination of historic appearance with modern functionality, peaked in popularity in the s. In fact, the Colonial Revival achieved its most enduring popular acceptance in the domestic sphere. The home became the center of everything associated with the Colonial Revival.
As a writer stated in "The American home is the object to which we may well give our best thoughts and make it the place where religion and civilization shall dwell together. In addition to these key trends indicated by the Colonial Revival literature, there are some other tendencies worth mentioning. One of the most important is the changing conception of what constituted the colonial period.
The early revivalists of the late nineteenth century loosely interpreted the word "colonial" to include everything from the first settlers to the s. Near the turn of the century, more precise investigators began to differentiate pre- and post-Revolutionary styles, the former being "colonial" or "Old Colonial" and the latter "Provincial," "Georgian," or "Federal. As researchers looked closer at older American design, a new nomenclature developed that differentiated style by ethnic group "Spanish Colonial," "Dutch Colonial," etc.
Another interesting aspect of the Colonial Revival is the shifting emphases in the literature of the movement. Nineteenth century writers tried to direct attention to the colonial period in their particular field, or created romantic visions of an inviting and not-so-distant past. In the early years of the twentieth century, most of the literature was produced by scholars investigating the historical realities of colonial architecture, architects promoting it as a legitimate contemporary style, producers marketing colonial- inspired products, or tastemakers advancing the style for various aesthetic or ethical reasons.
After the s, a growing interest in the modernist aesthetic slowed the production of Colonial Revival-oriented books and articles, though the popularity of Colonial Revival architecture and furniture with the general public never waned. The Colonial Revival virtually disappeared from scholarly attention and popular magazines during the period of modernist domination ss.
In the s, it reemerged as a respectable area of study as well as a source of popular interest. R elevance and P otential U sefulness of the A vailable L iterature. The available literature provides a substantial historical record for tracing both academic and popular interest in the Colonial Revival. The early writings tell us what revivalists thought was important about the artistic past and why it should be renewed or extended.
The rebirth of Colonial Revival literature in the last three decades has included a group of scholars who have begun to ask important "why" questions rather than merely describing or promoting the style. Why did the Colonial Revival happen? What accounts for its longevity? What were the specific characteristics of the movement in different time fields, periods or regions?
More of these "why" questions should be asked. An especially fruitful area of inquiry involves the relationship between the societal and cultural factors that have propelled the Colonial Revival into prominence and sustained its popularity. Michael Kammen's far-ranging work on America's development of its historical past can serve as a guidepost for this type of analysis.
P otential D irection and E mphasis of F uture S tudies. Gaps in the existing Colonial Revival literature suggest at least six main areas of further emphasis. First, and possibly most important, is the paucity of studies on the Colonial Revival's impact on fields other than architecture. The amount of architectural literature is disproportionately large. Northern Ireland has for several centuries consisted of two distinct communities, Protestant , Ulster Scots and Irish Catholics. While the Protestants majority emphasise the constitutional ties to the United Kingdom, most Catholics would prefer a United Ireland.
The long-standing cultural and political division led to sectarian violence in the late s known as The Troubles , which officially ended in , though sporadic violence has continued. This cultural division created, long before , two distinct literary cultures. Lewis — and Louis MacNeice —63 are two writers who were born and raised in Northern Ireland, but whose careers took them to England. Lewis was a poet, novelist, academic, medievalist , literary critic, essayist, lay theologian , and Christian apologist. His faith had a profound effect on his work, and his wartime radio broadcasts on the subject of Christianity brought him wide acclaim.
Louis MacNeice was a poet and playwright. He was part of the generation of " thirties poets " that included W. His body of work was widely appreciated by the public during his lifetime. Never as overtly or simplistically political as some of his contemporaries, his work shows a humane opposition to totalitarianism as well as an acute awareness of his Irish roots. MacNeice felt estranged from the Presbyterian Northern Ireland , with its "voodoo of the Orange bands ",  but felt caught between British and Irish identities.
John Hewitt —87 , whom many consider to be the founding father of Northern Irish poetry, was born in Belfast , and began publishing in the s. Hewitt was appointed the first writer-in-residence at Queen's University, Belfast in He has published a number of volumes of poetry, two collections of short stories and two volumes of memoir. Montague published his first collection in and the second in In he became the first occupant of the Ireland Chair of Poetry  virtually Ireland's Poet laureate. Seamus Heaney — is the most famous of the poets who came to prominence in the s and won the Nobel prize in Heaney in his verse translation of Beowulf uses words from his Ulster speech.
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James Fenton's poetry is written in contemporary Ulster Scots , and Michael Longley — has experimented with Ulster Scots for the translation of Classical verse, as in his collection The Ghost Orchid. Longley has spoken of his identity as a Northern Irish poet: "some of the time I feel British and some of the time I feel Irish. But most of the time I feel neither and the marvellous thing about the Good Friday agreement was that it allowed me to feel more of each if I wanted to.
Medbh McGuckian 's, born Maeve McCaughan, first published poems appeared in two pamphlets in , the year in which she received an Eric Gregory Award. Paul Muldoon — has published over thirty collections and won a Pulitzer Prize for Poetry and the T. Eliot Prize. He held the post of Oxford Professor of Poetry from to Derek Mahon 's — first collection Twelve Poems appeared in His poetry, which is influenced by Louis MacNeice and W.
Auden , is "often bleak and uncompromising". The most significant dramatist from Northern Ireland is Brian Friel — , from Omagh , County Tyrone ,     hailed by the English-speaking world as an "Irish Chekhov ",  and "the universally accented voice of Ireland". His plays have been a regular feature on Broadway. Born in Strabane , County Tyrone , he also is regarded as a key figure in postmodern literature.
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O'Nolan's novels have attracted a wide following for their bizarre humour and Modernist metafiction. As a novelist, O'Nolan was powerfully influenced by James Joyce. He was nonetheless sceptical of the cult of Joyce, which overshadows much of Irish writing, saying "I declare to God if I hear that name Joyce one more time I will surely froth at the gob.
He was acclaimed for the descriptions in his novels of life in Northern Ireland after the Second World War , in particular his explorations of the inter-communal divisions of The Troubles. He was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in and the inaugural Sunday Express Book of the Year award in , and he was shortlisted for the Booker Prize three times in , and His novel Judith Hearne is set in Belfast. He has lived in Scotland since Robert Greacen was born in Derry , lived in Belfast in his youth and then in London during the s, 60s and 70s.
Shaw was a science fiction author, noted for his originality and wit. Mountjoy started a fashion, and private performances became quite commonplace in great houses all over Ireland over the following thirty years. The Werburgh Street Theatre in Dublin is generally identified as the "first custom-built theatre in the city," "the only pre- Restoration playhouse outside London," and the "first Irish playhouse. Goldsmith and Sheridan were two of the most successful playwrights on the London stage in the 18th century.
In the 19th century, Dion Boucicault —90 was famed for his melodramas. By the later part of the 19th century, Boucicault had become known on both sides of the Atlantic as one of the most successful actor-playwright-managers then in the English-speaking theatre. The New York Times heralded him in his obituary as "the most conspicuous English dramatist of the 19th century. It was in the last decade of the century that the Irish theatre came of age with the establishment in Dublin in of the Irish Literary Theatre , and emergence of the dramatists George Bernard Shaw — and Oscar Wilde — , though both wrote for the London theatre.
Shaw's career began in the last decade of the nineteenth century, and he wrote more than 60 plays. George Bernard Shaw turned the Edwardian theatre into an arena for debate about important political and social issues, like marriage, class, "the morality of armaments and war" and the rights of women. In a number of playwrights, actors and staff from several companies went on to form the Irish National Theatre Society , later to become the Abbey Theatre.
It performed plays by W. Equally importantly, through the introduction by Yeats, via Ezra Pound , of elements of the Noh theatre of Japan, a tendency to mythologise quotidian situations, and a particularly strong focus on writings in dialects of Hiberno-English , the Abbey was to create a style that held a strong fascination for future Irish dramatists.
Synge's most famous play, The Playboy of the Western World , "caused outrage and riots when it was first performed" in Dublin in The former deals with the effect of the Irish Civil War on the working class poor of the city, while the latter is set in Dublin in around the Easter Rising. The twentieth century saw a number of Irish playwrights come to prominence.
While there no doubt that Samuel Beckett is an Irishman he lived much of his life in France and wrote several works first in French. His most famous plays are Waiting for Godot originally En attendant Godot , , Endgame originally Fin de partie , Happy Days , written in English, all of which profoundly affected British drama.
It was well received; however, it was the production at Joan Littlewood 's Theatre Workshop in Stratford, London, that gained Behan a wider reputation — this was helped by a famous drunken interview on BBC television.
Behan's play The Hostage , his English-language adaptation of his play in Irish An Giall , met with great success internationally. During the s and s, Hugh Leonard was the first major Irish writer to establish a reputation in television, writing extensively for television, including original plays, comedies, thrillers and adaptations of classic novels for British television. Brian Friel, from Northern Ireland , has been recognised as a major Irish and English-language playwright almost since the first production of " Philadelphia, Here I Come!
Tom Murphy is a major contemporary playwright  and was honoured by the Abbey Theatre in by a retrospective season of six of his plays.
The play made a name for him when it was performed at Hampstead Theatre. Since the s, a number of companies have emerged to challenge the Abbey's dominance and introduce different styles and approaches. These companies have nurtured a number of writers, actors, and directors who have since gone on to be successful in London, Broadway and Hollywood. Conventional drama did not exist in Irish before the 20th century.
The Gaelic Revival stimulated the writing of plays, aided by the founding in of An Taibhdhearc , a theatre dedicated to the Irish language. The Abbey Theatre itself was reconstituted as a bilingual national theatre in the s under Ernest Blythe , but the Irish language element declined in importance.
Later an English-language adaptation of An Giall , The Hostage , met with great success internationally.
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The Taidhbhearc has declined in importance and it is difficult to maintain professional standards in the absence of a strong and lively audience. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Modern literature originally written in Irish language, see Modern literature in Irish.
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Main article: Literature of Northern Ireland. Main article: Irish theatre. An Irish Literature Reader. Syracuse University Press. Retrieved 15 January The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January Glasgow: Celtic Press. Retrieved 8 October The text is bilingual. See Corkery for a detailed discussion of the social context.
Marion Wynne-Davies. New York: Prentice Hall, , pp.
Margaret Drabble. Oxford: Oxford University Press, , p. New York Times. Retrieved 8 August Available online free in the pre NYT archives. Poetry Foundation.
Austin Clarke, — A Critical Introduction. Wolfhound Press, Matthew Campbell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , pp University of Exeter. Retrieved 5 July James Joyce Quarterly University of Tulsa 10 1 : p. Oxford University Press, revised edition Autumn Journal. University of Wales Press. Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 18 June New York: W.
The Telegraph , 11 April Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 4 October The Times. Londonderry Sentinel. The New York Times. In succeeding years he has dazzled us with plays that speak in a language of unequaled poetic beauty and intensity. Such dramas as "Translations," "Dancing at Lughnasa" and "Wonderful Tennessee," among others, have given him a privileged place in our theater.
Here I Come, and who is regarded by many as one of the world's greatest living playwrights, has suggested that there is, in fact, no real need for a director on a production. Sunday Independent. CBS News. The Irish Times. BBC Online. Retrieved 23 September The Independent. Retrieved 31 August The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 August Colorado State University. Retrieved on 15 July Irish Times. Archived from the original PDF on 22 October Retrieved 21 January Paris Review.
Retrieved 19 October Retrieved on 25 June Celtic Culture: An Historical Encyclopedia. Biographical Dictionary of Irish Writers. Films Media Group. Norman A Pocket History of Irish Literature. O'Brien Press. The Oxford Companion to Irish Literature. Clarendon Press.
Irish Literature, — An Anthology. Blackwell Press. Revival — Corkery, Daniel Son, Ltd. A two volume version of Keating's history in modernised spelling. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Mercier Press. Dillon, Myles and Chadwick, Nora The Celtic Realms. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Knott, Eleanor — second printing. Preas Dolmen. Ficina Typofographica.